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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

ICC IRC (2000), the International Residential 
Code, as mandated by and incorporated by the 
States and Municipalities, including the City 
of Aledo (Texas) in Section 10-154 of the 
Code of Ordinances and the City of Mount 
Vernon (Missouri) in Section 500.020 of the 
Code of the City of Mount Vernon. 






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INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL, 








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First Printing: January 2000 

Second Printing: March 2001 

Third Printing: May 2001 

Fourth Printing: November 2001 

Fifth Printing: February 2002 

Sixth Printing: March 2003 

Seventh Printing: April 2003 

Eighth Printing: June 2003 

Ninth Printing: June 2003 

Tenth Printing: October 2003 

Eleventh Printing: March 2004 

Twelfth Printing: March 2004 

Thirteenth Printing: September 2004 



ISBN #1-892395-17-7 
ISBN #1-892395-18-5 



COPYRIGHT © 2000 
by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2000 International Residential Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings is a copyrighted work 
owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book 
may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or me- 
chanical means (by way of example, and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval sys- 
tem). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: President, International Code Council, ' 
5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600, Falls Church, Virginia, 22041-3401. (Phone 703-931-4533.) 

Trademarks: "International Code Council, " the "International Code Council " logo and the "International Residential Code " are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. The "BOCA " logo is a trademark of Building Officials and Code Administrators 
International, Inc. The "ICBO" logo is a trademark of the International Conference of Building Officials. The "SBCCI" logo is a 
trademark of the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. 

Published in cooperation with: 

BUILDING OFFICIALS AND CODE ADMINISTRATORS INTERNATIONAL, INC. 

4051 West Flossmoor Road • Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795 

(800) 214-4321 © www.bocai.org 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BUILDING OFFICIALS 
5360 Workman Mill Road • Whittier, California 90601-2298 

(800)284-4406 • www.icbo.org 

SOUTHERN BUILDING CODE CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL, INC. 

900 Montclair Road • Birmingham, Alabama 35213-1206 

(205)591-1853 • www.sbcci.org 

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date residential construction code addressing the design and 
construction of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses. The International Residential Code for One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety and consider 
dwelling affordability in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive, stand-alone residential construction code, which incorporates approved changes from the 1 999 code devel- 
opment cycle, establishes minimum regulations for one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses using prescriptive provisions. 
Additionally, the International Residential Code is designed to be compatible with the BOCA National Codes published by Build- 
ing Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA), the Standard Codes published by the Southern Building Code Con- 
gress International (SBCCI), the Uniform Codes published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and all 
the International Codes published by the International Code Council (ICC). 

The International Residential Code provides many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers an 
international forum for construction professionals to discuss these prescriptive code requirements . This forum provides an excellent 
arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of provisions. 

Development 

On April 22, 1996, the ICC Board of Directors established the ICC/NAHB Task Force, charged with the examination of perfor- 
mance options of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code. The Board further stated that the "purpose is to identify the issues 
(including the process of code development after 1998) and develop an action plan to resolve the issues." 

Subsequently, the ICC/NAHB Task Force recommended to the ICC Board that the "ICC develop and maintain a stand-alone resi- 
dential code that will cover the construction of detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (i.e., 
townhouses) not more than three stories in height with separate means of egress. This code is to be called the International Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two- Family Dwellings." 

A code drafting committee was formed by the International Code Council. The intent of the code drafting committee was to de- 
velop a draft of a comprehensive residential code that is consistent with and inclusive of the scope and content of the existing model 
building codes and the International One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code. 

The technical content of the 1998 International One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code, the other International Codes (including 
the International Building Code/First Draft) and the latest building codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was the nu- 
cleus for the development of this document. Other sources of relevant technical information were also considered. While there were 
a great many similarities among the codes, careful consideration was given to identified differences. The code drafting committee 
used certain principles as guidance in the resolution of technical differences. The principles were based on the intent to establish 
provisions consistent with the scope of a residential code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that 
do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of con- 
struction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of 
construction. 

Fuel gas provisions have been included in this edition through an agreement with the American Gas Association. The mainte- 
nance process for the fuel gas provisions of the International Residential Code will be undertaken by the International Fuel Gas 
Code Development Committee. 

Electrical provisions have been included in this edition through an agreement with the National Fire Protection Association 
(NFPA). The maintenance process for the electrical provisions of future International Residential Code editions will be undertaken 
by NFPA. 

Adoption 

The International Residential Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local in- 
formation, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the 
code and in the sample adoption ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code 
adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® iii 



The International Residential Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcement offi- 
cials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through 
an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

For more information regarding the code development process, contact BOCA, 405 1 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, 
Illinois 60478-5795 ; ICBO, 5360 Workman Mill Road, Whittier, California 90601-2298; or SBCCI, 900 Montclair Road, Birming- 
ham, Alabama 35213-1206. 

While the development procedure of the International Residential Code ensures the highest degree of care, BOCA, ICBO, 
SBCCI, their members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance 
or noncompliance with the provisions given herein, for any restrictions imposed on materials or processes, or for the completeness 
of the text. BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI do not have power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. 
Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 



• 







iv 2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



• 



SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 

FOR ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS 

ORDINANCE NO. 



An ordinance of the [jurisdiction] adopting the 2000 edition of the International Residential Code, regulating and controlling the 
design, construction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, 
use or maintenance of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses in the [jurisdiction! : providing for the issuance of permits 
and collection of fees therefor when used with money; repealing Ordinance No. of the (jurisdiction! and all other ordi- 
nances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [governing BODYi of the [jurisdiction! does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That certain documents, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [jurisdiction's keeper of recqrdsi and 
the rJURiSDiCTiONi , being marked and designated as International Residential Code, including Appendix Chapters (fill in the appli- 
cable Appendix Chapters. [See International Residential Code Section R102.5, 2000 edition]), as published by the International 
Code Council and is hereby adopted as the code of the [jurisdiction! for regulating the design, construction, quality of materials, 
erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of one- and two-family 
dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories in height in the [jurisdiction] , and providing for the issuance of permits and 
collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, conditions and terms of such International Residential 
Code, 2000 edition, published by the International Code Council on file in the office of the [Jurisdiction ! are hereby referred to, 
adopted and made a part hereof as if fully set out in this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 
Section R10 1.1 Insert: [name of jurisdiction] 
Table R301.2(l) Insert: [appropriate design criteria] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. o f [jurisdiction! entitled (fill in here the complete title of the present ordinance or ordi- 
nances in effect at the present time so that they will be repealed by definite mention) and all other ordinances or parts of ordinances 
in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [governing body! hereby declares 
that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one 
or more sections, subsections.sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That the [jurisdiction's keeper of records! is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An 
additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a 
newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 6. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effec t rflME period! from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 




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vi 2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part I — Administrative 1 

CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

R101 Title, Scope and Purpose 1 

R102 Applicability 1 

R103 Department of Building Safety 1 

R104 Duties and Powers of the Building Official 1 

R105 Permits 2 

R106 Construction Documents 4 

R107 Temporary Structures and Uses 5 

R108 Fees 5 

R109 Inspections 5 

Rl 10 Certificate of Occupancy 6 

Rl 1 1 Service Utilities 7 

Rl 12 Board of Appeals 7 

Rl 13 Violations 7 

R114 Stop Work Order 8 

Part II — Definitions 9 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9 

Section 

R201 General 9 

R202 Definitions 9 

Part III — Building Planning and Construction 21 

CHAPTER 3 BUILDING PLANNING 21 

Section 

R301 Design Criteria 21 

R302 Location on Lot 42 

R303 Light, Ventilation and Heating 43 

R304 Minimum Room Areas 44 

R305 Ceiling Height 44 

R306 Sanitation 44 

R307 Toilet, Bath and Shower Spaces 44 

R308 Glazing 45 

R309 Garages and Carports 46 

R310 Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings 47 

R311 Exits 47 

R312 Landings 48 

R313 Ramps 48 

R314 Stairways 48 



R315 Handrails 49 

R316 Guards 49 

R317 Smoke Alarms 49 

R318 Foam Plastic 50 

R319 Flame Spread and Smoke Density 50 

R320 Insulation 51 

R321 Dwelling Unit Separation 51 

R322 Moisture Vapor Retarders 52 

R323 Protection Against Decay 52 

R324 Protection Against Termites 53 

R325 Site Address 54 

R326 Accessibility 54 

R327 Flood-resistant Construction 54 

CHAPTER 4 FOUNDATIONS 57 

Section 

R401 General 57 

R402 Materials 57 

R403 Footings 58 

R404 Foundation Walls 63 

R405 Foundation Drainage 76 

R406 Foundation Waterproofing and Dampproofing . . 77 

R407 Columns 77 

R408 Under-floor Space 78 

CHAPTER 5 FLOORS 79 

Section 

R501 General 79 

R502 Wood Floor Framing 79 

R503 Floor Sheathing 86 

R504 Pressure Preservatively Treated-wood 

Floors (On Ground) 88 

R505 Steel Floor Framing 89 

R506 Concrete Floors (On Ground) 100 

CHAPTER 6 WALL CONSTRUCTION 101 

Section 

R601 General 101 

R602 Wood Wall Framing 101 

R603 Steel Wall Framing 118 

R604 Wood Structural Panels 160 

R605 Particleboard 161 

R606 General Masonry Construction 161 



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R607 Unit Masonry 169 

R608 Multiple Wythe Masonry 170 

R609 Grouted Masonry 171 

R610 Glass Unit Masonry 173 

R611 Insulating Concrete Form Wall Construction ..174 

R612 Conventionally Formed Concrete 

Wall Construction 193 

R613 Exterior Windows and Glass Doors 193 

CHAPTER 7 WALL COVERING. 197 

Section 

R701 General 197 

R702 Interior Covering 197 

R703 Exterior Covering 200 

CHAPTERS ROOF-CEILING 

CONSTRUCTION. ............... 209 

Section 

R801 General 209 

R802 Wood Roof Framing 209 

R803 Roof Sheathing 231 

R804 Steel Roof Framing 232 

R805 Ceiling Finishes 240 

R806 Roof Ventilation 240 

R807 Attic Access 242 

R808 Insulation Clearance 242 

CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES 247 

Section 

R901 General 247 

R902 Roof Classification 247 

R903 Weather Protection 247 

R904 Materials 247 

R905 Requirements for Roof Coverings 248 

R906 Roof Insulation 255 

R907 Reroofing 255 

CHAPTER 10 CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES. . . 257 
Section 

R1001 Masonry Chimneys 257 

R1002 Factory-built Chimneys 260 

R1003 Masonry Fireplaces 261 

R1004 Factory-built Fireplaces 265 

R1005 Exterior Air Supply 265 



Part IV — Energy Conservation 267 

CHAPTER 11 ENERGY EFFICIENCY .......... 267 

Section 

N1101 General 267 

N1102 Building Envelope 283 

Nl 103 Mechanical Systems 286 

N1104 Service Water Heating 286 

Part V— Mechanical 289 

CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL 

ADMINISTRATION 289 

Section 

M1201 General 289 

M1202 Existing Mechanical Systems 289 

CHAPTER 13 GENERAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM 
REQUIREMENTS. ............... 291 

Section 

M1301 General 291 

M1302 Approval 291 

M1303 Labeling of Appliances 291 

M1304 Type of Fuel 291 

M1305 Appliance Access 291 

M1306 Clearances from Combustible Construction . . 292 

M1307 Appliance Installation 292 

Ml 308 Mechanical Systems Installation 294 

CHAPTER 14 HEATING AND COOLING 

EQUIPMENT .295 

Section 

M1401 General 295 

M1402 Central Furnaces 295 

M1403 Heat Pump Equipment 295 

M1404 Refrigeration Cooling Equipment 295 

M1405 Baseboard Convectors 295 

M1406 Radiant Heating Systems 295 

M1407 Duct Heaters 296 

M1408 Vented Floor Furnaces 296 

M1409 Vented Wall Furnaces 296 

M1410 Vented Room Heaters 297 

M1411 Refrigeration Cooling Equipment 297 

Ml 41 2 Absorption Cooling Equipment 297 

M1413 Evaporative Cooling Equipment 298 

M1414 Fireplace Stoves 298 



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CHAPTER 15 EXHAUST SYSTEMS 299 

Section 

M1501 Clothes Dryers Exhaust 299 

M1502 Range Hoods 299 

M1503 Installation of Microwave Ovens 299 

M1504 Overhead Exhaust Hoods 299 

M1505 Exhaust Ducts 299 

CHAPTER 16 DUCT SYSTEMS 301 

Section 

M1601 Duct Construction 301 

M1602 Return Air 302 

M1603 Supply Air 303 

CHAPTER 17 COMBUSTION AIR 305 

Section 

M1701 General 305 

M1702 All Air from Inside the Building 305 

M1703 All Air from Outdoors 305 

CHAPTER 18 CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 311 

Section 

M1801 General 311 

M1802 Vent Components 311 

M1803 Chimney and Vent Connectors 312 

M1804 Vents 313 

Ml 805 Masonry and Factory-built Chimneys 313 

CHAPTER 19 SPECIAL FUEL-BURNING 

EQUIPMENT 315 

Section 

M1901 Ranges and Ovens 315 

M1902 Sauna Heaters 315 

CHAPTER 20 BOILERS/WATER HEATERS 317 

Section 

M2001 Boilers 317 

M2002 Operating and Safety Controls 317 

M2003 Expansion Tanks 317 

M2004 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 317 

M2005 Water Heaters 318 

M2006 Pool Heaters 318 

CHAPTER 21 HYDRONIC PIPING 319 

Section 

M2101 Hydronic Piping Systems Installation .319 



M2102 Baseboard Convectors 319 

M2103 Floor Heating Systems 319 

M2104 Low Temperature Piping 319 

M2105 Ground Source Heat Pump System 

Loop Piping 321 

CHAPTER 22 SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE 

SYSTEMS 323 

Section 

M2201 Oil Tanks 323 

M2202 Oil Piping, Fitting and Connections 323 

M2203 Installation 323 

M2204 Oil Pumps and Valves 323 

CHAPTER 23 SOLAR SYSTEMS 325 

Section 

M2301 Solar Energy Systems 325 

Part VI— Fuel Gas 327 

CHAPTER 24 FUEL GAS 327 

Section 

G'2401 General 327 

G2402 General 327 

G2403 General Definitions 327 

G2404 General 332 

G2405 Structural Safety 332 

G2406 Appliance Location 333 

G2407 Combustion, Ventilation and Dilution Air. . . . 333 

G2408 Installation 337 

G2409 Clearance Reduction 337 

G2410 Electrical 340 

G2411 General 340 

G2412 Pipe Sizing 341 

G2413 Piping Materials 341 

G2414 Piping System Installation 345 

G2415 Piping Bends and Changes 

in Direction 346 

G2416 Inspection, Testing and Purging 347 

G2417 Piping Support 348 

G2418 Drips and Sloped Piping 348 

G2419 Gas Shutoff Valves 348 

G2420 Flow Controls 349 

G2421 Appliance Connections 349 

G2422 CNG Gas-dispensing Systems 349 

G2423 Piping Support Intervals 349 



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G2424 General 350 

G2425 Vents 351 

G2426 Venting of Equipment 351 

G2427 Sizing of Category I Appliance 

Venting Systems 360 

G2428 Direct-vent, Integral Vent, Mechanical Vent and 
Ventilation/Exhaust Hood Venting 368 

G2429 Factory-built Chimneys 368 

G2430 General 368 

G243 1 Decorative Appliances for Installation 

in Fireplaces 368 

G2432 Log Lighters 369 

G2433 Vented Decorative Appliances 369 

G2434 Vented Wall Furnaces 369 

G2435 Floor Furnaces 369 

G2436 Clothes Dryers 370 

G2437 Clothes Dryer Exhaust 370 

G2438 Sauna Heaters 370 

G2439 Pool and Spa Heaters 371 

G2440 Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces 371 

G2441 Conversion Burners 371 

G2442 Unit Heaters 371 

G244.3 Unvented Room Heaters 372 

G2444 Vented Room Heaters 372 

G2445 Cooking Appliances 372 

G2446 Water Heaters 372 

G2447 Air Conditioning Equipment 373 

G2448 Illuminating Appliances 373 

G2449 Infrared Radiant Heaters 373 

G2450 Boilers 373 

G2451 Chimney Damper Opening Area 373 

Part VII— Plumbing 375 

CHAPTER 25 PLUMBING 

ADMINISTRATION .............. 375 

Section 

P2501 General 375 

P2502 Existing Plumbing Systems 375 

P2503 Inspection and Tests 375 

CHAPTER 26 GENERAL PLUMBING 

REQUIREMENTS. 377 

Section 

P2601 General 377 

P2602 Individual Water Supply and 

Sewage Disposal 377 



P2603 Structural and Piping Protection 377 

P2604 Trenching and Backfilling 377 

P2605 Support 378 

P2606 Waterproofing of Openings 378 

P2607 Workmanship 378 

P2608 Materials Evaluation and Listing 378 

CHAPTER 27 PLUMBING FIXTURES 381 

Section 

P2701 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings 381 

P2702 Fixture Accessories 382 

P2703 Tail Pieces 382 

P2704 Access to Connections 382 

P2705 Installation 382 

P2706 Waste Receptors 382 

P2707 Directional Fittings 382 

P2708 Showers 382 

P2709 Shower Receptors 383 

P2710 Shower Walls 383 

P2711 Lavatories 383 

P2712 Water Closets 383 

P2713 Bathtubs 384 

P2714 Sinks 384 

P2715 Laundry Tubs 384 

P2716 Food-waste Grinder 384 

P2717 Dishwashing Machines 384 

P2718 Clothes Washing Machine 384 

P2719 Floor Drains 384 

P2720 Whirlpool Bathtubs 384 

P2721 Bidet Installations 385 

P2722 Fixture Fitting 385 

P2723 Macerating Toilet Systems 385 

CHAPTER 28 WATER HEATERS ............... 387 

Section 

P2801 General 387 

P2802 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 387 

P2803 Relief Valves 387 

CHAPTER 29 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 389 

Section 

P2901 General 389 

P2902 Protection of Potable Water Supply 389 

P2903 Water-supply System 390 



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P2904 Materials, Joints and Connections 394 

P2905 Changes in Direction 397 

P2906 Support 397 

P2907 Drinking Water Treatment Units 397 

CHAPTER 30 SANITARY DRAINAGE 399 

Section 

P3001 General 399 

P3002 Materials 399 

P3003 Joints and Connections 399 

P3004 Determining Drainage Fixture Units 402 

P3005 Drainage System 402 

P3006 Sizing of Drain Pipe Offsets 405 

P3007 Sumps and Ejectors 405 

P3008 Backwater Valves 405 

CHAPTER 31 VENTS 407 

Section 

P3101 Vent Systems 407 

P3102 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents 407 

P3103 Vent Terminals 407 

P3104 Vent Connections and Grades 407 

P3105 Fixture Vents 408 

P3106 Individual Vent. . . 408 

P3107 Common Vent 408 

P3108 Wet Venting 409 

P3109 Waste Stack Vent 409 

P3110 Circuit Venting 409 

P31 1 1 Combination Waste and Vent System 416 

P31 12 Island Fixture Venting 416 

P31 13 Vent Pipe Sizing 416 

P31 14 Air Admittance Valves 417 

CHAPTER 32 TRAPS. 419 

Section 

P3201 Fixture Traps 419 

Part VIII— Electrical 421 

CHAPTER 33 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 421 

Section 

E3301 General 421 

E3302 Building Structure Protection 421 

E3303 Inspection and Approval 421 

E3304 General Equipment Requirements 421 

E3305 Equipment Location and Clearances 422 



E3306 Electrical Conductors and Connections 422 

E3307 Conductor and Terminal Identification 424 

CHAPTER 34 ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS. .... 427 

Section 

E3401 General 427 

CHAPTER 35 SERVICES 431 

Section 

E3501 General Services 431 

E3502 Service Size and Rating 431 

E3503 Service, Feeder and Grounding Electrode 

Conductor Sizing 432 

E3504 Overhead Service-drop and Service Conductor 

Installation 433 

E3505 Service-entrance Conductors 435 

E3506 Service Equipment — General 436 

E3507 System Grounding 436 

E3508 Grounding Electrode System 436 

E3509 Bonding 437 

E3510 Grounding Electrode Conductors 438 

E35 1 1 Grounding Electrode Conductor Connection to 

the Grounding Electrodes 438 

CHAPTER 36 BRANCH CIRCUIT AND FEEDER 

REQUIREMENTS 441 

Section 

E3601 General 441 

E3602 Branch Circuit Ratings 441 

E3603 Required Branch Circuits 442 

E3604 Feeder Requirements 443 

E3605 Conductor Sizing and Overcurrent 

Protection 445 

E3606 Panelboards 446 

CHAPTER 37 WIRING METHODS 447 

Section 

E3701 General Requirements 447 

E3702 Above-ground Installation Requirements .... 447 
E3703 Underground Installation Requirements 447 

CHAPTER 38 POWER AND LIGHTING 

DISTRIBUTION 453 

Section 

E3801 Receptacle Outlets 453 

E3802 Ground-fault and Arc-fault Circuit-interrupter 

Protection 455 

E3803 Lighting Outlets 455 



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E3804 General Installation Requirements 455 

E3805 Boxes, Conduit Bodies and Fittings 456 

E3806 Installation of Boxes, Conduit Bodies 

and Fittings 468 

E3807 Cabinets and Panelboards 469 

E3808 Grounding 470 

E3809 Flexible Cords 472 



Part IX — Referenced Standards 489 

CHAPTER 43 REFERENCED STANDARDS ..... 489 

Part X — Appendices 505 

APPENDIX A SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS 

PIPING .505 



CHAPTER 39 DEVICES AND LIGHTING 

FIXTURES ...................... 473 

Section 

E3901 Switches 473 

E3902 Receptacles 473 

E3903 Fixtures 474 

E3904 Fixture Installation 475 

E3905 Track Lighting 476 

CHAPTER 40 APPLIANCE INSTALLATION .... 477 

Section 

E4001 General 477 

CHAPTER 41 SWIMMING POOLS 479 

Section 

E4101 General 479 

E4102 Wiring Methods for Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 479 

E4103 Equipment Location and Clearances 480 

E4104 Bonding 482 

E4105 Grounding 483 

E4106 Equipment Installation 484 

E4107 Storable Swimming Pools 486 

E4108 Spas and Hot Tubs 486 

E4109 Hydromassage Bathtubs 486 

CHAPTER 42 CLASS 2 REMOTE-CONTROL, 

SIGNALING AND POWER-LIMITED 
CIRCUITS .487 

Section 

E4201 General 487 

E4202 Power Sources 487 

E4203 Wiring Methods 487 

E4204 Installation Requirements 488 



APPENDIX B SIZING OF VENTING SYSTEMS 

SERVING APPLIANCES EQUIPPED 
WITH DRAFT HOODS, CATEGORY I 
APPLIANCES, AND APPLIANCES 
LISTED FOR USE AND TYPE 
B VENTS. .509 

APPENDIX C EXIT TERMINALS OF 

MECHANICAL DRAFT AND DIRECT- 
VENT VENTING SYSTEMS 517 

APPENDIX D RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR 
SAFETY INSPECTION OF AN 

EXISTING APPLIANCE 
INSTALLATION 519 

APPENDIX E MANUFACTURED HOUSING 

USED AS DWELLINGS. .......... 521 

Section 

AE101 Scope 521 

AE102 Application to Existing Manufactured Homes 

and Building Service Equipment 521 

AE201 Definitions 522 

AE301 Permits 522 

AE302 Application for Permit 522 

AE303 Permits Issuance 523 

AE304 Fees 523 

AE305 Inspections 524 

AE306 Special Inspections 525 

AE307 Utility Service 525 

AE401 Occupancy Classification 525 

AE402 Location on Property 525 

AE501 Design 525 

AE502 Foundation Systems 525 

AE503 Skirting and Perimeter Enclosures 526 

AE504 Structural Additions 526 

AE505 Building Service Equipment 526 

AE506 Exits 526 

AE507 Occupancy, Firesafety and Energy 

Conservation Standards 526 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



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AE600 Special Requirements for 

Foundation Systems 526 

AE601 Footings and Foundations 526 

AE602 Pier Construction 527 

AE603 Height of Piers 527 

AE604 Anchorage Installations 527 

AE605 Ties, Materials and Installation 528 

APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHODS ... 529 

Section 

AF101 Scope 529 

AF102 Definitions 529 

AF103 Requirements 529 

APPENDIX G SWIMMING POOLS, SPAS AND 

HOT TUBS ............... 537 

Section 

AG101 General 537 

AG102 Definitions 537 

AG103 Swimming Pools 537 

AG104 Spas and Hot Tubs 537 

AG105 Barrier Requirements 537 

AG106 Abbreviations 538 

AG107 Standards 538 

APPENDIX H PATIO COVERS 539 

Section 

AH101 General 539 

AH102 Definition 539 

AH103 Permitted Uses 539 

AH104 Design Loads 539 

AH 105 Light and Ventilation/Emergency Egress 539 

AH106 Footings 539 

APPENDIX I PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL. ... 541 

Section 

AI101 General 541 

APPENDIX J EXISTING BUILDINGS AND 

STRUCTURES. 543 

Section 

AJ101 Purpose and Intent 543 

AJ102 Compliance 543 

AJ103 Preliminary Meeting 543 

AJ104 Evaluation of an Existing Building 543 

AJ105 Permit 544 



AJ201 Definitions 544 

AJ301 Repairs 544 

AJ401 Renovations 545 

AJ501 Alterations 545 

AJ601 Reconstruction 546 

APPENDIX K SOUND TRANSMISSION 547 

Section 

AK101 General 547 

AK102 Airborne Sound 547 

AK103 Structural-borne Sound 547 

APPENDIX L INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL 
CODE ELECTRICAL PROVISIONS/ 
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE 
CROSS REFERENCE 549 

INDEX 561 



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• 



xov 2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part S — Administrative 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION R101 
TITLE, SCOPE AND PURPOSE 

R101.1 Title. These provisions shall be known as the Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings of [NAME OF ju- 
risdiction], and shall be cited as such and will be referred to 
herein as "this code." 



.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residential 
Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings shall apply to the 
construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal and 
demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than 
three stories in height with a separate means of egress and their 
accessory structures. 

R10L3 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to provide mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard life or limb, health and public 
welfare. 



R102.6 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision of 
this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the ef- 
fect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 

R102.7 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 

R102.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, 
alterations or repairs to any structure shall conform to that 
required for a new structure without requiring the existing 
structure to comply with all of the requirements of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. Additions, alterations or repairs 
shall not cause an existing structure to become unsafe or ad- 
versely affect the performance of the building. 



SECTION R102 
APPLICABILITY 

.1 General. Where, in any specific case, different sec- 
tions of this code specify different materials, methods of con- 
struction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. Where there is a conflict between a general require- 
ment and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall 
be applicable. 

R102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 



2.3 Application of references. References to chapter or 
section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

R102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the 
requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would 
violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or ap- 
pliance, the conditions of the listing and manufacturer's in- 
structions shall apply. 

ii 

K102.5 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not ap- 
ply unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



SECTION R1 03 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

R103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department of 
building safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

R103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

R103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the ap- 
pointing authority, the building official shall have the authority 
to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the building offi- 
cial. 



SECTION R104 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE 

BUILDING OFFICIAL 

R104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to render interpretations of 
this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clar- 
ify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, poli- 
cies and procedures shall be in conformance with the intent and 
purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not 
have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided 
for in this code. 



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E104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection and alteration of buildings and struc- 
tures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been is- 
sued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 



4.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 



I.4 Inspections. The building official is authorized to 
make all of the required inspections, or the building official 
shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by ap- 
proved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections 
shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of 
such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The 
building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

R104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 



■.6 Might off entry. Where it is necessary to make an in- 
spection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the 
building official has reasonable cause to believe that there ex- 
ists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is con- 
trary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure or 
premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official 
or designee is authorized to enter the structure or premises at 
reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by 
this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occu- 
pied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry re- 
quested. If such structure or premises be unoccupied, the 
building official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate 
the owner or other person having charge or control of the struc- 
ture or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the build- 
ing official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law 
to secure entry. 

R104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for the retention of public re- 
cords. 

K104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without 
malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered 
liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability 
for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of 
any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of of- 
ficial duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee 
because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the 
lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code 
shall be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction un- 
til the final termination of the proceedings. The building offi- 
cial or any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, 
suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provi- 
sions of this code. 



M104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the building official shall 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

Rl 04.9.1 Used materials and equipment Used materials, 
equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved 
by the building official. 

Rl 04.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficul- 
ties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the 
building official shall have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, provided the building official shall first 
find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this 
code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements or structural. 
The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded 
and entered in the files of the department of building safety. 

R104.10.1 Areas prone to flooding. The building official 
shall not grant modifications to any provision related to ar- 
eas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(l) 
without the granting of a variance to such provisions by the 
board of appeals. 

R104.ll Alternative materials, design and methods of con- 
struction and equipment The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code. Compliance with the 
specific performance-based provisions of the International 
Code Council (ICC) codes in lieu of specific requirements of 
this code shall also be permitted as an alternate. 

R104.11.1 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that 
a material or method does not conform to the requirements 
of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative 
materials or methods, the building official shall have the au- 
thority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made 
at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as 
specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. 
In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the 
building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests 
shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such 
tests shall be retained by the building official for the period 
required for retention of public records. 



SECTION R105 
PERMITS 

R10S.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, en- 
large, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 



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ADMINISTRATION 



R105.2-R1 05.3.1 



shall first make application to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

R105.2 Work exempt from permit. Permits shall not be re- 
quired for the following. Exemption from the permit require- 
ments of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization 
for any work to be done in any manner in violationiof the provi- 
sions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this juris- 
diction. 

Building: 

1. One-story detached accessory structures, provided the 
floor area does not exceed 200 square feet (18.58 m 2 ). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top 
of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge. 

4. Water tanks supported directly upon grade if the capacity 
does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 927 L) and the ratio of 
height to diameter or width does not exceed 2 to 1 . 

5. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches (762 
mm) above adjacent grade and not over any basement or 
story below. 

6. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter 
tops and similar finish work. 

7. Prefabricated swimming pools that are less than 24 
inches (610 mm) deep. 

8. Swings and other playground equipment accessory to a 
one- or two-family dwelling. 

9. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: A permit shall not be required for 
minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the 
connection of approved portable electrical equipment to ap- 
proved permanently installed receptacles. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating, cooking or clothes drying appliances. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter ap- 
proval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation appliances. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating or 
cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter ap- 
proval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration systems containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant or that are actuated 
by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe; 
provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drainpipe, water, 
soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes 



necessary to remove and replace the same with new material, 
such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall 
be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code. 

The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, 
valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water 
closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the re- 
placement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

R105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 

R105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building of- 
ficial is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, re- 
placement of lamps or the connection of approved portable 
electrical equipment to approved permanently installed re- 
ceptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of 
any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting 
of any structural beam or load bearing support, or the re- 
moval or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any, water supply, 
sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar 
piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work affect- 
ing public health or general safety. 

Rl 05.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be re- 
quired for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, 
transmission, distribution, metering or other related equip- 
ment that is under the ownership and control of public ser- 
vice agencies by established right. 

R105.3 Application for permit To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar de- 
scription that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section R106.1. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

R105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



R1 05.3.1.1 -R106.2 



ADMINISTRATION 



proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building of- 
ficial shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

R105.3.1.1 Substantially improved or substantially 
damaged existing buildings and structures. For appli- 
cations for reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or 
other improvement of existing buildings or structures lo- 
cated in an area prone to flooding as established by Table 
R301 .2(1), the building official shall examine or cause to 
be examined the construction documents and shall pre- 
pare a finding with regard to the value of the proposed 
work. For buildings that have sustained damage of any 
origin, the value of the proposed work shall include the 
cost to repair the building or structure to its predamage 
condition. If the building official finds that the value of 
proposed work equals or exceeds 50 percent of the mar- 
ket value of the building or structure, the finding shall be 
provided to the board of appeals for a determination of 
substantial improvement or substantial damage. Appli- 
cations determined by the board of appeals to constitute 
substantial improvement or substantial damage shall 
meet the requirements of Section R327. 

R105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application 
for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 1 80 days after the date of filing, unless such 
application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the building official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be re- 
quested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

R105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a per- 
mit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, 
any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any 
other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other 
ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of 
a permit based on construction documents and other data shall 
not prevent the building official from requiring the correction 
of errors in the construction documents and other data. The 
building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use 
of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other or- 
dinances of this jurisdiction. 

R105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid 
unless the work authorized by such permit is commenced 
within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by 
such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 1 80 days 
after the time the work is commenced. The building official is 
authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of time, 
for periods not more than 1 80 days each. The extension shall be 
requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

R105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is au- 
thorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provi- 
sions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 



R105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy 
thereof shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion 
of the project. 

R105.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person who 
performs work for the installation or repair of building, struc- 
ture, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing systems, for 
which this code is applicable, to comply with this code. 



SECTION R106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

R106.1 Submittal documents. Construction documents, spe- 
cial inspection and structural observation programs, and other 
data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each applica- 
tion for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared 
by a registered design professional where required by the stat- 
utes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. 
Where special conditions exist, the building official is autho- 
rized to require additional construction documents to be pre- 
pared by a registered design professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not re- 
quired to be prepared by a registered design professional if it 
is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that 
reviewing of construction documents is not necessary to ob- 
tain compliance with this code. 

R106.1.1 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn upon suitable material. 
Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted 
when approved by the building official. Construction docu- 
ments shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, 
nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail 
that it will conform to the provisions of this code and rele- 
vant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined 
by the building official. 

R106.1.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. Man- 
ufacturer's installation instructions, as required by this 
code, shall be available on the job site at the time of inspec- 
tion. 

R106.1.3 Information for construction in areas prone to 
flooding. For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas 
as established by Table R301.2(l), construction documents 
shall include: 

1 . Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway bound- 
aries, and flood zones, and the design flood elevation, 
as appropriate; 

2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including 
basement; in areas of shallow flooding (AO zones), 
the height of the proposed lowest floor, including 
basement, above the highest adjacent grade; and 

3 . If design flood elevations are not included on the com- 
munity's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the 
building official and the applicant shall obtain and 
reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and 
floodway data available from other sources. 

R106.2 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with 
the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan 



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R106.3-R109.1.1 



showing the size and location of new construction and existing 
structures on the site and distances from lot lines. In the case of 
demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demol- 
ished and the location and size of existing structures and con- 
struction that are to remain on the site or plot. 

R106.3 Examination of documents. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying con- 
struction documents and shall ascertain by such examinations 
whether the construction indicated and described is in accor- 
dance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent 
laws or ordinances. 

R106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the 
building official issues a permit, the construction documents 
shall be approved in writing or by stamp. One set of con- 
struction; documents so reviewed shall be retained by the 
building official. The other set shall be returned to the appli- 
cant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to in- 
spection 'by the building official or his or her authorized 
representative. 

M106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, 
and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith 
within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has 
not been abandoned. 

R106.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and de- 
tailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent 
requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the 
foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall pro- 
ceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and 
without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will 
be granted. 

R106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the reviewed construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

R106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of ap- 
proved construction documents shall be retained by the build- 
ing official for a period of not less than 1 80 days from date of 
completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or lo- 
cal laws. 



SECTION R107 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

R107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be! limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 



R107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall 
conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as 
necessary to ensure the public health, safety and general wel- 
fare. 

R107.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized 
to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part 
of an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been is- 
sued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall com- 
ply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, 
heat or power in the ICC Electrical Code. 

R107.4 Termination of approval. The building official is au- 
thorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or 
use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontin- 
ued. 



SECTION R108 
FEES 

R108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an amendment 
to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been 
paid. 

R108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, 
electrical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or altera- 
tions requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the 
applicable governing authority. 

R108.3 Building permit valuations. Building permit valua- 
tion shall include total value of the work for which a permit is 
being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing 
equipment and other permanent systems, including materials 
and labor. 

R108.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in con- 
nection with or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

R108.5 Refunds. The building official is authorized to estab- 
lish a refund policy. 



SECTION R109 
INSPECTIONS 

R109.1 Types of inspections. For on-site construction, from 
time to time the building official, upon notification from the 
permit holder or his agent, shall make or cause to be made any 
necessary inspections and shall either approve that portion of 
the construction as completed or shall notify the permit holder 
or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this 
code. 

R109.1.1 Foundation inspection. Inspection of the foun- 
dation shall be made after poles or piers are set or trenches or 
basement areas are excavated and any required forms 
erected and any required reinforcing steel is in place and 



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prior to the placing of concrete. The foundation inspection 
shall include excavations for thickened slabs intended for 
the support of bearing walls, partitions, structural supports, 
or equipment and special requirements for wood founda- 
tions. 

R109.1.2 Plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical sys- 
tems inspection. Rough inspection of plumbing, mechani- 
cal, gas and electrical systems shall be made prior to 
covering or concealment, before fixtures or appliances are 
set or installed, and prior to framing inspection. 

Exception: Ground-source heat pump loop systems 
tested in accordance with Section M2 105.1 shall be per- 
mitted to be backfilled prior to inspection. 

R109.1.3 Floodplain inspections. For construction permit- 
ted in areas prone to flooding as established by Table 
R301.2(l), upon placement of the lowest floor, including 
basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the 
building official shall require submission of a certification, 
prepared by a registered professional engineer or land sur- 
veyor, of the elevation of the lowest floor, including base- 
ment, required in Section R327. 

R109.1.4 Frame and masonry inspection. Inspection of 
framing and masonry construction shall be made after the 
roof, masonry, all framing, firestopping, draftstopping and 
bracing are in place and after the plumbing, mechanical and 
electrical rough inspections are approved. 

R109.1.S Other inspections. In addition to the called in- 
spections above, the building department may make or re- 
quire any other inspections to ascertain compliance with 
this code and other laws enforced by the building depart- 
ment. 

R109.1.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated construction inspec- 
tion. Where fire-resistance-rated construction is re- 
quired between dwelling units or due to location on 
property, the building official shall require an inspection 
of such construction after all lathing and/or wallboard is 
in place, but before any plaster is applied, or before wall- 
board joints and fasteners are taped and finished. 

R109.1.6 Final inspection. Final inspection shall be made 
after the permitted work is complete and prior to occupancy. 

R109.2 Inspection agencies. The building official is autho- 
rized to accept reports of approved agencies, provided such 
agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reli- 
ability. 

R109.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the person 
doing the work authorized by a permit to notify the building of- 
ficial that such work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty 
of the person requesting any inspections required by this code 
to provide access to and means for inspection of such work 

R109.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond 
the point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the building official. The building of- 
ficial, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the permit holder or 
an agent of the permit holder wherein the same fails to comply 
with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be cor- 



rected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until 
authorized by the building official. 



SECTION R1 10 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

R110.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy clas- 
sification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall be 
made until the building official has issued a certificate of occu- 
pancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of 
occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation 
of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the juris- 
diction. Certificates presuming to give authority to violate or 
cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the ju- 
risdiction shall not be valid. 

R110.2 Change in use. Changes in the character or use of an 
existing structure shall not be made except as specified in Sec- 
tions 3405 and 3406 of the International Building Code. 

R110.3 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 
sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy which shall contain the following: 

1. The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the requirements 
of this code. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was is- 
sued. 

8. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided. 

9. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

R110.4 Temporary occupancy. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building official shall set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

R110.5 Revocation. The building official shall, in writing, sus- 
pend or revoke a certificate of occupancy issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or 
on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is de- 
termined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in 
violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions 
of this code. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



R111.1-R113.2 



SECTION R1 11 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

Rlll.l Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permit is required, until approved by the building official. 

R111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall 
have the authority to authorize and approve the temporary con- 
nection of the building or system to the utility source of energy, 
fuel or power. 

Rill. 3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection 
of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated 
by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in 
Section R 102.4 in case of emergency where necessary to elimi- 
nate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such util- 
ity connection has been made without the approval required by 
Section Rl 1 1 . 1 or Rl 1 1 .2. The building official shall notify the 
serving utility and whenever possible the owner and occupant 
of the building, structure or service system of the decision to 
disconnect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to 
disconnection. The owner or occupant of the building, structure 
or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practi- 
cal thereafter. 



SECTION R1 12 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

R112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official rela- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The building offi- 
cial shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have 
no vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals 
shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office 
at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for con- 
ducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings 
in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the building 
official. 

R112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this! code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

R112.2.1 Determination of substantial improvement in 
areas prone to flooding. When the building official pro- 
vides a finding required in Section R 105. 3. 1 . 1 , the board of 
appeals shall determine whether the value of the proposed 
work constitutes a substantial improvement. A substantial 
improvement means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilita- 
tion, addition, or improvement of a building or structure, the 
cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market 
value of the building or structure before the improvement or 
repair is Started. If the building or structure has sustained 
substantial damage, all repairs are considered substantial 



improvement regardless of the actual repair work per- 
formed. The term does not include: 

1. Improvements of a building or structure required to 
correct existing health, sanitary or safety code viola- 
tions identified by the building official and which are 
the minimum necessary to assure safe living condi- 
tions; or 

2. Any alteration of an historic building or structure pro- 
vided that the alteration will not preclude the contin- 
ued designation as an historic building or structure. 

Rl 12.2.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for areas 
prone to flooding. A variance shall only be issued upon: 

1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the 
unique characteristics of the size, configuration or to- 
pography of the site render the elevation standards in 
Section R327 inappropriate. 

2. A determination that failure to grant the variance 
would result in exceptional hardship by rendering the 
lot undevelopable. 

3. A determination that the granting of a variance will 
not result in increased flood heights, additional 
threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, 
nor create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization 
of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or or- 
dinances. 

4. A determination that the variance is the minimum 
necessary to afford relief, considering the flood haz- 
ard. 

5. Submission to the applicant of written notice specify- 
ing the difference between the design flood elevation 
and the elevation to which the building is to be built, 
stating that the cost of flood insurance will be com- 
mensurate with the increased risk resulting from the 
reduced floor elevation, and stating that construction 
below the design flood elevation increases risks to life 
and property. 

R112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not em- 
ployees of the jurisdiction. 

R112.4 Administration. The building official shall take im- 
mediate action in accordance with the decision of the board. 



SECTION R1 13 
VIOLATIONS 

R113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

R113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized 
to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible 
for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, 
moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in viola- 
tion of a detail statement or a plan approved thereunder, or in vi- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



R1 1 3.3 -R1 14.2 



ADMINISTRATION 



olation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of 
this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the ille- 
gal action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

R113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is 
not complied with promptly, the building official is authorized 
to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the 
appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or 
abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of 
the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation 
of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto. 

R113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION R1 14 
STOP WORK ORDER 

R114.1 Notice to owner. Upon notice from the building offi- 
cial that work on any building or structure is being prosecuted 
contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe and dan- 
gerous manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The 
stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the 
owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent, or to 
the person doing the work; and shall state the conditions under 
which work will be permitted to resume. 

R114.2 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall con- 
tinue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that person 
is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condi- 
tion, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law. 



• 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part II — Definitions 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION R201 
GENERAL 

R201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings shown in this chapter. 

R201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender in- 
clude the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the 
plural and the plural, the singular. 

R201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code such terms shall have meanings ascribed to 
them as in other code publications of the International Code 
Council. 

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION R202 
DEFINITIONS 

ACCESSIBLE. Signifies access that requires the removal of 
an access panel or similar removable obstruction. 

ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Signifies access without the ne- 
cessity for removing a panel or similar obstruction. 

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. In one- and two-family dwell- 
ings not more than three stories high with separate means of 
egress, a building, the use of which is incidental to that of the 
main building and which is located on the same lot. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of 
a building or structure. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed to 
allow air into the plumbing drainage system when a negative 
pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close by grav- 
ity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero differential 
pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pres- 
sure. 

AIR BREAK, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. An arrangement in 
which a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device 
drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim of the 
receptor. 

AIR CIRCULATION, FORCED. A means of providing 
space conditioning utilizing movement of air through ducts or 
plenums by mechanical means. 



AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM. A system that consists of 
heat exchangers, blowers, filters, supply, exhaust and return-air 
systems, and shall include any apparatus installed in connec- 
tion therewith. 

AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical 
distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste 
pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor into 
which it is discharging. 

AIR GAP, WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. The unob- 
structed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the 
lowest opening from a water supply discharge to the flood- 
level rim of a plumbing fixture. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. 
Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an exten- 
sion, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of 
the original installation that requires a permit. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical de- 
vices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured and 
designed to utilize energy and for which this code provides spe- 
cific requirements. 

APPROVED. Approved refers to approval by the building of- 
ficial as the result of investigation and tests conducted by him 
or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally 
recognized organizations. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing in- 
spection services, when such agency has been approved by the 
building official. 

ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling joists of the 
top story and the roof rafters. 

BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drain- 
age system. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED-PRESSURE- 
ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to atmosphere internally loaded to a normally open 
position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



9 



R202 



DEFINITIONS 



means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of re- 
lief means. 

BACKFLOW, WATER DISTRIBUTION. The flow of water 
or other liquids into the potable water-supply piping from any 
sources other than its intended source. Backsiphonage is one 
type of backflow. 

BACKSIPHONAGE. The flowing back of used or contami- 
nated water from piping into a potable water-supply pipe due to 
a negative pressure in such pipe. 

BACKWATER VALVE. A device installed in a drain or pipe 
to prevent backflow of sewage. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. An exterior floor projecting from 
and supported by a structure without additional independent 
supports. 

BALL COCK. A valve that is used inside a gravity-type water 
closet flush tank to control the supply of water into the tank. It 
may also be called a flush-tank fill valve or water control. 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade (see "Story above grade"). 

BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that en- 
closes one side of a basement and has an average below grade 
wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque and non- 
opaque area of that enclosing side. 

BASIC WIND SPEED. Three-second gust speed at 33 feet 
(10 058 mm) above the ground in Exposure C (see Section 
R301.2.1) as given in Figure R301.2(4). 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures, including or ex- 
cluding a bidet, consisting of a water closet, lavatory, and bath- 
tub or shower. Such fixtures are located together on the same 
floor level. 

BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in di- 
rection of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 
amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line (see 
"Elbow" and "Sweep"). 

BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water is 
circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler, 
and which operates at water pressures not exceeding 160 
pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1 102 kPa gage) and at wa- 
ter temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121 °C). 

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry 
in which reinforcement is embedded. 

BRACED WALL LINE. A series of braced wall panels con- 
structed in accordance with Section R602. 10 for wood framing 
or Section R603.7 or R603.8. 1 .2 for cold-formed steel framing 
to resist racking from seismic and wind forces. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. A section of a braced wall line 
constructed in accordance with Section R602.10 for wood 
framing or Section R603 . 7 or R603 . 8. 1 . 2 for cold-formed steel 
framing, which extend the full height of the wall. 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system other than a riser, 
main or stack. 

BRANCH, FIXTURE. See "Fixture branch, drainage." 

BRANCH, HORIZONTAL. See "Horizontal branch, drain- 
age." 



BRANCH, INTERVAL. A distance along a soil or waste stack 
corresponding to a story height, but not less than 8 feet (2438 
mm), within which the horizontal branches from one floor or 
story of a building are connected to the stack. 

BRANCH, MAIN. A water-distribution pipe that extends hor- 
izontally off a main or riser to convey water to branches or fix- 
ture groups. 

BRANCH, VENT. A vent connecting two or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of an appliance, absorp- 
tion unit or burner expressed in British thermal units input per 
hour. 

BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and two-family 
dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is used, 
or designed or intended to be used for human habitation, for liv- 
ing, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combination 
thereof, and shall include accessory structures thereto. 

BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the dis- 
charge from all other drainage piping inside the house and con- 
veys it to the building sewer 30 inches (762 mm) outside the 
building wall. 

BUILDING, EXISTING. Existing building is a building 
erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a le- 
gal building permit has been issued. 

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated au- 
thority charged with the administration and enforcement of this 
code. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its dis- 
charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-dis- 
posal system or other point of disposal. 

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, 
exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building element that 
enclose conditioned spaces. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt 
cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral ag- 
gregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material. 

CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the fin- 
ished floor to the finished ceiling. 

CHIMNEY. A primary vertical structure containing one or 
more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of 
combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outside 
atmosphere. 

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. A pipe that connects a fuel- 
burning appliance to a chimney. 

CHIMNEY TYPES 

Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for re- 
moving the products of combustion from fuel-burning, resi- 
dential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in 
excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating condi- 
tions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 



10 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



R202 



1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for peri- 
ods up to 1 hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the 
appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chimneys 

include masonry and factory-built types. 

ii ■ ii 

CIRCUIT YENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of 
the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind. 

CLEANOUT. An accessible opening in the drainage system 
used for the removal of possible obstruction. 

CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe 

cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 
a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBUSTD3LE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as 
noncombustible. 

COMBUSTION AIR. The air provided to fuel-burning equip- 
ment including air for fuel combustion, draft hood dilution and 
ventilation of the equipment enclosure. 

COMMON VENT. A single pipe venting two trap arms within 
the same branch interval, either back-to-back or one above the 
other. 

CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to a 
reduction in temperature, e.g., water that condenses from flue 
gases and water that condenses from air circulating through the 
cooling coil in air conditioning equipment. 

CONDENSING APPLIANCE. An appliance that condenses 
water generated by the burning of fuels. 

CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, 
relative humidity or quality. 

CONDITIONED AREA. That area within a building pro- 
vided with heating and/or cooling systems or appliances capa- 
ble of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 68 F 
(20°C) during the heating season and/or 80°F (27°C) during the 
cooling season, or has a fixed opening directly adjacent to a 
conditioned area. 

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection 
of the floors associated with the conditioned space. 

CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space within 
a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling equip- 
ment or systems capable of maintaining, through design or heat 
loss/gain, 50°F (10°C) during the heating season and 85°F 
(29°C) during the cooling season, or communicates directly 
with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, an area, 
room or space being heated or cooled by any equipment or ap- 
pliance. 

CONFINED SPACE. A room or space having a volume less 
than 50 cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/h (4.83 LAV) of the aggregate 
input rating of all fuel-burning appliances installed in that 
space. 



CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construc- 
tion drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale. 

CONTINUOUS WASTE. A drain from two or more similar 
adjacent fixtures connected to a single trap. 

CONTROL, LIMIT. An automatic control responsive to 
changes in liquid flow or level, pressure, or temperature for 
limiting the operation of an appliance. 

CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control respon- 
sive directly to flame properties that senses the presence or ab- 
sence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or unintentional 
flame extinguishment, automatically causes shutdown of me- 
chanical equipment. 

CONVECTOR. A system-incorporating heating element in 
an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating 
element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an opening 
located above the heating element. 

CORROSION RESISTANT. Any nonferrous metal or any 
metal having an unbroken surfacing of nonferrous metal, or 
steel with not less than 10-percent chromium or with not less 
than 0.20-percent copper. 

COURT. A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located at 
or above grade level on a lot and bounded on three or more sides 
by walls or a building. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two oth- 
erwise separate piping systems whereby there may be a flow 
from one system to the other. 

DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material 
made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast 
matrix of concrete or epoxy. 

DAMPER, VOLUME. A device that will restrict, retard or di- 
rect the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combustion of 
heat-producing equipment, vent connector, vent or chimney. 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a DWV system terminat- 
ing at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more. Dead 
ends shall be prohibited except as an approved part of a rough- 
in for future connection. 

DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction in- 
corporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, 
floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, 
cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural and 
structural items, and fixed service equipment. 

DECK. An exterior floor system supported on at least two op- 
posing sides by an adjoining structure and/or posts, piers, or 
other independent supports. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or 
glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not 
functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or 
components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing 
material; and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incor- 
porated, is divided into segments. 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See definition of "Registered 
design professional." 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



11 



R202 



DEFINITIONS 



DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the center line of the pipe and fittings. 

DIAMETER. Unless specifically stated, the term "diameter" 
is the nominal diameter as designated by the approved material 
standard. 



, A horizontal or nearly horizontal system act- 
ing to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. 
When the term "diaphragm" is used, it includes horizontal 
bracing systems. 

DILUTION AIR. Air that enters a draft hood or draft regulator 
and mixes with flue gases. 

DIRECT-VENT APPLIANCE. A fuel-burning appliance 
with a sealed combustion system that draws all air for combus- 
tion from the outside atmosphere and discharges all flue gases 
to the outside atmosphere. 



, The pressure difference existing between the appli- 
ance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a 
continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the 
gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere. 

Induced draft. The pressure difference created by the ac- 
tion of a fan, blower or ejector, that is located between the 
appliance and the chimney or vent termination. 

Natural draft. The pressure difference created by a vent or 
chimney because of its height, and the temperature differ- 
ence between the flue gases and the atmosphere. 

DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part of 
the vent connector from an appliance, which is designed to pro- 
vide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in 
the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond the draft 
hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance ; and neu- 
tralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent on 
the operation of the appliance. 

DRAFT REGULATOR. A device that functions to maintain a 
desired draft in the appliance by automatically reducing the 
draft to the desired value. 

DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries soil and water-borne wastes in a 
building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide 
connections in the drainage system that have provisions for es- 
tablishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are 
made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods 
of coupling provide for required slope in the system (see "Dur- 
ham fitting"). 

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmis- 
sion of air which, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, 
dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment 
and appliances. 

DURHAM FITTING. A special type of drainage fitting for 
use in the durham systems installations in which the joints are 
made with recessed and tapered threaded fittings, as opposed to 
bell and spigot lead/oakum or solvent/cemented or soldered 



joints. The tapping is at an angle (not 90 degrees) to provide for 
proper slope in otherwise rigid connections. 

DURHAM SYSTEM. A term used to describe soil or waste 
systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, tube or other such 
rigid construction using recessed drainage fittings to corre- 
spond to the types of piping. 

DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for 
living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

DWV. Abbreviated term for drain, waste and vent piping as 
used in common plumbing practice. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of diameter of a circle and if the opening is not circular, 
the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This 
is applicable to air gap.) 

ELBOW. A pressure pipe fitting designed to provide an exact 
change in direction of a pipe run. An elbow provides a sharp 
turn in the flow path (see "Bend" and "Sweep"). 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 
operable window, door or similar device that provides for a 
means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and 
other components of systems other than appliances that are per- 
manently installed and integrated to provide control of environ- 
mental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also 
include other systems specifically regulated in this code. 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH. For determining friction losses in 
a piping system, the effect of a particular fitting equal to the 
friction loss through a straight piping length of the same nomi- 
nal diameter. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. 
Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene gly- 
col; mineral oil; poly dimenthy oil oxane; hydrochlorofluoro- 
carbon, chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon 
refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for 
steam rollers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, water 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refriger- 
ants and hydrazine. 

EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air 
temperature by the process of evaporating water into an 
airstream. 

EXCESS AIR. Air that passes through the combustion cham- 
ber and the appliance flue in excess of that which is theoreti- 
cally required for complete combustion. 



12 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



R202 



EXHAUST HOOD, FULL OPENING. An exhaust hood 
with an opening at least equal to the diameter of the connecting 
vent. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been is- 
sued. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). 
Synthetic stucco cladding systems typically consisting of five 
layers: adhesive, insulation board, base coat into which fiber- 
glass reinforcing mesh is embedded, and a finish coat in the de- 
sired color. 

EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall enclosing condi- 
tioned space. Includes between floor spandrels, peripheral 
edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, 
gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof, and basement 
walls with an average below grade wall area that is less than 50 
percent of the total opaque and nonopaque area of that enclos- 
ing side. 

FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY. A listed and labeled chim- 
ney composed of factory-made components assembled in the 
field in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the 
conditions of the listing. 

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical win- 
dows (whether fixed or moveable); opaque doors; glazed 
doors; glass block; and combination opaque/glazed doors. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials installed to resist the 
free passage of flame to other areas of the building through con- 
cealed spaces. 

FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire 
chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a 
chimney, for use with solid fuels. 

Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and 
chimney system composed of factory-made components, 
and assembled in the field in accordance with manufac- 
turer's instructions and the conditions of the listing. 

Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed 
of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

FIREPLACE STOVE. A free-standing, chimney-connected 
solid-fuel-burning heater designed to be operated with the fire 
chamber doors in either the open or closed position. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the 

firebox and the smoke chamber. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to the closest interior lot line, to the cen- 
terline of a street, alley or public way, or to an imaginary line 
between two buildings on the property. The distance shall be 
measured at right angles from the lot line. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain serving one or 
more fixtures that discharges into another portion of the drain- 
age system. 



FIXTURE BRANCH, WATER-SUPPLY. A water-supply 
pipe between the fixture supply and a main water-distribution 
pipe or fixture group main. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to the 
junction of that drain with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or di- 
rectional flow of water and is either attached to or accessible 



or is used with an open or atmospheric dis- 



from a fixture 
charge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion of the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution pipe 
(or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture grouping 
such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or more in- 
dividual fixture branch pipes are connected. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water-supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture or fixture fitting to a fixture branch. 

FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE (d.f.u.). A measure of proba- 
ble discharge into the drainage system by various types of 
plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The 
drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on 
its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a 
single drainage operation and on the average time between suc- 
cessive operations. 

FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY (w.s.f.u.). A measure of 
the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various 
types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping systems. 
The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular fixture de- 
pends on its volume rate of supply, on the time duration of a sin- 
gle supply operation and on the average time between 
successive operations. 

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. The numeric value assigned to a 
material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

FLOOD-LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptor or fixture 
from which water overflows. 

FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor 
having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the col- 
lection and disposal of waste water used in cleaning the floor 
and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage to the 
floor. 

FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended 
from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combus- 
tion from outside such space, and with means for lighting the 
appliance from such space. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The static pressure reading in the water- 
supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or 
water outlet is open and flowing at capacity. 

FLUE. See "Vent," 

FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passages within an appliance 
through which combustion products pass from the combustion 
chamber to the flue collar. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



13 



R202 



DEFINITIONS 



FLUE COLLAR. The portion of a fuel-burning appliance de- 
signed for the attachment of a draft hood, vent connector or 
venting system. 

FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in ap- 
pliance flues or heat exchangers. 

FLUSH VALVE. A device located at the bottom of a flush tank 
that is operated to flush water closets. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A flushometer valve is a device 
that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for 
flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intention- 
ally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a re- 
duced-density plastic consisting open or closed cells 
distributed throughout the plastic and that has a density less 
than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m 3 ). 

FUEL-PIPING SYSTEM. All piping, tubing, valves and fit- 
tings used to connect fuel utilization equipment to the point of 
fuel delivery. 

FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position has 
an opening cross-sectional area equal to a minimum of 85 per- 
cent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe. 

FURNACE. A vented heating appliance designed or arranged 
to discharge heated air into a conditioned space or through a 
duct or ducts. 

GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fen- 
estration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing 
elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of 
glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned 
basements. 

GRADE. The finished ground level adjoining the building at 
all exterior walls. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening lo- 
cated such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 
inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level ad- 
jacent to the opening. 

GRADE, PIPING. See "Slope." 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exte- 
rior walls. 

GROSS AREA OF EXTERIOR WALLS. The normal pro- 
jection of all exterior walls, including the area of all windows 
and doors installed therein. 

GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. Pip- 
ing buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed in a 
body of water for the purpose of transporting heat transfer liq- 
uid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition are 
closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and open 
loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or other 
source. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located near the open sides of elevated walking sur- 



faces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking 
surface to the lower level. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be a 
fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or 
other highly combustible substances. 

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (HDD). The sum, on an annual 
basis , of the difference between 65 °F ( 1 8°C) and the mean tem- 
perature for each day as determined from "NOAA Annual De- 
gree Days to Selected Bases Derived from the 1960-1990 
Normals" or other weather data sources acceptable to the code 
official. 

HEAT PUMP. An appliance having heating or heating/cooling 
capability and that uses refrigerants to extract heat from air, liq- 
uid or other sources. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, 
for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top 
of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of 
the roof rafters. 

HIGH-TEMPERATURE (H.T.) CHIMNEY. A high tem- 
perature chimney complying with the requirements of UL 103. 
A Type H.T. chimney is identifiable by the markings "Type 
H.T." on each chimney pipe section. 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain pipe ex- 
tending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 

110°F(43°C). 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to hur- 
ricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico 
coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 miles per 
hour (145 km/h), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Is- 
lands, and America Samoa. 

IGNITION SOURCE. A flame, spark or hot surface capable 
of igniting flammable vapors or fumes. Such sources include 
appliance burners, burner ignitions and electrical switching de- 
vices. 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air gap into a trap, fixture or re- 
ceptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechanical 



• 



14 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



R202 



• 



treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a 
single establishment or building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a single-fixture 
drain that connects with the vent system above or terminates in- 
dependentlyjjoutside the building. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A supply other than an ap- 
proved public water supply that serves one or more families. 

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICF). A concrete 
forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic 
insulation, afiybrid of cement and foam insulation; a hybrid of 
cement and >vood chips, or other insulating material for con- 
structing cas't-in-place concrete walls. 

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board having a 
minimum thermal resistance of R-2 of the core material. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this 
code under due legislative authority. 

KITCHEN.;Kitchen shall mean an area used, or designated to 
be used, for the preparation of food. 

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer which contains the name of the manufacturer, the func- 

II •: I, ■ '; ' i 

tion and performance characteristics of the product or material, 
and the name and identification of an approved agency and that 
indicates that the representative sample of the product or mate- 
rial has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. (See 
also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark.") 

LABELED. Devices, equipment or materials to which have 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a 
testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization con- 
cerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspec- 
tion of the production of the above labeled items that attests to 
compliance with a specific standard. 

LIGHT-FRAMED CONSTRUCTION. A type of construc- 
tion whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are pri- 
marily formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel 
framing members. • ■ 

LISTED AND LISTING. Terms referring to equipment that is 
shown in a list published by an approved testing agency quali- 
fied and equipped for experimental testing and maintaining an 
adequate periodic inspection of current productions and whose 
listing states "that the equipment complies with nationally rec- 
ognized standards when installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions. 

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occu- 
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include con- 
struction or environmental loads such as wind load," snow load, 
rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVING SPACE. Space within a dwelling unit utilized for liv- 
ing, sleeping; eating, cooking, bathing, washing and sanitation 
purposes. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE.; A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any jpublic place. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised 
of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a 



water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to ac- 
cept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of discharge . 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches may be 
connected. 

MAIN SEWER. See "Public sewer." 

MANIFOLD WATER DISTRD3UTION SYSTEMS. A fab- 
ricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is fit- 
ted with multiple branches in close proximity in which water is 
distributed separately to fixtures from each branch. 

MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a 
structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the 
traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width 
or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, or, when 
erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m 2 ) or more, and which is 
built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwell- 
ing with or without a permanent foundation when connected to 
the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air- 
conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except 
that such term shall include any structure that meets all the re- 
quirements of this^ paragraph except the size requirements and 
with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a cer- 
tification required by the secretary (HUD) and complies with 
the standards established under this title. For mobile homes 
built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance to the 
Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at the time of 
manufacture is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a 
mobile home shall be considered a manufactured home. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification 
applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a 
product or material complies with a specified standard or set of 
rules. (See also "Mark" and "Label.") 

MANUFACTURER'S INSTALLATION INSTRUC- 
TIONS. Printed instructions included with equipment as part 
of the conditions of listing and labeling. 

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the func- 
tion of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's 
designation" and "Label.") 

MASONRY CHIMNEY. A field-constructed chimney com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

MASONRY, SOLID. Masonry consisting of solid masonry 
units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled 
with mortar. 

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete 
block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 
2103 of the International Building Code. 

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed 
of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof. 

Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 
inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 
mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates. 

Glass. Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units 
bonded by mortar. 

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
any plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is less than 75 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



15 



R202 



DEFINITIONS 



percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the 
same plane. 

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in ev- 
ery plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 percent or 
more of its cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. 

MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass 
greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m 2 ), 
solid wood walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 
pounds per square foot (98 kg/m 2 ), and any other walls having a 
heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft 2 • °F[266 J/(m 2 • 
k)]. 

MEAN WOOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height 
and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except 
that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal 
to 10 degrees (0.18 rad). 

MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system de- 
signed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, that 
consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive static 
pressu re or a forced draft portion under positive static pressure. 

Forced-draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the re- 
moval of flue or vent gases under positive static pressure. 

Induced draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the re- 
moval of flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent 
pressure. 

Power venting system. A portion of a venting system using 
a fan or other mechanical means to cause the removal of flue 
or vent gases under positive static vent pressure. 

MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for re- 
moving air from a room or space by mechanical means. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEM. A system specifically addressed 
and regulated in this code and composed of components, de- 
vices, appliances and equipment. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having 
a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square feet 
(0.28 m 2 ) per sheet. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet hav- 
ing an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 
m 2 ) per sheet. 

MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels be- 
tween the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor 
area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space 
in which the level or levels are located. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more 
layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials 
shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate 
or held in place with an approved ballast layer. 

MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more sin- 
gle station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

NATURAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to 
remove flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent pres- 
sure entirely by natural draft. 



NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass the 
test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elementary 
materials set forth in ASTM E 136. 

NONCONDITIONED SPACE. A space that is not a condi- 
tioned space by insulated walls, floors or ceilings. 

OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or struc- 
tures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal 
plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code. 

OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes in 
direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a 
line parallel with the other section. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a le- 
gal or equitable interest in the property. 

PELLET FUEL-BURNING APPLIANCE. A closed com- 
bustion, vented appliance equipped with a fuel feed mechanism 
for burning processed pellets of solid fuel of a specified size 
and composition. 

PELLET VENT. A vent listed and labeled for use with a listed 
pellet fuel-burning appliance. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction that authorizes performance of a 
specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PITCH. See "Slope." 

PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION. A method of construction 
by which floor framing bears on load bearing walls, that are not 
continuous through the story levels or floor framing. 

PLENUM. A chamber that forms part of an air-circulation sys- 
tem other than the occupied space being conditioned. 

PLUMBING. For the purpose of this code, plumbing refers to 
those installations, repairs, maintenance and alterations regu- 
lated by Chapters 25 through 32. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. An energized household appli- 
ance with plumbing connections, such as a dishwasher, food- 
waste grinder, clothes washer or water heater. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly that 
is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and demands no ad- 
ditional water supply nor adds any discharge load to the system. 
It is presumed that it performs some useful function in the oper- 
ation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety of the plumb- 
ing system. Examples include filters, relief valves and aerators. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptor or device that requires 
both a water-supply connection and a discharge to the drainage 
system, such as water closets, lavatories, bathtubs and sinks. 
Plumbing appliances as a special class of fixture are further de- 
fined. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes, plumbing fixtures, supports and appurtenances; 
soil, waste and vent pipes; sanitary drains and building sewers 
to an approved point of disposal. 



16 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



R202 



POSITIVE JROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in 
which consideration has been made for all loading; deflections 
of the roof dfeck, and additional slope has been provided to en- 
sure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical quality 
to the requirements of the public health authority having juris- 
diction. 

PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated, valve 
held closed by a spring or other means and designed to auto- 
matically relieve pressure at the pressure at whichiit is set. 

PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly: controlled by 
public authority. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use 
controlled by public authority. 

PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a public street, which has' been 
deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to 
the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of 
not less than 1 feet (3048 mm). 

PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes au- 
tomatically when released manually or controlled by mechani- 
cal means for fast-action closing. 

JJ-VALUE, THERMAL RESISTANCE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a building thermal envelope ele- 
ment from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit 
temperature difference between the two surfaces, Under steady 
state conditions, per unit area (h • ft 2 °F/Btu). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope). 

RECEPTOR. A fixture or device that receives; the discharge 
from indirect waste pipes. 

REFRIGERANT. A substance used to produce refrigeration 
by its expansion or evaporation. 

REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR. A specific machine, 
with or without accessories, for compressing a given refriger- 
ant vapor. 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination Of intercon- 
nected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is cir- 
culated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat: A 
direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator or 
condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with 
the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An indirect 
refrigerating system is one in which a secondary coolant cooled 
or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the air or 
other substance to be cooled or heated. 

; !! " ■ 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent excessive 
buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel. 



REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an ex- 
isting roof covering. See "Roof recover." 

RESIDENTIAL BUDLDING TYPE. The type of residential 
building for determining building thermal envelope criteria. 
Detached one- and two-family dwellings are Type A-l. Town- 
houses are Type A-2. 

RETURN AIR. Air removed from an approved conditioned 
space or location and recirculated or exhausted. 

RISER. A water pipe that extends vertically one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather 
protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists 
of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving 
as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly in- 
cludes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal bar- 
rier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering. 

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck 
for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See "Roof assembly." 

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface not including its sup- 
porting members or vertical supports. 

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional 
roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without 
removing the existing roof covering. 

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal Of any part of an 
existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or 
above the roof of any part of a building. 

ROOM HEATER. A freestanding heating appliance installed 
in the space being heated and not connected to ducts. 

ROUGH-IN. The installation of all parts of the plumbing sys- 
tem that must be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. 
This includes DWV, water supply and built-in fixture supports. 

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that 
head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least 
one-quarter the unit length. 

SANITARY SEWER. A sewer that carries sewage and ex- 
cludes storm, surface and groundwater. 

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water 
to drain from a roof. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. A classification assigned 
to a structure based on its Seismic Group and the severity of the 
design earthquake ground motion at the site. 

SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the dis- 
charge of a building sanitary drainage system and is con- 
structed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic 
matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to 
discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of 
open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit. 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal matter, vegeta- 
ble matter or other impurity in suspension or solution. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



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R202 



DEFINITIONS 



SEWAGE PUMP. A permanently installed mechanical device 
for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump. 

SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as man- 
datory. 

SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed 
and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use 
of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limita- 
tions in Section R301.2 of this code. 

SIDE VENT. A vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fit- 
ting at an angle less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal. 

SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is 
field applied using one layer of membrane material (either ho- 
mogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers. 

SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding 
device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in 
the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section 
R308.6.1. 

SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fix- 
ture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a fric- 
tion-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or 
special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of a 
(slip) nut. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a hori- 
zontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED RATING. A numerical index indi- 
cating the relative density of smoke produced by burning as- 
signed to a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

SOIL STACK OR PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage contain- 
ing fecal material. 

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The solar 
heat gain through a fenestration or glazing assembly relative to 
the incident solar radiation (Btu/h • ft 2 • °F). 

SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing con- 
struction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional 
area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is 
not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid 
masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 145 
or C 216. 

STACK. Any main vertical DWV line, including offsets, that 
extends one or more stories as directly as possible to its vent 
terminal. 

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond 
pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are verti- 
cally aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for 
stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running 
bond. 

STACK VENT. The extension of soil or waste stack above the 
highest horizontal drain connected. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack without individual fixture vents. 



STANDARD TRUSS. Any construction that does not permit 
the roof/ceiling insulation to achieve the required lvalue over 
the exterior walls. 

STORM SEWER, DRAIN. A pipe used for conveying rain- 
water, surface water, condensate, cooling water or similar liq- 
uid wastes. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE. Any story having its finished floor 
surface entirely above grade, except that a basement shall be 
considered as a story above grade where the finished surface of 
the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane. 

2. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building perim- 
eter. 

3. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANELS (SIPS). Factory 
fabricated panels of solid core insulation with structural skins 
of oriented strand board (OSB) or plywood. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or waste, located be- 
low the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be 
emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These 
pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is se- 
lected for the specific head and volume of the load and is usu- 
ally operated by level controllers. 

SUPPLY AIR. Air delivered to a conditioned space through 
ducts or plenums from the heat exchanger of a heating, cooling 
or ventilating system. 

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting, hanging and securing 
pipes, fixtures and equipment. 

SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in di- 
rection of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 
amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. 
Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less 
turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow"). 

TEMPERATURE- AND PRESSURE-RELJEF (T AND P) 
VALVE. A combination relief valve designed to function as 
both a temperature-relief and pressure-relief valve. 

TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature-actu- 
ated valve designed to discharge automatically at the tempera- 
ture at which it is set. 

THERMAL RESISTANCE, R-VALUE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding 
surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between 
the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area 
(h -ft 2 -°F/Btu). 

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, 17-FACTOR.The coeffi- 
cient of heat transmission »(air to air) through a building enve- 
lope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow 
per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm 
side and cold side air films (Btu/h ■ ft 2 • °F). 



18 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



R202 



TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit ex- 
tends from foundation to roof and with open space on at least 
two sides. 

TRAP. A fitting, either separate or built into a fixture, that pro- 
vides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases with- 
out materially affecting the flow of sewage or Waste water 
through it. 

TRAP ARM. That portion of a fixture drain between a trap 
weir and the vent fitting. 

TRAP PRIMER. A device or system of piping to maintain a 
water seal in a trap, typically installed where infrequent use of 
the trap would result in evaporation of the trap seal, such as 
floor drains. 

TRAP SEAL. The trap seal is the maximum vertical depth of 
liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown weir 
and the top of the dip of the trap. 



L Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames, and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 

TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an in- 
dividual truss, which describes the design and physical charac- 
teristics of the truss. 

TYPE L VENT. A listed and labeled vent conforming to UL 
641 for venting oil-burning appliances listed for use with Type 
L vents or with listed gas appliances. 

^/-FACTOR, THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE. The coeffi- 
cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building enve- 
lope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow 
per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm 
side and cold side air films (Btu/h -ft 2 °F). 

UNCONFINED SPACE. A space having a volume not less 
than 50 cubic feet per 1 ,000 Btu/h (4.8 m 3 /kW) of the aggregate 
input rating of all appliances installed in that space. Rooms 
communicating directly with the space in which the appliances 
are installed, through openings not furnished with doors, are 
considered a part of the unconfined space. 

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing pa- 
per, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved material 
over which as roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17-percent 
slope) or greater, is applied. 



JSUALLY TIGHT CONSTRUCTION. Construction in 
which: 

1 . Walls and ceilings comprising the building thermal enve- 
lope have a continuous water vapor retarder with a rating 
of 1 perm [57.4 ng/(s • m 2 • Pa)] or less with openings 
therein gasketed or sealed. 

2. Storm windows or weatherstripping is applied around 
the threshold and jambs of opaque doors and openable 
windows. 

3. Caulking or sealants are applied to areas such as joints 
around window and door frames between sole plates and 
floors,ibetween wall-ceiling joints, between wall panels, 
at penetrations for plumbing, electrical and gas lines, and 
at other openings. 



VACUUM BREAKERS. A device which prevents 
backsiphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VAPOR RETARDER. A material having a permeance rating 
of 1.0 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E 96. 

VENT. A passageway for conveying flue gases from fuel-fired 
appliances, or their vent connectors, to the outside atmosphere. 

VENT COLLAR. See "Hue collar." 

VENT CONNECTOR. That portion of a venting system 
which connects the flue collar or draft hood of an appliance to a 
vent. 

VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device in- 
tended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of an 
individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance and 
that is designed to open the venting system automatically when 
the appliance is in operation and to close off the venting system 
automatically when the appliance is in a standby or shutdown 
condition. 

VENT GASES. Products of combustion from fuel-burning ap- 
pliances, plus excess air and dilution air, in the venting system 
above the draft hood or draft regulator. 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed to provide circu- 
lation of air to and from the drainage system and which extends 
through one or more stories. 

VENT SYSTEM. Piping installed to equalize pneumatic pres- 
sure in a drainage system to prevent trap seal loss or blow-back 
due to siphonage or back pressure. 

VENTDLATIQN. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the outdoors. 

VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from 
the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the 
purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system is 
usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connector, if 
used, assembled to form the open passageway. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

WALLS. Walls shall be defined as follows: 

Load-bearing wall is a wall supporting any vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

Nonbearing wall is a wall which does not support vertical 
loads other than its own weight. 

WASTE. Liquid-borne waste that is free of fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE OR STACK. Piping that conveys only liquid 
sewage not containing fecal material. 

WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping which conveys 
water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appliances, ap- 
purtenances, equipment, devices or other systems served, in- 
cluding fittings and control valves. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



19 



R202 



DEFINITIONS 



WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use. 

WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including a 
hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable 
water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or plumb- 
ing appliance that requires either an air gap or backflow pre- 
vention device for protection of the supply system. 

WATER-SERVICE PIPE. The outside pipe from the water 
main or other source of potable water supply to the water-distri- 
bution system inside the building, terminating at the service 
valve. 

WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water-service pipe, the wa- 
ter-distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fit- 
tings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the 
building or premises. 

WET VENT. A vent that also receives the discharge of wastes 
from other fixtures. 

WIND BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurricane- 
prone regions within one mile of the coastal mean high water 
line where the basic wind speed is 110 miles per hour (177 
km/h) or greater; or where the basic wind speed is equal to or 
greater than 120 miles per hour (193 km/h); or Hawaii. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured 
from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together with 
waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. 
Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, OSB or com- 
posite panels. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 



9 



• 



20 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part III — Building Planning and Construction 

CHAPTER 3 

BUILDING PLANNING 



SECTION R301 
DESIGN CRITERIA 

R301.1 Design. Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, 
shall be constructed to safely support all loads, including dead 
loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind 
loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The con- 
struction of buildings and structures shall result in a system that 
provides a complete load path capable of transferring all loads 
from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to 
the foundation. When a building of otherwise conventional 
construction contains structural elements that exceed the limits 
of Section R301, those elements shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice. 

R301.1.1 Construction systems. The requirements of this 
code are based on platform and balloon-frame construction 
for light-frame buildings. The requirements for concrete 
and masonry buildings are based on a balloon framing sys- 
tem. Other framing systems must have equivalent detailing 
to ensure force transfer, continuity and compatible deforma- 
tions. 

R301.1.2 Engineered design. When a building of other- 
wise conventional light-frame construction contains struc- 
tural elements not conforming to this code, these elements 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. The extent of such design need only demonstrate 
compliance of nonconventional elements with other appli- 
cable provisions and shall be compatible with the perfor- 
mance of the conventional framed system. 

R301.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 



code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional cri- 
teria shall be established by the local jurisdiction and set forth 
in Table R301.2(l). 

R301.2.1 Wind limitations. Buildings and portions there- 
of shall be limited by wind speed, as defined in Table 
R301.2(l), and construction methods in accordance with 
this code. Basic wind speeds shall be determined from Fig- 
ure R301. 2(4). Where different construction methods and 
structural materials are used for various portions of a build- 
ing, the applicable requirements of this section for each por- 
tion shall apply. Where loads for windows, skylights and 
exterior doors are not otherwise specified, the loads listed in 
Table R301 .2(2) adjusted for height and exposure per Table 
R30 1.2(3), shall be used to determine design load perfor- 
mance requirements for windows and doors. 

R301.2.1.1 Design criteria. Construction in regions 
where the basic wind speeds from Figure R30 1.2(4) 
equal or exceed 110milesperhour(177.1 km/h)shallbe 
designed in accordance with one of the following: 

1 . American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) 
Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and 
Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM); or 

2. Southern Building Code Congress International 
Standard for Hurricane Resistant Residential Con- 
struction (SSTD 10); or 

3. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other 
Structures (ASCE-7); or 

4. Cold-formed steel construction shall be designed 
in accordance with the provisions of this code. 



TABLE R301.2(1) 
GROUND SNOW LOAD 



GROUND 
SNOW 
LOAD 


WIND 


SEISMIC 

DESIGN 

CATEGORY 9 


SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM 


WINTER 
DESIGN 
TEMP' 


FLOOD 
HAZARDS" 


Speed 6 (mph) 


Weathering 3 


Frost line 
depth" 


Termite 


Decay d 





















For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m.O 2 , 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 

a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column 
shall be filled in with the weathering index (i.e., "negligible," "moderate" or "severe") for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability Map [Figure 
R301.2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determinedifrom ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652. 

b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403. 1( 1). The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum 
depth of footing below finish grade. 

c. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "very heavy," "moderate to heavy," "slight to moderate," or "none to slight" in accordance with Figure 
R30 1.2(6) depending on whether there has been a history of local damage. 

d. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "moderate to severe," "slight to moderate," or "none to slight" in accordance with Figure R301 .2(7) depend- 
ing on whether there has been a history of local damage. 

e. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [Figure R301.2(4)]. Wind exposure category shall be deter- 
mined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4. 

f . The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 97 '/ 2 -percent values for winter from Appendix D of the International Plumbing 
Code. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local cli mates or local weather experience as determined by the building official. 

g. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the Seismic Design Category determined from Section R301.2.2.1. 

h. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of , the jurisdiction 's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first 
code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the currently effective FIRM and FBFM, or other flood hazard map adopted by the 
community, as may be amended. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



21 



TABLE R301 .2(2) 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301. 2(2) 

COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN 

ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B 





ZONE 


EFFECTIVE 
WIND 
AREA 
(feet 2 ) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph— 3-second gust) 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


170 


ID 
01 
<D 

o> 
o 

■Q 
O 

T - 

o 
o 

A 

o 
o 

DC 


1 


10 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-14.6 


10.0 


-18.0 


10.0 


-19.8 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.5 


-25.9 


1 1.4 


-28.1 


12.4 


-30.4 


14.3 


-35.3 


15.4 


-37.8 


16.5 


-40.5 


21.1 


-52.0 


1 


20 


10.0 


-12.7 


10.0 


-14.2 


10.0 


-17.5 


10.0 


-19.3 


10.0 


-21.2 


10.0 


-25.2 


10.7 


-27.4 


11.6 


-29.6 


13.4 


-34.4 


14.4 


-36.9 


15.4 


-39.4 


19.8 


-50.7 


1 


50 


10.0 


-12.2 


10.0 


-13.7 


10.0 


-16.9 


10.0 


-18.7 


10.0 


-20.5 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-26.4 


10.6 


-28.6 


12.3 


-33.2 


13.1 


-35.6 


14.1 


-38.1 


18.1 


-48.9 


1 


100 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.0 


-18.5 


10.0 


-18.2 


10.0 


-19.9 


10.0 


-23.7 


10.0 


-25.7 


10.0 


-27.8 


11.4 


-32.3 


12.2 


-34.6 


13.0 


-37.0 


16.7 


-47.6 


2 


10 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-30.2 


10.0 


-33.3 


10.0 


-36.5 


10.5 


-43.5 


11.4 


-47.2 


12.4 


-51.0 


14.3 


-59.2 


15.4 


-63.5 


16.5 


-67.9 


21.1 


-87.2 


2 


20 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-27.0 


10.0 


-29.7 


10.0 


-32.6 


10.0 


-38.8 


10.7 


-42.1 


11.6 


-45.6 


13.4 


-52.9 


14.4 


-56.7 


15.4 


-60.7 


19.8 


-78.0 


2 


50 


10.0 


-16.4 


10.0 


-18.4 


10.0 


-22.7 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-27.5 


10.0 


-32.7 


10.0 


-35.5 


10.6 


-38.4 


12.3 


-44.5 


13.1 


-47.8 


14.1 


-51.1 


18.1 


-65.7 


2 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


3 


10 


10.0 


-32.8 


10.0 


-36.8 


10.0 


-45.4 


10.0 


-50.1 


10.0 


-55.0 


10.5 


-65.4 


11.4 


-71.0 


12.4 


-76.8 


14.3 


-89.0 


15.4 


-95.5 


16.5 


-102.2 


21.1 


-131.3 


3 


20 


10.0 


-27.2 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-37.6 


10.0 


-41.5 


10.0 


-45.5 


10.0 


-54.2 


10.7 


-58.8 


11.6 


-63.6 


13.4 


-73.8 


14.4 


-79.1 


15.4 


-84.7 


19.8 


-108.7 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.1 


10.0 


-39.3 


10.0 


-42.7 


10.6 


-46.2 


12.3 


-53.5 


13.1 


-57.4 


14.1 


-61.5 


18.1 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


10 
01 
01 

fc_ 
0) 
01 

■a 
o 

CO 

o 

A 

«»- 

o 
o 

DC 


I 


10 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.4 


-16.5 


11.4 


-18.2 


12.5 


-19.9 


14.9 


-23.7 


16.2 


-25.7 


17.5 


-27.8 


20.3 


-32.3 


21.8 


-34.6 


23.3 


-37.0 


30.0 


-47.6 


1 


20 


10.0 


-11.6 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-16.0 


10.4 


-17.6 


11.4 


-19.4 


13.6 


-23.0 


14.8 


-25.0 


16.0 


-27.0 


18.5 


-31.4 


19.9 


-33.7 


21.3 


-36.0 


27.3 


-46.3 


1 


50 


10.0 


-11.1 


10.0 


-12.5 


10.0 


-15.4 


10.0 


-17.0 


10.0 


-18.6 


11.9 


-22.2 


12.9 


-24.1 


13.9 


-26.0 


16.1 


-30.2 


17.3 


-32.4 


18.5 


-34.6 


23.8 


-44.5 


1 


100 


10.0 


-10.8 


10.0 


-12.1 


10.0 


-14.9 


10.0 


-16.5 


10.0 


-18.1 


10.5 


-21.5 


11.4 


-23.3 


12.4 


-25.2 


14.3 


-29.3 


15.4 


-31.4 


16.5 


-33.6 


21.1 


-43.2 


2 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


-100.5 


2 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


2 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


2 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24.1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


3 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


-1005 


3 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24.1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


CO 
01 
01 

Ol 
01 
TJ 

m 

g 

o 

CO 
A 

o 
o 

DC 


1 


10 


11.9 


-13.0 


13.3 


-14.6 


16.5 


-18.0 


18.2 


-19.8 


19.9 


-21.8 


23.7 


-25.9 


25.7 


-28.1 


27.8 


-30.4 


32.3 


-35.3 


34.6 


-37.8 


37.0 


-40.5 


47.6 


-52.0 


1 


20 


11.6 


-12.3 


13.0 


-13.8 


16.0 


-17.1 


17.6 


-18.8 


19.4 


-20.7 


23.0 


-24.6 


25.0 


-26.7 


27.0 


-28.9 


31.4 


-33.5 


33.7 


-35.9 


36.0 


-38.4 


46.3 


^19.3 


1 


50 


11.1 


-11.5 


12.5 


-12.8 


15.4 


-15.9 


17.0 


-17.5 


18.6 


-19.2 


22.2 


-22.8 


24.1 


-24.8 


26.0 


-25.8 


30.2 


-31.1 


32.4 


-33.3 


34.6 


-35.7 


44.5 


-45.8 


1 


100 


10.8 


-10.8 


12.1 


-12.1 


14.9 


-14.9 


16.5 


-16.5 


18.1 


-18.1 


21.5 


-21.5 


23.3 


-23.3 


25.2 


-25.2 


29.3 


-29.3 


31.4 


-31.4 


33.6 


-33.6 


43.2 


-43.2 


2 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


2 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


^12.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


2 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.6 


2 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


3 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


3 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


3 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.5 


3 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


I 


4 


10 


13.0 


-14.1 


14.6 


-15.8 


18.0 


-19.5 


19.8 


-21.5 


21.8 


-23.6 


25.9 


-28.1 


28.1 


-30.5 


30.4 


-33.0 


35.3 


-38.2 


37.8 


^tl.O 


40.5 


-43.9 


52.0 


-56.4 


4 


20 


12.4 


-13.5 


13.9 


-15.1 


17.2 


-18.7 


18.9 


-20.6 


20.8 


-22.6 


24.7 


-26.9 


26.8 


-29.2 


29.0 


-31.6 


33.7 


-36.7 


36.1 


-39.3 


38.7 


-42.1 


49.6 


-54.1 


4 


50 


11.6 


-12.7 


13.0 


-14.3 


16.1 


-17.6 


17.8 


-19.4 


19.5 


-21.3 


23.2 


-25.4 


25.2 


-27.5 


27.2 


-29.8 


31.6 


-34.6 


33.9 


-37.1 


36.2 


-39.7 


46.6 


-51.0 


4 


100 


11.1 


-12.2 


12.4 


-13.6 


15.3 


-16.8 


16.9 


-18.5 


18.5 


-20.4 


22.0 


-24.2 


23.9 


-26.3 


25.9 


-28.4 


30.0 


-33.0 


32.2 


-35.4 


34.4 


-37.8 


44.2 


-48.6 


5 


10 


13.0 


-17.4 


14.6 


-19.5 


18.0 


-24.1 


19.8 


-26.6 


21.8 


-29.1 


25.9 


-34.7 


28.1 


-37.6 


30.4 


-40.7 


35.3 


-47.2 


37.8 


-50.6 


40.5 


-54.2 


52.0 


-69.6 


5 


20 


12.4 


-16.2 


13.9 


-18.2 


17.2 


-22.5 


18.9 


-24.8 


20.8 


-27.2 


24.7 


-32.4 


26.8 


-35.1 


29.0 


-38.0 


33.7 


-44.0 


36.1 


^17.2 


38.7 


-50.5 


49.6 


-64.9 


5 


50 


11.6 


-14.7 


13.0 


-16.5 


16.1 


-20.3 


17.8 


-22.4 


19.5 


-24.6 


23.2 


-29.3 


25.2 


-31.8 


27.2 


-34.3 


31.6 


-39.8 


33.9 


-42.7 


36.2 


-45.7 


46.6 


-58.7 


5 


100 


11.1 


-13.5 


12.4 


-15.1 


15.3 


-18.7 


16.9 


-20.6 


18.5 


-22.6 


22.0 


-26.9 


23.9 


-29.2 


25.9 


-31.6 


30.0 


-36.7 


32.2 


-39.3 


34.4 


-42.1 


44.2 


-54.1 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 

NOTES: For effective areas between those given above the load may be interpolated, otherwise use the load associated with the lower effective ; 

Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3). 

See Figure R30 1.2(8) for location of zones. 

Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces. 



22 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301.2(3) - FIGURE R301.2(1) 



TABLE R301. 2(3) 
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2) 


MEAN 
ROOF HEIGHT 


EXPOSURE 


B 


c 


D 


15 


1.00 


1.21 


1.47 


20 


1.00 


1.29 


1.55 


25 


1.00 


1.35 


1.61 


30 


1.00 


1.40 


1.66 


35 


1.05 


1.45 


1.70 


40 


1.09 


1.49 


1.74 


45 


1.12 


1.53 


1.78 


50 


1.16 


1.56 


1.81 


55 


1.19 


1.59 


1.84 


60 


1.22 


1.62 


1.87 



2010 




DESIGN TEMPERATURES IN THIS AREA MUST BE BASED ON 
ANALYSIS OF LOCAL CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY 



For SI: °C = [(°F)-32] /l. 



FIGURE R301 .2(1) 
ISOLINES OF THE 97 1 / a PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



23 



FIGURE R301.2(2) 



BUILDING PLANNING 




* 



250 



250 500 MILES 



Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey 



Scale 1:17,000,000 



REFERENCES 



Digital data prepared with ARC/INFO 7.1 .1 
running under Solaris 2.5 on a UNIX workstation 

Albers Equal-Area Conic Projection 
Standard parallels 55°N and 65°N 
Central Meridian 1 60°W 



U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic -Hazard Mapping Project, 
1 998 Alaska Seismic-Hazard Maps; Documentation: U.S. Geological 
Survey Open-File Report, in progress. 

U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic -Hazard Mapping Project, 

1 998, Seismic-Hazard Maps of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File 

Report, 6 sheet, scale 1 :5, 000,000, in progress. 



For SI: 1 mile = 1.61 km. 



FIGURE R301. 2(2) 

INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 

(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CQDEG 



BUILDING PLANNING 



FIGURE R301 .2(2) 




250 



250 500 750 

537 ' ' =MILES 



SCALE 1:15,000,000 



REFERENCES 



Digital data prepared with ARC/INFO 7,1 ,1 
running under Solaris 2.5 on a UNIX workstation 

Albers Equal-Area Conic Projection 
Standard Parallels 29.5°N and 45,5°N 
Central Meridian 95°W 



Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey 



Frankel, A. Mueller, C, Barnhard, T., Perkins, D., Leyendecker, E. V., Dickman, N., 
Hanson, S., and Hopper, M., 1996, National Seismic-Hazard Maps: Documentation 
June 1996: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-532, 110 p. 

Frankel, A., Muller, C, Barnhard, T., Perkins, D., Leyendecker, E. V., Dickman, N., 
Hanson, S., and Spectral Response Acceleration for 0.2 Second Period with 2% 
Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 
97-1 31 -F, scale 1 :7,000,000. 

Petersen, M., Bryant, W., Cramer, C, Cao, T., Reichle, M., Frankel, A., Lienkaemper, J., 
McCrory, P., and Schwartz, D., 1996, Probabilitic Seismic Hazard Assessment for the 
State of California: California Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 96-08, 
66 p., and U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-706, 66 p. 



For SI: I mile = 1.61 km. 



FIGURE R301. 2(2)— continued 

INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 

(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



25 



FIGURE R301.2(2) 



BUILDING PLANNING 



23° 




Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey 



SCALE 1:3,500,000 



Digital data prepared with ARC/INFO 7.1.1 
running under Solaris 2.5 on a UNIX workstation 

Albers Equal-Area Conic Projection 
Standard parallels 8 "N and 18°N 
Central Meridian 157.5°W 



REFERENCES 
U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic-Hazard Mapping Project, 1 998 
Hawaii Seismic-Hazard Maps: 
Documentation: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, in progress. 

U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic-Hazard Mapping Project, 1 998, 
Seismic-Hazard Maps of Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File 
Report, 6 sheet, scale 1 :2,000,000, in progress. 



For SI: 1 mile = 1.61 km. 



FIGURE R301. 2(2)— continued 

INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D 



26 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 






o 
o 

o 



00 

c 



m 
3J 

z 

Ja- 
in 

O 



3J 

m 
<n 
o 
m 



o 
o 
a 
m 




O 

TJ 

5 



o 



SEVERE 

MODERATE 

NEGLIGIBLE 



a. Alaska and Hawaii are classified as severe and negligible, respectively. 

b. Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by region classification. A severe classification is where weather conditions result in significant snowfall 
combined with extended periods during which there lis little or no natural thawing causing deicing salts to be used extensively. 

FIGURE R301. 2(3) 
WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE 



c 

31 

m 

3J 

u 

o 



-J 



FIGURE R301. 2(4) 



BUILDING PLANNING 



Location 

Hawaii 
Puerto Rico 
Guam 
Virgin Islands 



American Samoa 125 



Vmph (m/s) 

105 (47) 

145 (65 

170 (76) 

145 (65) 



Special Wind Region 




-14a - 1 « 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

FIGURE R301. 2(4) 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 



28 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



FIGURE R301. 2(4) 




110 120 



Location 


Vmph 


Hawaii 


105 


Puerto Rico 


145 


Guam 


170 


Virgin Islands 


145 



American Samoa 1 25 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean.promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 



(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



29 



FIGURE R301. 2(4) 



BUILDING PLANNING 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 



30 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



FIGURE R301. 2(4) 



*£_£ 120 




100 



Special Wind Region 



For SI: 1 foot = 304^8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous: terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



31 



FIGURE R301. 2(4) 



BUILDING PLANNING 




140 



Special Wind Region 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories, and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 



32 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



FIGURE R301.2(5) 



(20D) 
»20 



(1800) 

(13M) 

(800) 
ZERO 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 mile = 1.61 km 

a. In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to establish ground snow loads. Extreme local variations in ground 
snow loads in these areas preclude mapping at this scale. 

b. Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation limits in feet for the ground snow load values presented below. 
Site-specific cases studies are required to establish ground snow loads at elevations not covered. 



100 



J 



200 



300 miles 



FIGURE R301. 2(5) 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, P g , FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft 2 ) 

(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODEC 



33 



FIGURE R301. 2(5) 



BUILDING PLANNING 



<™» 




(60S) 
80 



mm 

70 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 



FIGURE R301. 2(5)— continued 

GROUND SNOW LOADS, P g , FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft 2 ) 



34 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



to 

o 
o 
o 



00 



m 

30 

z 

O 

z 
> 

r 
30 

m 
w 

O 

m 



> 
i- 

o 
o 
o 
03 



O 

-TJ- 

> 



o 




1 VERY HEAVY 

MODERATE TO HEAVY 



SLIGHT TO MODERATE 
NONE TO SLIGHT 



NOTE: Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by the region classification. 

FIGURE R301 .2(6) 
TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP 



a 

c 

m 

33 

u> 

o 

k> 
"3 



OS 



c 

3J 

m 

31 
u 

© 

jo 



N9 

o 



m 




| MODERATE TO SEVERE 
I SLIGHT TO MODERATE 
~| NONE TO SLIGHT 



O 

z 
> 

r 

m 
</> 

o 
m 

z 

H 

> 

I - 

O 

o 

o 
rn 



NOTES: Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by the region classification. 

FIGURE R301 .2(7) 
DECAY PROBABILITY MAP 



CD 

C 
r- 
D 
Z 
Q 



Z 
Z 

o 



BUILDING PLANNING 



FIGURE R301 .2(8) 




®l ©'■ 


© i® 


I : 

I 

I 

I 

! 

®' ©' 

I 

F 
I 
I 


© !© 


©i © 


© "I® 




WALLS 



GABLE ROOFS 

e<io° 



e<io° 



®L © '©©' © © 



®i 



© 



® 



®i ~® r®i®r © i® 



®i © ;® 




GABLE ROOFS 
10°<9<45° 



10 o <e< ! 45° 



©J © ^p 








® 


© !® 
a \ 


®; © 


© 




/ 








-"©/ . \®N 




y®-©^®v 


@y, d) mx 





HIP ROOFS 
10° < 9 £30° 



io°<e<30° 



For SE: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.009 rad. 
NOTE: a = 4 feet in all cases 



FIGURE R301. 2(8) 
COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



37 



R301.2.1.2 -R301.2.1.4 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R3®1.2.1.2 Internal pressure. Windows in buildings lo- 
cated in wind bome debris regions shall have glazed 
openings protected from windborne debris or the build- 
ing shall be designed as a partially enclosed building in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 
Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall 
meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of 
ASTM E 1 996 and of ASTM E 1 886 referenced therein. 

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum 
thickness of 7 / 16 inch (11.1 mm) and a maximum span 
of 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening 
protection in one- and two-story buildings. Panels 
shall be precut to cover the glazed openings with at- 
tachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be 
provided in accordance with Table R30 1 . 2. 1 .2 or shall 
be designed to resist the components and cladding 
loads determined in accordance with the provisions of 
the International Building Code. 

TABLER301.2.1.2 

WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE 

FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS 3 '"' 



FASTENER 
TYPE 


FASTENER SPACING 


Panel span 
< 4 foot 


4 foot 

< panel span 

< 6 foot 


6 foot 

< panel span 

< 8 foot 


2'/ 2 " #6 Wood 
screws 


16" 


12" 


9" 


2V 2 "#8Wood 

screws 


16" 


16" 


12" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 
1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

a. This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot mean roof height. 

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. 

c. Where screws are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be at- 
tached utilizing vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate 
withdrawal capacity of 490 pounds. 

R301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced 
documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the 
three second gust wind velocities of Figure R301.2(4) 
shall be converted to fastest mile wind velocities using 
Table R301.2.1.3. 

K301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction 
considered, an exposure category that adequately re- 
flects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities 
shall be determined for the site at which the building or 
structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the 
transition zone between categories, the category result- 
ing in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall 



be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that 
arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as 
from constructed features. For any given wind direction, 
the exposure in which a specific building or other struc- 
ture is sited shall be assessed as being one of the follow- 
ing categories: 

1 . Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 per- 
cent of the buildings having a height in excess of 70 
feet (21 336 mm). Use of this exposure category 
shall be limited to those areas for which terrain rep- 
resentative of Exposure A prevails in the upwind 
direction for a distance of at least 0.5 mile (0. 8 km) 
or 10 times the height of the building or other struc- 
ture, whichever is greater. Possible channeling ef- 
fects or increased velocity pressures due, to the 
building or structure being located in the wake of 
adjacent buildings shall be taken into account. 

2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded 
areas, or other terrain with numerous closely 
spaced obstructions having the size of single-fam- 
ily dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be as- 
sumed unless the site meets the definition of 
another type exposure. 

3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstruc- 
tions, including surface undulations or other irreg- 
ularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 
m) from the building site in any quadrant. This ex- 
posure shall also apply to any building located 
within Exposure B type terrain where the building 
is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C 
type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more 
than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat 
open country, grasslands and shorelines in hurri- 
cane prone regions. 

4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to 
wind flowing over open water (excluding shore- 
lines in hurricane prone regions) for a distance of at 
least 1 mile (1.61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D 
include inland waterways, the Great Lakes and 
coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington 
and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to those 
buildings and other structures exposed to the wind 
coming from over the water. Exposure D extends 
inland from the shoreline a distance of 1,500 feet 
(457 m) or 10 times the height of the building or 
structure, whichever is greater. 



TABLER301.2.1.3 
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDS 3 



3-second gust 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


160 


170 


Fastest mile 


70 


75 


80 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


150 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 
a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 



38 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R301 .2.2 -R301 .2.2.4 



R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of 
this code shall apply to buildings constructed in Seismic De- 
sign Categories C, D„ and D 2 , as determined in accordance 
with this section. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings lo- 
cated; in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the 
seismic requirements of this code. 

The weight limitations of Section R301 .2.2.4 shall apply to 
buildings in all Seismic Design Categories regulated by this 
code. Buildings in Seismic Design Category; C shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the additional requirements of 
Sections!; R301. 2.2.3 and R301.2.2.4. Buildings in Seismic 
Design Categories D, and D 2 shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with the additional requirements of Sfections 
R301 .2.2.5 through R301 .2.2.9. Buildings in Seismic Design 
Category E shall be designed in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

R301.2.2.1 Determination of seismic design category. 

Buildings shall be assigned a Seismic Design Category 
in accordance with Figure 301.2(2). 

R301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic 
design category. The Seismic Design Categories and 
corresponding Short Period Design Spectral Re- 
sponse Accelerations, S DS shown in Figure R30 1.2(2) 
are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in Section 
1615.1.1 of the International Building Code. If soil 
conditions are other than Site Class D, the Short Pe- 
riod Design Spectral Response Acceleration, S DS , for 
a site can be determined according to Section 1615.1 
of the International Building Code. The value of S os 
determined according to Section 1615.1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code is permitted to be used to set 
thq Seismic Design Category according to Table 
R301 .2.2.1. 1 , and to interpolate between values in Ta- 
bles R602.10.1, R603.7, and other seismic design re- 
quirements of this code. 

TABLE R301. 2.2.1.1 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION 



CALCULATED Sos 


SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 


Sos <0,17g 


A> 


0.l7g<S DS < 0.33g 


B ;;: 


033g<S DS < 0.50g 


c 


0.50g;<5 D5 <0.83g 


D. 


0.83g<S M <1.17g 


D 2 


Ws<s Ds 


E , 



R301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seismic 
Design Category E. Buildings located; in Seismic 
Design Category E in accordance with Figure 
R301.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being in 
Seismic Design Category D 2 provided one of the fol- 
lowing is done: 



1. A more detailed evaluation of the Seismic De- 
sign Category is made in accordance with the 
provisions and maps of the International Build- 
ing Code. Buildings located in Seismic Design 
Category E per Table R301 .2.2. 1 . 1 , but located 
iii Seismic Design Category D per the Interna- 
tional Building Code, may be designed using 
the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements 
of this code. 

2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category 
E that conform to the following additional re- 
strictions are permitted to be constructed in ac- 
cordance with the provisions for Seismic 
Design Category D2 of this code: 

2.1. All exterior shear wall lines or braced 
wall panels are in one plane vertically 
from the foundation to the uppermost 
story. 

2.2. Floors shall not cantilever past the exte- 
rior walls. 

2.3. The building is within all of the require- 
ments of Section R301. 2.2.7 for being 
considered as regular. 

R301.2.2.2; Determination of seismic design category. 

It is permitted to determine the Seismic Design Category 
of a building in accordance with Figure R30 1 .2(2), based 
on a default Site Class D soil. If soil conditions are other 
than Site Class D, as defined in the International Build- 
ing Code, the Short Period Design Spectral Response 
Acceleration, S DS , for a site shall be determined accord- 
ing to the International Building Code. The value of S DS 
determined according to this section is permitted to be 
used to set the Seismic Design Category according to the 
legend of Figure R301.2(2) and to interpolate between 
values in Tables R602.10.1 and R603.7, and other seis- 
mic design requirements of this code. 

R301.2.2.3 Anchored stone and masonry veneer in 
Seismic Design Category C. Anchored stone and ma- 
sonry veneer in Seismic Design Category C shall be lim- 
ited to the first story above grade and shall not exceed 5 
inches (127 mm) in thickness. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Category C, an- 
chored stone and masonry veneer not exceeding 5 
inches (127 mm) in thickness shall be permitted to 
the height allowed in Section R703.7. In other than 
the topmost story, the length of wall bracing shall be 
1.5 times the length otherwise required in Table 
R602.10.1. 

R301.2.2.4 Weights of materials. Average dead loads 
shall not exceed 15 psf (0.72 kN/m 2 ) for roofs/ceiling as- 
semblies or 10 psf (0.48 kN/m 2 ) for floor assemblies, ex- 
cept as further limited by Section R301.2.2. Dead loads 
for walls above grade shall not exceed: 

1. Fifteen psf (0.72 kN/m 2 ) for exterior light-frame 
wood walls. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



39 



TABLE R301 .2.2.4 - R301 .2.2.7 



BUILDING PLANNING 



2. Fourteen psf (0.67 kN/m 2 ) for exterior light-frame 
cold-formed steel walls. 

3. Ten psf (0.48 kN/m 2 ) for interior light-frame wood 
walls. 

4. Five psf (0.24 kN/m 2 ) for interior light-frame cold- 
formed steel walls. 

5 . Eighty psf (3.83 kN/m 2 ) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) 
masonry walls. 

6. Eighty-five psf (4.07 kN/m 2 ) for 6-inch-thick (152 
mm) concrete walls. 

Exception; Roof/ceiling dead loads not ex- 
ceeding 25 psf (1.19 kN/m 2 ) shall be permitted 
in Seismic Design Category D 2 provided the 
wall bracing amounts in Chapter 6 are in- 
creased in accordance with Table R301.2.2.4. 

TABLE R301. 2.2.4 

WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY 

ROOF COVERING DEAD LOAD 3 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF/CEILING 
DEAD LOAD 


ROOF/CEILING 
DEAD LOAD 


15 psf or less 


25 psf 


Roof only 


1.0 


1.2 


Roof plus one story 


1.0 


1.1 



For SI:' 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

R30L2.2.5 Masonry construction in Seismic Design 
Category C. Masonry construction in Seismic Design 
Category C shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R606.ll. 2. 



R301.2.2.6 Height limitations in Seismic Design Cate- 
gories D 1 and D 2 . Wood framed buildings shall be lim- 
ited to three stories above grade or the limits given in 
Table R602.10.1. Cold-formed steel framed buildings 
shall be limited to two stories above grade in accordance 
with Sections R505.1.1, R603.1.1 and R804.1.1. Ma- 
sonry construction in Seismic Design Category D, shall 
be limited in accordance with Section R606.11.3. Ma- 
sonry construction in Seismic Design Category D 2 shall 
be limited in accordance with Section R606.11.4. Mez- 
zanines as defined in Section R202 shall not be consid- 
ered as stories. 

R301.2.2.7 Irregular buildings. Conventional light- 
frame construction shall not be used in irregular portions 
of structures in Seismic Design Categories C, D, and D 2 . 
Only such irregular portions of structures shall be de- 
signed in accordance with accepted engineering practice 
to the extent such irregular features affect the perfor- 
mance of the conventional framing system. A portion of 
a building shall be considered to be irregular when one or 
more of the following conditions occur: 

1 . When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall pan- 
els are not in one plane vertically from the founda- 



tion to the uppermost story in which they are re- 
quired. 

Exception: For wood light-frame construction, 
floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceed- 
ing four times the nominal depth of the wood 
floor joists are permitted to support braced wall 
panels that are out of plane with braced wall 
panels below provided that: 

1 . Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 
inches (5 1 mm by 254 mm) or larger and 
spaced not more than 1 6 inches (406 mm) 
on center. 

2. The ratio of the back span to the cantile- 
ver is at least 2 to 1 . 

3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels 
are doubled. 

4. For wood-frame construction, a continu- 
ous rim joist is connected to ends of all 
cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim 
joists shall be spliced using a galvanized 
metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.47 
mm) (16 gage) and l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) 
wide fastened with six 16d nails on each 
side of the splice or a block of the same 
size as the rim joist of sufficient length to 
fit securely between the joist space at 
which the splice occurs fastened with 
eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; 
and 

5 . Gravity loads carried at the end of cantile- 
vered joists are limited to uniform wall 
and roof load and the reactions from 
headers having span of 8 feet (2438 mm) 
or less. 

2. When a section of floor or roof is not laterally sup- 
ported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all 
edges. 

Exception: Portions of floors that do not sup- 
port shear Walls or braced wall panels above, or 
roofs, shall be permitted to extend no more than 
6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a shear wall or braced 
wall line. 

3 . When the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an 
opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal 
distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the 
edge of the opening. This provision is applicable to 
shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane 
and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as per- 
mitted by the exception to Item 1 above. 

Exception: For light-frame construction, a 
braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend 
more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening in 
the wall below provided that the opening in- 
cludes a header in accordance with Chapter 6 of 
this code. The entire length of the braced wall 



# 



40 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R301 .2.2.8 -R301 .2.3 



panel shall not occur over an opening in the wall 
below. 

4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the 
lesser of 12 feet (3657 mm) or 50 percent of the 
least floor or roof dimension. 

5 . When portions of a floor level are vertically offset. 

Exceptions: 

1. Framing supported directly by continu- 
ous foundations at the perimeter of the 
building. 

2. For wood light-frame construction, floors 
shall be permitted to be vertically offset 
when the floor framing is lapped or tied 
together as required by Section R502.6. 1 . 

6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not oc- 
cur in two perpendicular directions. 

7. When shear walls or braced wall lines are con- 
structed of dissimilar bracing systems on any one 
story level above grade. 

R301.2.2.8 Concrete construction in Seismic Design 
Categories D, and D 2 . Buildings with above-grade con- 
crete walls in Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 shall 
be designed in accordance accepted engineering prac- 
tice. 

R301 .2.2.9 Irregular buildings in Seismic Design Cat- 
egories C, D, and D 2 . In Seismic Design Categories C, 
D! and D 2 , Irregular buildings shall have an engineered 
lateral-force-resisting system designed in accordance 
with accepted engineering practice. A building shall be 
considered to be irregular when one or more of the fol- 
lowing conditions occur: 

1 . When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall pan- 
els are not in one plane vertically from the founda- 
tion to the uppermost story in which they are 
required. 

Exception: For light-frame construction, floors 
with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four 
times the nominal depth of the wood floor joists 
or 24 inches (610 mm) for cold-formed steel 
joists are permitted to support braced wall pan- 
els that are out of plane with braced wall panels 
below provided that: 

1 . Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 
inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and 
spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) 
on center; 

2. The ratio of the back span to the cantile- 
ver is at least 2 to 1 ; 

3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels 
are doubled; 

4. For wood-frame construction, a continu- 
ous rim joist is connected to ends of all 
cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim 
joists shall be spliced using a galvanized 



metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.47 
mm) (16 gage) and 1.5 inches (38 mm) 
wide fastened with six 16d nails on each 
side; and 

5. Gravity loads carried at the end of cantile- 
vered joists are limited to uniform wall 
and roof load and the reactions from 
headers having span of 8 feet (2438 mm) 
or less. 

2. When a section of floor or roof is not laterally sup- 
ported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all 
edges. 

Exception: Portions of floors which do not 
support shear walls or braced wall panels 
above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend no 
more than 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) beyond a shear wall 
or braced wall line. 

3 . When the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an 
opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal 
distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the 
edge of the opening. This provision is applicable to 
shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane 
and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as per- 
mitted by the exception to Item 1 above. 

Exception: For light-frame construction, a 
braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend 
more thanl foot (305 mm) over an opening in 
the wall below provided that the opening in- 
cludes a header in accordance with Chapter 6 of 
this code. The entire length of the braced wall 
panel shall not occur over an opening in the wall 
below. 

4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the 
lesser of 12 feet (3657 mm) or 50 percent of the 
least floor or roof dimension. 

5. When portions of a floor level are vertically offset. 

Exceptions: 

1. Framing supported directly by continu- 
ous foundations at the perimeter of the 
building. 

2. For light-frame construction, floors shall 
be permitted to be vertically offset when 
the floor framing is lapped or tied to- 
gether as required by Section R502.6.1 
for wood framing and Section R505.3.1 
for cold-formed steel framing. 

6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not oc- 
cur in two perpendicular directions. 

7. When shear walls or braced wall lines are con- 
structed of dissimilar bracing systems on any one- 
story level above grade. 

R301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood framed construction, cold- 
formed steel framed construction and masonry and concrete 
construction in regions with ground snow loads 70 psf (3.35 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



41 



R301.2.4-R302.1 



BUILDING PLANNING 



kN/m 2 ) or less, shall be in accordance with Chapters 5, 6 and 
8. Buildings in regions with ground snow loads greater than 
70 psf (3.35 kN/m 2 ) shall be designed in accordance with ac- 
cepted engineering practice. 

R301.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and struc- 
tures constructed in flood hazard areas (including A or V 
Zones) as established in Table R30 1.2(1) shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with Section R327. 

Exception: Buildings in floodways that are designated 
on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) or the Flood 
Boundary and Floodway Maps (FBFM) that are pro- 
vided by the National Flood Insurance Program shall not 
be approved under this section; the provisions of the In- 
ternational Building Code shall apply. 

R301.3 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and con- 
struction shall be used for determining dead load with consid- 
eration for the dead load of fixed service equipment. 

R301.4 Live load. The minimum uniformly distributed live 
load shall be as provided in Table R301.4. 

TABLE R301.4 

MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

(in pounds per square foot) 



TABLE R301.5 

MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE 

PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION 



USE 


LIVE LOAD 


Exterior balconies 


60 


Decks' 


40 


Fire escapes 


40 


Passenger vehicle garages 3 


50 a 


Attics without storage b ' e 


10 


Attics with storage b - e 


20 


Rooms other than sleeping rooms 


40 


Sleeping rooms 


30 


Stairs 


40 c 


Guardrails and handrails' 1 


200 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 

1 square inch = 645 mm 2 , 1 pound = 4.45 N. 

a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load 
applied over a 20-square-inch area. 

b. No storage with roof slope not over 3 units in 12 units. 

c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live 
load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square 
inches, whichever produces the greater stresses. 

d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the 
top. 

e. Attics constructed with wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with 
Section R802. 10.1. 

f . See Section R502.2. 1 for decks attached to exterior walls. 



R301.5 Roof load. Roof shall be designed for the live load in- 
dicated in Table R301.5 or the snow load indicated in Table 
R301.2(l), whichever is greater. 



ROOF SLOPE 


TRIBUTARY LOADED 

AREA IN SQUARE FEET 

FOR ANY STRUCTURAL 

MEMBER 


Oto 
200 


201 to 
600 


Over 
600 


Flat or rise less than 4 inches per foot 
(1:3) 


20 


16 


12 


Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to less than 
12 inches per foot (1:1) 


16 


14 


12 


Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) and greater 


12 


12 


12 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 

1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 inch per foot = 0.0833 mm/m. 

R301.6 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any structural 
member under the live load listed in Sections R301.4 and 
R301.5 shall not exceed the values in Table R301.6. 

TABLER301.6 
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


ALLOWABLE 
DEFLECTION 


Rafters having slopes greater than 3/12 with no 
finished ceiling attached to rafters 


L/180 


Interior walls and partitions 


H/180 


Floors and plastered ceilings 


L/360 


All other structural members 


L/240 


Exterior walls with plaster or stucco finish 


H/360 


Exterior walls — wind loads" with brittle finishes 


L/240 


Exterior walls — wind loads 3 with flexible finishes 


L/120 



NOTE: L = span length, H = span height. 

a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component 

and Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits 

herein. 



R301.7 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where di- 
mensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be 
nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual di- 
mensions. 



SECTION R302 
LOCATION ON LOT 

R302.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls with a fire separation 
distance less than 3 feet (914 mm) shall have not less than a 
one-hour fire-resistive rating with exposure from both sides. 
Projections shall not extend beyond the distance determined by 
the following two methods, whichever results in the lesser pro- 
jections: 

1 . A point one-third the distance to the property line from an 
assumed vertical plane located where protected openings 
are required. 



42 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R302.2 - R303.6 



2. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where openings 
are prohibited. 

Projections extending into the fire separation distance shall 
have not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction on the 
underside. The above provisions shall not apply to walls which 
are perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separa- 
tion distance. 

Exception: Tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar 
structures exempted from permits by Section R 105.2 are not 
required to provide wall protection based on location on the 
lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend 
over the lot line. 

R302.2 Openings. Openings shall not be permitted in the exte- 
rior wall of a dwelling or accessory building with a fire separa- 
tion distance less than 3 feet (914 mm). This distance shall be 
measured perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire 
separation distance. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings shall be permitted in walls that are perpen- 
dicular to the line used to determine the fire separation 
distance. 

2. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this 
code are permitted. 

R302.3 Penetrations. Penetrations located in the exterior wall 
of a dwelling with a fire separation distance less than 3 feet (914 
mm) shall be protected in accordance with Section R321.3. 

Exception: Penetrations shall be permitted in walls that are 
perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separa- 
tion distance. 



SECTION R303 
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING 

R303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall be pro- 
vided with aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of 
the floor area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be 
through windows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to 
the outdoor air. Such openings shall be provided with ready ac- 
cess or shall otherwise be readily controllable by the building 
occupants. The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall 
be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The glazed areas need not be openable where the open- 
ing is not required by Section R3 1 and an approved me- 
chanical ventilation system is provided capable of 
producing 0.35 air change per hour in the room or a 
whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed 
capable of supplying outdoor ventilation air of 15 cubic 
feet per minute (cfm) (7.08 L/s) per occupant computed 
on the basis of two occupants for the first bedroom and 
one occupant for each additional bedroom. 

2. The glazed areas need not be provided in rooms where 
Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is 
provided capable of producing an average illumina- 
tion of 6 footcandles (6.46 lux) over the ; area of the 



room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
floor level. 

R303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining 
light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be consid- 
ered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of 
the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and pro- 
vides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.32 m 2 ). 

R303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments 
and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glaz- 
ing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet (0.279 m 2 ), 
one-half of which must be openable. 

Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where ar- 
tificial light and a mechanical ventilation system are pro- 
vided. The minimum ventilation rates shall be 50 cfm (23.6 
L/s) for intermittent ventilation or 20 cfm (9.4 L/s) for con- 
tinuous ventilation. Ventilation air from the space shall be 
exhausted directly to the outside. 

R303.4 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior stair- 
ways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, in- 
cluding the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be 
provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate 
vicinity of each landing of the stairway. Exterior stairways 
shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the 
immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior 
stairways providing access to a basement from the outside 
grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source lo- 
cated in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the 
stairway. 

Exception: An artificial light source is not required at the 
top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source is 
located directly over each stairway section. 

R303.4.1 Light activation. The control for activation of the 
required interior stairway lighting shall be accessible at the 
top and bottom of each stair without traversing any step of 
the stair. The illumination of exterior stairs shall be con- 
trolled from inside the dwelling unit. 

Exception: Lights that are continuously illuminated or 
automatically activated. 

R303.5 Required glazed openings. Required glazed openings 
shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard or 
court located on the same lot as the building. 

R303.5.1 Roofed porches. Required glazed openings may 
face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard 
or court and the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent 
open and unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 
7 feet (2134 mm). 

R303.6 Required heating. When the winter design tempera- 
ture in Table R301.2(l) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling 
unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of main- 
taining a minimum room temperature of 68 °F (20°C) at a point 
3 feet (9 1 4 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) from exte- 
rior walls in all habitable rooms at the design temperature. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



43 



R304 - FIGURE R307.2 



BUILDING PLANNING 



SECTION R304 
MINIMUM ROOM AREAS 

11 Minimuin area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least 
one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 square feet 
(1 1 .2 m 2 ) of gross floor area. 

R304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a floor 
area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m 2 ). 

Exception: Every kitchen shall have not less than 50 square 
feet (4.64 m 2 ) of gross floor area. 

R304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be 
less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension. 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R3Q4.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with a 
sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a 
furred ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the 
finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as 
contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that 
room. 

SECTION R305 
CEILING HEIGHT 

R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable rooms, hallways, corri- 
dors, bathrooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and basements 
shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 
The required height shall be measured from the finish floor to 
the lowest projection from the ceiling. 

Exceptions: 

1. Beams and girders spaced not less than 4 feet (1219 
mm) on center may project not more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) below the required ceiling height. 



2. Ceilings in basements without habitable spaces may 
project to within 6 feet, 8 inches (2032 mm) of the fin- 
ish floor; and beams, girders, ducts or other obstruc- 
tions may project to within 6 feet, 4 inches (1931 mm) 
of the finished floor. 

3. Not more than 50 percent of the required floor area of 
a room or space is permitted to have a sloped ceiling 
less than 7 feet (2 1 34 mm) in height with no portion of 
the required floor area less than 5 feet (1524 mm) in 
height. 



SECTION R306 
SANITATION 

R306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwelling unit shall be provided 
with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower. 

R306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a 
kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a 
sink. 

R306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
nected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage dis- 
posal system. 

R306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall 
be connected to an approved water supply. Kitchen sinks, lava- 
tories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing ma- 
chine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold water. 



SECTION R307 
TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES 

R307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced as per Figure 
R307.2. 



-°\r 



(WALL ,WALL , 

— o| ha— 4 IN. / _»|Le_4iN. / 2 IN. — o»jha— / 



H 



21 IN. 
CLEARANCE 



%¥ 




24 IN. CLEARANCE IN 
FRONT OF OPENING 



15 IN. — |=1-N 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm 



u 



1 



IN. 
CLEARANCE 



WATER CLOSET. 
OR BIDET \ 

\ ,WALL 

16 IN. — MAhW 



/ 



21 IN. 
CLEARANCE 



o 



FIGURE R307.2 

MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R307.2 - R308.4 



R307.2 Bathtub and shower) spaces. Bathtub and shower 
floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads 
and in shower compartments shall be finished with a 
nonabsorbeht surface. Such wall surfaces shall; extend to a 
height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION R308 
GLAZING 

R308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section R308. 1.1, 
each pane of glazing installed in|hazardous locations as defined 
in Section R>308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer's or in- 
staller's label, designating the type and thickness of glass and the 
safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible 
in the final Installation. The label shall be acid etched, sand- 
blasted, ceramic-fired, embossed mark, or shajl be of a type 
which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed. 

Exceptions: 

1. For other than tempered glass, labels may be omitted 
provided the building official approves the use of a 
certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming 
compliance with this code. 

2. Tempered spandrel glass may be identified by the 
manufacturer with a removable paper label. . 

R308.1.1 Identification of multipane assemblies. 

Multipane assemblies having individual panes!! not exceed- 
ing 1 square foot (0.09 m 2 ) in exposed area shall have at least 
one pane in the assembly identified in accordance with Sec- 
tion R308 . 1 . All other panes in the assembly shall be labeled 
"16CFR1201." 

R308.2 Louvered windows or jalousies. Regular, float, wired 
or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be 
no thinner than nominal V 16 inch (4.76 mm) and nq longer than 
48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth. 

R308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited. Wired glass with wire 
exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies 
or louvered windows. 

R308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas includ- 
ing glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated 
as defined in Section R308.4 shall pass the test requirements of 
CPSC 1 6 CFR, Part 1 20 1 . Glazing shall comply with the CPSC 



16 CFR, Part 120l criteria for Category I or Category II as indi- 
cated in Table R308.3. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Polished wired glass for use in fire doors and other fire 
resistant locations shall comply with ANSI Z97.1. 

2. Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with 
Section R308.2. 

R308.4 Hazardous locations. The following shall be con- 
sidered specific! hazardous locations for the purposes of 
glazing: 

1. Glazing in side-hinged doors except jalousies. 

2. Glazing in fixed and sliding panels of sliding door as- 
semblies and panels in sliding and bifold closet door as- 
semblies. 

3. Glazing in storm doors. 

4. Glazing in all unframed swinging doors. 

5. Glazing in doors and enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, 
saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers. Glazing in 
any part of a building wall enclosing these compartments 
where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 
60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any 
standing or walking surface. 

6. Glazing, in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent 
to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 24- 
inch (610 mm) arc of the door in a closed position and 
whose bottom edge is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) 
above the floor or walking surface. 

7. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel, other 
than those locations described; in Items 5 and 6 above, 
that meets all of the following conditions: 

7.1. Exposed area of an individual pane greater than 9 
square feet (0.836 m 2 ). 

7.2. Bottom edge less than 18 inches (457 mm) above 
the floor. 

7.3. Top edge greater than 36 inches (914 mm) above 
the floor. 

7.4. One or more walking surfaces within 36 inches 
(914 mm) horizontally of the glazing. 



TABLE R308.3 
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING 



EXPOSED SURFACE 

AREA OF ONE SIDE 

OF ONE LITE 


GLAZING IN STORM 

OR COMBINATION 

DOORS (CATEGORY 

CLASS) 


GLAZING IN DOORS 
(CATEGORY CLASS) 


GLAZED PANELS 
REGULATED BY ITEM 
7 OF SECTION R308.4 
(CATEGORY CLASS) 


GLAZED PANELS 
REGULATED BY ITEM 
6 OF SECTION R308.4 
(CATEGORY CLASS) 


GLAZING IN DOORS 
AND ENCLOSURES 
REGULATED BY ITEM 
5 OF SECTION R30S.4 
(CATEGORY CLASS) 


SLIDING GLASS 
DOORS PATIO TYPE 
(CATEGORY CLASS) 


9 sq.ft. or less 


I 


I 


NR a 


I 


n 


II 


More than 9 sq.ft. 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 
a. NR means "No Requirement." 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



45 



R308.5-R309.1 



BUILDING PLANNING 



8 All glazing in railings regardless of an area or height 
above a walking surface. Included are structural balus- 
ter panels and nonstructural in-fill panels. 

9. Glazing in walls and fences enclosing indoor and out- 
door swimming pools, hot tubs and spas where the 
bottom edge of the pool or spa side is less than 60 
inches (1524 mm) above a walking surface and within 
60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally of the water's edge. 
This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in mul- 
tiple glazing. 

10. Glazing in walls enclosing stairway landings or within 
60 inches (1524 mm) of the top and bottom of stairways 
where the bottom edge of the glass is less than 60 inches 
(1524 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: The following products, materials and uses are 
exempt from the above hazardous locations: 

1. Openings in doors through which a 3-inch (76 mm) 
sphere is unable to pass. 

2. Decorative glass in Item 1, 6 or 7. 

3. Glazing in Section R308.4, Item 6, when there is an 
intervening wall or other permanent barrier between 
the door and the glazing. 

4. Glazing in Section R308.4, Item 6, where access 
through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet 
(914 mm) or less in depth. 

5. Glazing in Section R308.4, Item 7, when a protective 
bar is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 
36 inches ± 2 inches (914 mm by 51 mm) above the 
floor. The bar shall be capable of withstanding a hori- 
zontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (74.5 kg/m) 
without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 1 .5 
inches (38 mm) in height. 

6. Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other 
multiple glazed panels in Section R308.4, Item 7, 
when the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 
mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surface, or 
other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of hori- 
zontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior. 

7. Louvered windows and jalousies complying with the 
requirements of Section R308.2. 

8. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a 
surface that provides a continuous backing support. 

R308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply 
with Section 2404 of the International Building Code. 



i.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped 
glazing shall comply with the following sections. 

R3Q8.6.1 Definition. Sloped glazing means any installation 
of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material 
installed at a slope of more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from 
vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, solariums, sun 
spaces, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition. 

R308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of 
glazing may be used: 

1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 
mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 



square feet (1.5 m 2 ) or less in area located such that the 
highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet 
(3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessi- 
ble area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum 
interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm). 

2. Fully tempered glass. 

3. Heat-strengthened glass. 

4. Wired glass. 

5. Approved rigid plastics. 

$.6,3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or heat- 
strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the require- 
ments of Section R308.6. 7 shall be installed below the glass, 
except for fully tempered glass that meets either condition 
listed in Section R308.6.5. 

M308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the inboard 
pane is folly tempered, heat-strengthened, or wired glass, a re- 
taining screen meeting the requirements of Section R308.6.7 
shall be installed below the glass, except for either condition 
listed in Section R308.6.5. All other panes in the multiple glaz- 
ing may be of any type listed in Section R308.6.2.. 

R308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be re- 
quired when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or 
the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1. Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m 2 ) or less. Highest 
point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above 
a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal 
glass thickness not more than 3 / 16 inch (4.76 mm), and 
(for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes 
fully tempered, laminated or wired glass. 

2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49m 2 ). Glass 
sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and 
highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 
mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area. 

R308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is 
permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped ar- 
eas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at the 
ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade. 

R308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fasten- 
ings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of the 
glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing 
members, and have a mesh opening of no more than 1 inch 
by 1 inch (25.4 mm by 25.4 mm). 

R308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skylights installed 
in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (25-pefcent slope) shall be mounted on a 
curb extending at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of 
the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions. 



SECTION R309 
GARAGES AND CARPORTS 

R309.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private garage 
directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be per- 
mitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R309.1.1 -R311.1 



be equipped with solid wood doors not less than l 3 / g inch (35 
mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less 
than l 3 / 8 inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors. 

R309.1.1 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts 
penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling 
from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 
gage (0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and 
shall hav.e no openings into the garage. 

R309.2 Separation required. The garage shall be separated 
from the residence and its attic area by not less than '/ 2 -i nc h 
(12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the garage side. Where the 
separation is a floor-ceiling assembly, the structure supporting 
the separation shall also be protected by not less than V 2 -inch 
(12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent. 

R309.3 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of ap- 
proved noncombustible material. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other ve- 
hicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a 
drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.4 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. 
Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible 
material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be con- 
sidered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this 

section for garages. 

i, . 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground 
level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other ve- 
hicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a 
drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.5 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood 
hazard areas as established by Table 301.2(1), garage floors 
shall be: 

1. Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as deter- 
mined in Section R327; or 

2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they 
are at or above grade on all sides, are used solely for park- 
ing, building access, or storage, meet the requirements of 
Section R327, and are otherwise constructed in accor- 
dance with this code. 



SECTION R310 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS 

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Basements 
with habitable space and every sleeping room shall have at least 
one openable emergency escape and rescue window or exterior 
door opening for emergency escape and rescue. Where open- 
ings are proyided as a means of escape and rescue they shall 
have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above 
the floor. Where a door opening having a threshold below the 
adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency escape and 
rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead enclosure, the 
bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section R3 10.3. The net 
clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be ob- 
tained by the normal operation of the window or door opening 
from the inside. Escape and rescue window openings with a fin- 
ished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be 



provided with a window well in accordance with Section 
R310.2. 

R310.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear open- 
ing of 5.7 square feet (0.530 m 2 ). 

Exception: Grade floor openings shall have a minimum 
net clear opening of 5 square feet (0.465 m 2 ). 

R310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net 
clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm). 

R310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net 
clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm). 

R310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the 
room without the use of keys or tools. 

R310.2 Window wells. Window wells required for emergency 
escape and rescue shall have horizontal dimensions that allow 
the door or window of the emergency escape and rescue open- 
ing to be fully opened. The horizontal dimensions of the win- 
dow well shall provide a minimum net clear area of 9 square 
feet (0.84 m 2 ) with a minimum horizontal projection and width 
of 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section 
R3 10.2.1 shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 
inches (152 mm) into the required dimensions of the win- 
dow well. 

R310.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) below the adjacent 
ground level shall be equipped with a permanently affixed 
ladder or steps usable with the window in the fully open po- 
sition. Ladders or steps required by this section shall not be 
required to comply with Sections R314 and R315. Ladders 
or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 
mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall 
and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on 
center vertically for the full height of the window well. 

R310.3 Bulkhead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall pro- 
vide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclosure 
with the door panels in the fully open position shall provide the 
minimum net clear opening required by Section R310.1.1. 
Bulkhead enclosures shall also comply with Section R314.9. 

R310.4 Bars, grills, covers and screens. Bars, grills, covers, 
screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emer- 
gency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, or 
window wells that serve such openings, provided the minimum 
net clear opening size complies with Sections R310.1.1 to 
R310.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable 
from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater 
than that which is required for normal operation of the escape 
and rescue opening. 



SECTION R311 
EXITS 

R311.1 Exit door required. Not less than one exit door con- 
forming to this chapter shall be provided from each dwelling 
unit. The required exit door shall provide for direct access from 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



47 



R311.2-R314.4 



BUILDING PLANNING 



the habitable portions of the dwelling to the exterior without re- 
quiring travel through a garage. 

R311.2 Type of lock or latch. All egress doors shall be readily 
openable from the side from which egress is to be made without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

R311.3 Type and size. The required exit door shall be a side- 
hinged door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and 6 feet, 8 
inches (2032 mm) in height. Other exterior hinged or sliding 
doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum di- 
mensions. 

R311.4 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be 
not less than 3 feet (914 mm). 

R311.5 Exit facilities. Exterior exit balconies, stairs and simi- 
lar exit facilities shall be positively anchored to the primary 
structure to resist both vertical and lateral forces. Such attach- 
ment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails sub- 
ject to withdrawal. 



SECTION R31 2 
LANDINGS 

R312.1 General. Landings for stairways shall comply with 
this section. 

R312.1.1 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or 
landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. 

Exception: At the top of an interior flight of stairs, pro- 
vided a door does not swing over the stairs. 

R312.1.2 Landings at doors. There shall be a floor or land- 
ing on each side of each exterior door. 

Exception: At the exterior side of sliding doors. 

The floor or landing at a door shall not be more than 1.5 
inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the threshold. 

Exception: The landing at an exterior doorway shall not 
be more than 8 inches (197 mm) below the top of the 
threshold, provided that the door, other than an exterior 
storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing. 

R312.2 Size. The width of each landing shall not be less than 
the stairway or door served. Every landing shall have a mini- 
mum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direc- 
tion of travel. 



SECTION R31 3 
RAMPS 

M313.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum slope 
of one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent 
slope). 

R313.2 Handrails required. Handrails shall be provided on at 
least one side of all ramps exceeding a slope of one unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope). 

R313.3 Landing required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3-foot (914 
mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided: 

1. At the top and bottom of ramps. 

2. Where doors open onto ramps. 



3. Where ramps change direction. 



SECTION R31 4 
STAIRWAYS 

R314.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 
mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted handrail 
height and below the required headroom height. Handrails 
shall not project more than 4.5 inches (1 14 mm) on either side 
of the stairway and the minimum clear width of the stairway at 
and below the handrail height, including treads and landings, 
shall not be less than 3 1 .5 inches (787 mm) where a handrail is 
installed on one side and 27 inches (686 mm) where handrails 
are provided on both sides. 

Exception: The width of spiral stairways shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R314.5. 

R314.2 Treads and risers. The maximum riser height shall be 
7 3 / 4 inches (196 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall belO 
inches (254 mm). The riser height shall be measured vertically 
between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The tread depth 
shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of 
the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to 
the tread's leading edge. The walking surface of treads and 
landings of a stairway shall be sloped no steeper than one unit 
vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). The greatest 
riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the 
smallest by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). The greatest tread 
depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by 
more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). 

R314.2.1 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading 
edge of the tread shall be no greater than 9 / 16 inch (14.3 mm). 
A nosing not less than V 4 inch (19.1 mm) but not more 
thanl V 4 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with 
solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed 
the smallest nosing projection by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 
mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the level of 
floors and landings. Beveling of nosing shall not exceed V 2 
inch (12.7 mm). Risers shall be vertical or sloped from the 
underside of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle 
not more than 30 degrees from the vertical. Open risers are 
permitted, provided that the opening between treads does 
not permit the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) 
sphere. 

Exceptions: 

1. A nosing is not required where the tread depth is a 
minimum of 11 inches (279 mm). 

2 . The opening between adj acent treads is not limited 
on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches (762 mm) or 
less. 

R314.3 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts of the 
stairway shall not be less than 6 feet, 8 inches (2032 mm) mea- 
sured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nos- 
ing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform. 

R314.4 Winders. Winders are permitted, provided that the 
width of the tread at a point not more than 12 inches (305 mm) 
from the side where the treads are narrower is not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) and the minimum width of any tread is not less 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R31 4.5 -R31 7.1.1 



inches (254 mm) and the minimum width of any tread is not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm). The continuous handrail required by 
Section R3 15. 1 shall be located on the side where the tread is 
narrower. 

R314.5 Spiral stairs. Spiral stairways are permitted, provided 
the minimum width shall be 26 inches (660 mm) with each tread 
having a 7 1 / 2 >-inch (190 mm) minimum tread width at 12 inches 
(305 mm) from the narrow edge. All treads shall be identical, and 
the rise shall be no more than 9V 2 ;inches (241 mm). A minimum 
headroom of 6 feet, 6 inches (1982 mm) shall be provided. 

R314.6 Circular stairways. Circular stairways shall have a 
tread depth at a point not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from 
the side where the treads are narrower of not less than 1 1 inches 
(279 mm) and the minimum depth of any tread shall not be less 
than 6 inches (152 mm). Tread depth at any walking line, mea- 
sured a consistent distance from a side of the stairway, shall be 
uniform as specified in Section R314.2. 

R314.7 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with illumi- 
nation in accordance with Section R303.4. 

R314.8 Under stair protection. Enclosed accessible space un- 
der stairs shall have walls, under stair surface and any soffits 
protected on the enclosed side with V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board. 

R314.9 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stairways serving 
bulkhead enclosures not part of the required building egress 
and providing access from the outside grade level to the base- 
ment shall be exempt from the requirements of Sections R3 1 2, 
R314 and R315 when the maximum height from the basement 
finished floor level to grade adjacent to the stairway does not 
exceed 8 feet (2438 mm), and the grade level opening to the 
stairway is covered by a bulkhead enclosure with hinged doors 
or other approved means. 



SECTION R315 
HANDRAILS 

R315.1 Handrails. Handrails having minimum and maximum 
heights of 34 inches and 38 inches (864 mm and 965 mm), re- 
spectively, measured vertically from the nosing of the treads, 
shall be provided on at least one side of stairways. All required 
handrails shall be continuous the full length of the stairs with 
two or more risers from a point directly above the tbp riser of a 
flight to a point directly above the lowest riser of the flight. 
Ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or 
safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space 
of not less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) between the wall and the 
handrail. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a 
newel post at a turn. 

2. The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be 
allowed over the lowest tread. 

R315.2 Handrail grip size. The handgrip portion of handrails 
shall have a Circular cross section of 1 V 4 inches (32 mm) mini- 
mum to 2 5 / g inches (67 mm) maximum. Other handrail shapes 
that provide an equivalent grasping surface are permissible. 
Edges shall have a minimum radius of V 8 inch (3.2 mm). 



SECTION R316 
GUARDS 

R316.1 Guards required. Porches, balconies or raised floor 
surfaces located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor 
or grade below shall have guards not less than 36 inches (914 
mm) in height. Open sides of stairs with a total rise of more than 
30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall have 
guards not less than 34 inches (864 mm) in height measured 
vertically from the nosing of the treads. 

R316.2 Guard opening limitations. Required guards on open 
sides of stairways, raised floor areas, balconies and porches 
shall have intermediate rails or ornamental closures that do not 
allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. Re- 
quired guards shall not be constructed with horizontal rails or 
other ornamental pattern that results in a ladder effect. 

Exception: The triangular openings formed by the riser, 
tread and bottom rail of a guard at the open side of a stairway 
are permitted to be of such a size that a sphere 6 inches (152 
mm) cannot pass through. 



SECTION R317 
SMOKE ALARMS 

R317.1 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. Single- 
and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . In each sleeping room. 

2. Outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate 
vicinity of the bedrooms. 

3. On each additional story of the dwelling, including base- 
ments and cellars but not including crawl spaces and un- 
inhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with 
split levels and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper 
level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided 
that the lower level is less than one full story below the 
upper level. 

When more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed 
within an individual dwelling unit the alarm devices shall be in- 
terconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm 
will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm 
shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise 
levels with all intervening doors closed. 

All smoke alarms shall be listed and installed in accordance 
with the provisions of this code and the household fire warning 
equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

R317.1.1 Alterations, repairs and additions. When inte- 
rior alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit oc- 
cur, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or 
created in existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit 
shall be provided with smoke alarms located as required for 
new dwellings; the smoke alarms shall be interconnected 
and hard wired. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required 
to be interconnected and hard wired where the altera- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



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R317.2-R319.1 



BUILDING PLANNING 



tions or repairs do not result in the removal of interior 
wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless 
there is an attic, crawl space, or basement available 
which could provide access for hard wiring and inter- 
connection without the removal of interior finishes. 

2. Repairs to the exterior surfaces of dwellings are ex- 
empt from the requirements of this section. 

R317.2 Power source. In new construction, the required 
smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the build- 
ing wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial 
source, and when primary power is interrupted, shall receive 
power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a 
disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent 
protection. Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery oper- 
ated when installed in buildings without commercial power or 
in buildings that undergo alterations, repairs or additions regu- 
lated by Section R3 17. 1 . 1 . 



SECTION R318 
FOAM PLASTIC 

R318.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern 
the requirements and uses of foam plastic insulation. 

R318.1.1 Surface burning characteristics. Except where 
otherwise noted in Section R3 1 8.2, all foam plastic or foam 
plastic cores in manufactured assemblies used in building 
construction shall have a flame-spread rating of not more 
than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed rating of not more 
than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness intended 
for use in accordance with ASTM E 84. 



3.1.2 Thermal barrier. Foam plastic, except where 
otherwise noted, shall be separated from the interior of a 
building by minimum V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or 
an approved finish material equivalent to a thermal barrier to 
limit the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface 
to no more than 250°F ( 1 2 1 °C) after 1 5 minutes of fire expo- 
sure to the ASTM E 1 19 standard time temperature curve. 
The gypsum board shall be installed using a mechanical fas- 
tening system in accordance with Section R702.3.5. Reli- 
ance on adhesives to ensure that the gypsum board will 
remain in place when exposed to fire shall be prohibited. 

R318.2 Specific requirements. The following requirements 
shall apply to all uses of foam plastic unless specifically ap- 
proved in accordance with Section R3 1 8.3 or by other sections 
of the code. 

R318.2.1 Masonry or concrete construction. Foam plas- 
tics may be used without the thermal barrier described in 
Section R3 1 8. 1 when the foam plastic is protected by a min- 
imum 1-inch (25.4 mm) thickness of masonry or concrete. 

R318.2.2 Roofing. Foam plastic may be used in a roof-cov- 
ering assembly without the thermal barrier when the foam is 
separated from the interior of the building by wood struc- 
tural panel sheathing in accordance with Section R803, not 
less than 1 V 32 inch (11.9 mm) in thickness bonded with exte- 
rior glue and identified as Exposure 1, with edge supported 
by blocking or tongue-and-groove joints. The smoke-devel- 
oped rating shall not be limited. 



R318.2.3 Attics and crawlspaces. Within attics and 
crawlspaces where entry is made only for service of utilities, 
foam plastics shall be protected against ignition by l'/ 2 - 
inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation, '^-inch-thick 
(6.4 mm) wood structural panels, 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) 
particleboard, V 4 -inch (6.4 mm) hardboard, 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 
mm) gypsum board, or corrosion-resistant steel having a 
base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm). 

R318.2.4 Foam-filled doors. Foam-filled doors are exempt 
from the requirements of Section R3 1 8. 1 . 

R318.2.5 Siding backer board. Foam plastic board of not 
more than V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) thickness may be used as sid- 
ing backer board when separated from interior spaces by not 
less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation or V 2 - 
inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or installed over existing 
exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding, providing 
the plastic board does not have a potential heat of more than 
2,000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kj/m 2 ) when tested in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 259. 

R318.2.6 Interior trim. Foam plastic trim defined as pic- 
ture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, 
door trim and window trim may be installed, provided: 

1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot 
(3.14 kg/m 3 ). 

2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) and the maximum width is 4 inches (102 mm). 

3. The trim constitutes no more than 10 percent of the 
area of any wall or ceiling. 

4. The flame-spread rating does not exceed 75 when 
tested per ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed rating is 
not limited. 

R318.3 Specific approval. Plastic foam not meeting the re- 
quirements of Sections R3 1 8. 1 and R3 1 8.2 may be specifically 
approved on the basis of one of the following approved tests: 
ASTM E 84, FM 4880, UL 1040, ASTME 152, orUL 1715, or 
fire tests related to actual end-use configurations. The specific 
approval may be based on the end use, quantity, location and 
similar considerations where such tests would not be applica- 
ble or practical. 

R318.4 Interior finish. Foam plastics that are used as interior 
finish shall also meet the flame-spread requirements for inte- 
rior finish. 

R318.5 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas of 
"very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R324.4. 



SECTION R319 
FLAME SPREAD AND SMOKE DENS 

R319.1 Wall and ceiling. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a 
flame-spread classification of not greater than 200. 

Exception: Flame-spread requirements for finishes shall 
not apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, base- 
boards and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; 
or to materials that are less than V 28 inch (0.907 mm) in 
thickness cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if 



50 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R319.2-R321.2.3 



these materials have a flame-spread characteristic no greater 
than paper of this thickness cemented to a noncombustible 
backing. 

R319.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling finishes 
shall have a smoke-developed index of not greater than 450. 

R319.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM 
E84. 



SECTION R320 
INSULATION 

R320.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including facings, 
such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor- 
ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling! assemblies, wall assemblies, 
crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame-spread index not to 
exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed index not 
to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

Exceptions: 

1. When such materials are installed in concealed 
spaces, the flame-spread and smoke-developed limi- 
tations do not apply to the facings, provided that the 
facing is installed in substantial contact with the unex- 
posed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish. 

2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray ap- 
plied, complying with the requirements of Section 
R320.3, shall only be required to meet the smoke-de- 
veloped index of not more than 450. 

R320.2 Loqse-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a 
screen or artificial supports shall have a flame-spread rating not 
to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed factor 
not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC- 
S 102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be re- 
quired to comply with this test method provided that such 
insulation complies with the requirements of Section 
R320.3. 

R320.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill in- 
sulation shall comply with CPSC 1 6 CFR, Parts 1 209 and 1404 . 
Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly la- 
beled in accordance with CPSC 16CFR, Parts 1209=and 1404. 

R320.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insulation ma- 
terials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux 
not less than 0. 12 watt per square centimeter. 

R320.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in 
accordance with ASTM E 970. 



SECTION R321 
DWELLING UNIT SEPARATION 

R321.1 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family 
dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or 
floor assemblies of not less than 1-hour fire-resistive rating 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19. Firerresistance- 
rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be 



tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend 
to the underside of the roof sheathing. 

Exception: A fire resistance rating of V 2 hour shall be per- 
mitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 

R321.1.1 Supporting construction. When floor assem- 
blies are required to be fire-resistance-rated by Section 
R321.1, the supporting construction of such assemblies 
shall have an equal or greater fire-resistive rating. 

R321.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall be considered a 
separate building and shall be separated by fire-resistance- 
rated wall assemblies meeting the requirements of Section 
R302 for exterior walls. 

Exception: A common 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall is 
permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain 
plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the 
cavity of the common wall. Electrical installations shall be 
installed in accordance with Chapters 33 through 42. Pene- 
trations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with 
Section R321.3. 

R321.2.1 Continuity. The common wall for townhouses 
shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of 
the roof sheathing, deck or slab and shall extend the full 
length of the common wall. 

R321.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance 
with Section R321.2.3 shall be provided for townhouses as 
an extension of exterior walls or common walls in accor- 
dance with the following: 

1. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces. 

2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at different elevations and the higher roof is not more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the 
parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof surface. 

Exception: A parapet is not required in the two 
cases above when the roof is covered with a mini- 
mum class C roof covering, and the roof decking or 
sheathing is of noncombustible materials or ap- 
proved fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance 
of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or 
walls, or one layer of 5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof 
decking or sheathing for a distance of 4 feet (1219 
mm) on each side of the wall or walls. 

3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adja- 
cent to the wall or walls are at different elevations 
and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof. The common wall construction 
from the lower roof to the underside of the higher 
roof deck shall not have less than a 1-hour fire-resis- 
tive rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from 
both sides. 

R321.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, the 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



51 



R321.2.4-R323.1 



BUILDING PLANNING 



parapet shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 
18 inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and coping 
materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes 
greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7- 
percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as 
any portion of the roof within a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), 
but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 
mm). 

R321.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual town- 
house shall be structurally independent. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Foundations supporting exterior walls or common 
walls. 

2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit 
may fasten to the common wall framing. 

3. Nonstructural wall coverings. 

4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over com- 
mon wall. 

5. Townhouses separated by a common 2-hour fire- 
resistance-rated wall as provided in Section 
R321.2. 

R321.3 Rated penetrations. Penetrations of wall or floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies required to be fire-resistance-rated in accor- 
dance with Section R321.1 or R321.2 shall be protected in 
accordance with this section. 

R321.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply 
with Section R321.3.1.1 or R321.3. 1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes or steel conduits, the annular space 
shall be permitted to be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies 
where the penetrating item is a maximum 6 inches 
(152 mm) nominal diameter and the opening is a 
maximum 144 square inches (92 900 mm 2 ), con- 
crete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where in- 
stalled to the full thickness of the wall or floor 
assembly or the thickness required to maintain the 
fire-resistance rating. 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to 
ASTM E 1 19 time temperature fire conditions un- 
der a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the pene- 
tration for the time period equivalent to the fire- 
resistance rating of the construction penetrated. 

R32L3.1.1 Fire-resistance-ratedl assembly. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in the approved fire- 
resistance-rated assembly. 

R321.3.1.2 Penetration firestop system. Penetrations 
shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop 
system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 
814, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 



0.0 1 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F rating of not 
less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or 
floor/ceiling assembly penetrated. 

R321.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetra- 
tions shall comply with Section R321.3.1. Where walls are 
required to have a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating, 
recessed fixtures shall be so installed such that the required 
fire resistance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m 2 ) in area provided the total area 
of such openings does not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.0645 m 2 ) for any 100 square feet (9.29 
m 2 ) of wall area. Outlet boxes on opposite sides of 
the wall shall be separated as follows: 

1 . 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity when the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill or min- 
eral fiber insulation; 

1.3. By molded fire blocking in accordance 
with Section R602.8; or 

1 .4. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated nonmetallic elec- 
trical outlet boxes shall be installed in accordance 
with their listings. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal es- 
cutcheon plate. 



SECTION R322 
MOISTURE VAPOR RETARDERS 

R322.1 Moisture control. In all framed walls, floors and 
roof/ceilings comprising elements of the building thermal en- 
velope, a vapor retarder shall be installed on the warm-in-win- 
ter side of the insulation. 

Exceptions: 

1. In construction where moisture or freezing will not 
damage the materials. 

2. Where the framed cavity or space is ventilated to al- 
low moisture to escape. 

3. In counties identified with footnote a in Table 
N1101.2. 



SECTION R323 
PROTECTION AGAINST DECAY 

R323.1 Location required. In areas subject to decay damage 
as established by Table R301.2(l), the following locations 
shall require the use of an approved species and grade of lum- 
ber, pressure preservatively treated in accordance with AWPA 
CI, C2, C3, C4, C9, C15, C18, C22, C23, C24,C28, PI, P2 and 



• 



52 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R323.1.1-R324.3 



P3, or decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, black locust, or 
cedars. 

1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor 
when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders 
when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to exposed ground 
in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the 
periphery of the building foundation. 

2. All sills or plates that rest on concrete or masonry exte- 
rior walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from ex- 
posed ground. 

3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in 
direct contact with the ground unless separated from 
such slab by an impervious moisture barrier. 

4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior: masonry or 
concrete walls having clearances of less than 0.5 inch 
(12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends. 

5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior 
of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 
mm) from the ground. 

6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-perme- 
able floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such 
as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such 
floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier. 

7. Wood)furring strips or other wood framing members at- 
tached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls 
or concrete walls below grade except where an approved 
vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring 
strips or framing members. 

R323.1.1 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the 
ground and that supports permanent structures intended for 
human occupancy shall be approved pressure preservatively 
treated wood suitable for ground contact use, except un- 
treated wood may be used where entirely below groundwater 
level or continuously submerged in fresh water.. 

R323.1.2 Geographical areas. In geographical areas where 
experience has demonstrated a specific need, approved nat- 
urally durable or pressure preservatively treated wood shall 
be used for those portions of wood members that form the 
structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or simi- 
lar permanent building appurtenances when such members 
are exposed to the weather without adequate protection 
from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering that would 
prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at 
joints between members. Depending on local experience, 
such members may include: 

1. Horizontal members such as girders, joists and deck- 
ing. 

2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns. 

3. Both horizontal and vertical members. 

R323.1.3 Posts, poles and columns. Posts, poles and col- 
umns supporting permanent structures that are embedded in 
concrete in direct contact with the ground or embedded in 
concrete exposed to the weather shall be approved pressure 
preservatively treated wood suitable for ground contact use. 



R323.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be approved 
wood of natural decay resistance or approved pressure 
preservatively treated wood. 

Exception: Posts or columns supported by piers or metal 
pedestals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the floor or 
finish grade and are separated therefrom by an approved 
impervious moisture barrier. 

R323.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be 
pressure preservatively treated in accordance with Section 
R323.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection 
agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and in- 
spection over the quality of the product and that has been ap- 
proved by an accreditation body that complies with the 
requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee 
treated wood program. 

R323.2.1 Required information. The required quality 
mark on each piece of pressure preservatively treated lum- 
ber or plywood shall contain the following information: 

1 . Identification of the treating plant. 

2. Type of preservative. 

3. The minimum preservative retention. 

4. End use for which the product was treated. 

5. Standard to which the product was treated. 

6. Identity of the approved inspection agency. 

7. The designation "Dry," if applicable. 

Exception: Quality marks on lumber less than 1 inch 
(25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less than nomi- 
nal 1 inch by 5 inches (25.4 mm by 127 mm) or 2 inches 
by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) or lumber 36 inches 
(914 mm) or less in length shall be applied by stamping 
the faces of exterior pieces or by end labeling not less 
than 25 percent of the pieces of a bundled unit. 

R323.3 Fasteners. Fasteners for pressure preservative and 
fire-retardant-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped galvanized 
steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. 

Exception: One-half-inch (12.7 mm) diameter or greater 
steel bolts. 



SECTION R324 
PROTECTION AGAINST TERMITES 

R324.1 Subterranean termite control. In areas favorable to 
termite damage as established by Table R301 .2(1), methods of 
protection shall be by chemical soil treatment, pressure 
preservatively treated wood in accordance with the AWPA 
standards listed in Section R323.1, naturally termite-resistant 
wood or physical barriers (such as metal or plastic termite 
shields), or any combination of these methods. 

R324.2 Chemical soil treatment. The concentration, rate of 
application and treatment method of the termiticide shall be 
consistent with and never less than the termiticide label. 

R324.3 Pressure preservatively treated and naturally resis- 
tant wood. Heartwood of redwood and eastern red cedar shall 
be considered termite resistant. Pressure preservatively treated 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



53 



R324.3.1-R327.1.8 



BUILDING PLANNING 



wood and naturally termite-resistant wood shall not be used as 
a physical barrier unless a barrier can be inspected for any ter- 
mite shelter tubes around the inside and outside edges and 
joints of a barrier. 

K324.3.1 Field treatment. Field cut ends, notches and 
drilled holes of pressure preservatively treated wood shall 
be retreated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R324.4 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the probabil- 
ity of termite infestation is "very heavy" as indicated in Figure 
R30 1.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyiso- 
cyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the 
exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or 
slab foundations located below grade. The clearance between 
foam plastics installed above grade and exposed earth shall be 
at least 6 inches (152 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings where the structural members of walls, floors, 
ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible mate- 
rials or pressure preservatively treated wood. 

2. When in addition to the requirements of R324.1, an 
approved method of protecting the foam plastic and 
structure from subterranean termite damage is pro- 
vided. 

3. On the interior side of basement walls. 



SECTION R325 
SITE ADDRESS 

K325.1 Premises identification. Approved numbers or ad- 
dresses shall be provided for all new buildings in such a posi- 
tion as to be plainly visible and legible from the street or road 
fronting the property. 



SECTION R326 
ACCESSIBILITY 

K326.1 Scope. Accessible dwelling units shall comply with 
Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code as applicable. 



SECTION R327 
FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

R327.1 General. All buildings and structures erected in areas 
prone to flooding as identified in Table R301.2(l) and classi- 
fied as either flood hazard areas (including A Zones) or coastal 
high hazard areas (including V-Zones) shall be constructed and 
elevated as required by the provisions contained in this section. 

Exception: All buildings and structures erected in identi- 
fied floodways as established in Table R301.2(l) shall be 
designed and constructed as stipulated in the International 
Building Code. 

R327.1.1 Structural systems. All structural systems of all 
buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and 
anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral 
movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding 
equal to the design flood elevation. 



R327.1.2 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and fl B 
structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be con- ^"^ 
structed by methods and practices that minimize flood dam- 
age. 

R327.1.3 Establishing the design flood elevation. The de- 
sign flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to 
flooding, and shall describe, at a minimum, the base flood 
elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding (includ- 
ing wave height) which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or 
greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given 
year. 

R327J.4 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor of 
the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding 
any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable 
solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage 
provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the 
building or structure in violation of this section. 

R327.1.S Protection of mechanical and electrical sys- 
tems. New and replacement electrical equipment, heating, 
ventilating, air conditioning, plumbing connections, and 
other service equipment shall be located at or above the de- 
sign flood elevation. Electrical wiring and outlets, switches, 
junction boxes and panels shall be elevated to or above the 
design flood elevation unless they conform to the provisions 
of the electrical part of this code for location of such items in 
wet locations. Duct systems shall not be installed below the 
design flood elevation. 

R327.1.6 Protection of water supply and sanitary sewage 
systems. New and replacement water supply systems shall 
be designed to minimize infiltration of flood waters into the 
systems in accordance with the plumbing provisions of this 
code. New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall 
be designed to minimize infiltration of floodwaters into sys- 
tems and discharges from systems into floodwaters in accor- 
dance with the plumbing provisions of this code and 
Chapter 3 of the International Private Sewage Disposal 
Code. 

R327.1.7 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials 
used below the design flood elevation shall comply with the 
following: 

1 . All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pressure 
preservatively treated in accordance with AWPA CI, 
C2, C3, C4, C9, C15, C18, C22, C23, C24, C28, PI, 
P2 and P3 or decay-resistant heartwood or redwood, 
black locust, or cedars. 

2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring 
and interior and exterior walls shall conform to the 
provisions of FEMA/FIA-TB-2. 

R327.1.8 Manufactured housing. New or replacement 
manufactured housing shall be elevated in accordance with 
Section R327.2 and the anchor and tie-down requirements 
of Sections AE604 and AE605 of Appendix E shall apply. 
The foundation and anchorage of manufactured housing to 
be located in identified flood ways as established in Table 
R301.2(l) shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with the applicable provisions in the International Building 
Code. 



54 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R327.1.9-R327.3.2 



R327.1.9 As-built elevation certifications. A licensed land 
surveyor or registered design professional shall certify that 
the building or structure is in compliance with the elevation 
requirements of Section R327.2 or R327.3. 

M327.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). All areas 
that have been determined to be prone to flooding but not sub- 
ject to high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood 
hazard areas. All buildings and structures erected in flood haz- 
ard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
Sections R327.2.1 through R327.2.3. 

R327.2.1 Elevation requirements. 

1. Buildings and structures shall have the lowest floors 
elevated to or above the design flood elevation. 

2. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings 
and structures shall have the lowest floor (including 
basement) elevated at least as high above the highest 
adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet 
(mm) on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (5 1 mm) if a depth 
number is not specified. 

3 . Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall 
be elevated to or above the design flood elevation. 

Exception: Enclosed areas below the design flood 
elevation, including basements whose floors are 
not below grade on all sides, shall meet the require- 
ments of Section R327.2.2. 

IR327 .2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. En- 
closed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the de- 
sign flood elevation shall: 

1 . Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access 
or storage. 

2. Be provided with flood openings which shall meet the 
following criteria: 

2.1. There shall be a minimum of two openings on 
different sides of each enclosed area; if a 
building has more than one enclosed area be- 
low the design flood elevation, each area shall 
have openings on exterior walls. 

2.2. The total net area of all openings shall be at 
least 1 square inch for each square foot (275 
mm for each square meter) of enclosed area. 

2.3. The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot 
(305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground 
level. 

2.4. Openings shall be at least 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. 

2.5. Any louvers, screens or other opening covers 
shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters 
into and out of the enclosed area. 

2.6. Openings installed in doors and windows, that 
meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are ac- 
ceptable; however, doors and windows with- 
out installed openings do not meet the 
requirements of this section. 



R327.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Founda- 
tion walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood 
hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4. 

Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Section 
404: 

1. The unsupported height of 6 inches (152 mm) 
plain masonry walls shall be no greater than 3 feet 
(914 mm). 

2. The unsupported height of 8 inches (203 mm) 
plain masonry walls shall be no greater than 4 feet 
(1219 mm). 

3 . The unsupported height of 8 inches (203 mm) rein- 
forced masonry walls shall be no greater than 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

For the purpose of this exception, unsupported height 
is the distance from the finished grade of the under-floor 
space and the top of the wall. 

R327.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones). 
Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave heights 
in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high velocity wave 
action or wave-induced erosion shall be designated as coastal 
high-hazard areas. All buildings and structures erected in 
coastal high hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with Sections R327.3.1 through R327.3.5. 

R327.3.1 Elevation requirements. 

1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal 
high-hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest 
portion of all structural members supporting the low- 
est floor, with the exception of mat or raft founda- 
tions, piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and 
bracing, is located at or above the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are 
prohibited. 

3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited. 

4. The placement of fill beneath buildings and structures 
is prohibited. 

Exception: Walls and partitions enclosing areas below 
the design flood elevation shall meet the requirements of 
Sections R327.3.3 and R327.3.4. 

R327.3.2 Foundations. All buildings and structures 
erected in coastal high hazard areas shall be supported on 
pilings or columns and shall be adequately anchored to such 
pilings or columns. Piling shall have adequate soil penetra- 
tions to resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral 
and uplift). Water loading values used shall be those associ- 
ated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be 
those required by this code. Pile embedment shall include 
consideration of decreased resistance capacity caused by 
scour of soil strata surrounding the piling. Pile systems de- 
sign and installation shall be certified in accordance with 
Section R327.3.5. Mat, raft or other foundations that sup- 
port columns shall not be permitted where soil investiga- 
tions that are required in accordance with Section R401.4 
indicate that soil material under the mat, raft or other foun- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



55 



R327.3.3 - R327.3.5 



BUILDING PLANNING 



dation is subject to scour or erosion from wave-velocity 
flow conditions. 

R327.3.3 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and 
partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided 
that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural 
support of the building or structure and: 

1 . Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice. 

2. Designed to break away or collapse without causing 
collapse, displacement or other structural damage to 
the elevated portion of the building or supporting 
foundation system. Such walls, framing and connec- 
tions shall have a design safe loading resistance of not 
less thanlO pounds per square foot (0.48 kN/m 2 ) and 
no more than 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kN/m 2 ); 
or 

3. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 
pounds per square foot (0.96 kN/m 2 ), a registered de- 
sign professional shall certify the following: 

3.1. Collapse of walls and partitions below the de- 
sign flood elevation shall result from a water 
load less than that which would occur during 
the design flood. 

3.2. The elevated portion of the building and sup- 
porting foundation system shall not be subject 
to collapse, displacement, or other structural 
damage due to the effects of wind and flood 
loads acting simultaneously on all building 
components (structural and nonstructural). 
Water loading values used shall be those asso- 
ciated with the design flood. Wind loading 
values used shall be those required by this 
code. 

R327.3.4 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation. 
Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be 
used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or stor- 
age. 

R327.3.5 Design certificate. A registered design profes- 
sional shall certify that the design and methods of construc- 
tion to be used meet the applicable criteria of this section. 



56 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FOUNDATIONS 



SECTION R401 
GENERAL 

R401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control 
the design and construction of the foundation and foundation 
spaces for all buildings. Wood foundations shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with AF&PA Report No. 7. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The provisions of this chapter shall be permitted to be 
used for wood foundations only in the following situa- 
tions: 

1.1. In buildings that have no more than two floors 
and a roof. 

1.2. When no dimension in a basement room or 
crawl space area exceeds the smaller of either 
the building width or length. 

2. In addition to the provisions of this chapter, the design 
and construction of foundations in areas prone to 
flooding as established by Table R301 .2( 1) shall meet 
the provisions of Section R327. 

Wood foundations in Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

R401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be capa- 
ble of accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and 
of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting soil. Fill 
soils that support footings and foundations shall be designed, 
installed and tested in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood foundations shall 
comply with Section R403. 

R401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a storm 
sewer conveyance or other approved point of collection so as to 
not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded so as to drain surface 
water away from foundation walls. The grade away from foun- 
dation walls shall fall a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) within 
the first 10 feet (3048 mm). 

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical 
barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet 
(3048 mm), drains or swales shall be provided to ensure 
drainage away from the structure. 

R401.4 Soil tests. In areas likely to have expansive, compress- 
ible, shifting or other unknown soil characteristics, the building 
official shall determine whether to require a soil test to deter- 
mine the soil's characteristics at a particular location. This test 
shall be made by an approved agency using an approved 
method. 

R401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete 
geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table 
R40 1 .4. l! shall be assumed. 



TABLE R401. 4.1 

PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF 

FOUNDATION MATERIALS 3 



CLASS OF MATERIAL 


LOAD-BEARING 

PRESSURE 

(pounds per square foot) 


Crystalline bedrock 


12,000 


Sedimentary and foliated rock 


4,000 


Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and GP) 


3,000 


Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel 
and clayey gravel (SW, SP, SM, SC, 
GM and GC) 


2,000 


Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt 
and sandy silt (CI, ML, MH and CH) 


1,500" 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. When soil tests are required by Section R401.4, the allowable bearing 
capacities of the soil shall be part of the recommendations. 

b. Where the building official determines that in-place soils with an allowable 
bearing capacity of less than 1 ,500 psf are likely to be present at the site, the 
allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils investigation. 

R401.5 Compressible or shifting soil. When top or subsoils 
are compressible or shifting, such soils shall be removed to a 
depth and width sufficient to assure stable moisture content in 
each active zone and shall not be used as fill or stabilized within 
each active zone by chemical, dewatering, or presaturation. 



SECTION R402 
MATERIALS 

R402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of this 
code. 

R402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach 
plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement or crawl- 
space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construction, 
shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners used 
above grade to attach plywood and all lumber-to-lumber 
fasteners except those used in knee wall construction shall 
be of Type 304 or 3 16 stainless steel, silicon bronze, copper, 
hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails, or hot-tum- 
bled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. Electrogalvanized 
steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) steel staples shall 
not be permitted. 

R402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall 
be treated in accordance with AWPA C22, and shall bear the 
label of an accredited agency showing 0.60 retention. 
Where lumber and/or plywood is cut or drilled after treat- 
ment, the treated surface shall be field treated with Copper 
Napfhenate, the concentration of which shall contain a min- 
imum of 2 percent copper metal, by repeated brushing, dip- 
ping or soaking until the wood absorbs no more 
preservative. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



57 



R402.2-R403.1.3.2 



FOUNDATIONS 



R402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified 
compressive strength as shown in Table R402.2. Concrete sub- 
ject to weathering as indicated in Table R301.2(l) shall be air 
entrained as specified in Table R402.2. The maximum weight 
of fly ash, other pozzolans, silica fume, or slag that is included 
in concrete mixtures for garage floor slabs and for exterior 
porches, carport slabs, and steps that will be exposed to deicing 
chemicals shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight 
of cementitious materials specified in ACI 318. Materials used 
to produce concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the 
applicable standards listed in ACI 318. In addition to the ce- 
ments permitted by ACI 318, cement complying with ASTM C 
1157 is permitted. 



SECTION R403 
FOOTINGS 

R403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on con- 
tinuous solid or fully grouted masonry or concrete footings, 
wood foundations, or other approved structural systems which 
shall be of sufficient design to accommodate all loads accord- 
ing to Section R301 and to transmit the resulting loads to the 
soil within the limitations as determined from the character of 
the soil. Footings shall be supported on undisturbed natural 
soils or engineered fill. 

R403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and 
masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table R403.1 and 
Figure R403.1(l). The footing width, W, shall be based on 
the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table 
R40 1.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 
mm) in thickness. Footing projections, P, shall be at least 2 
inches (5 1 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness of the 
footing. The size of footings supporting piers and columns 
shall be based on the tributary load and allowable soil pres- 
sure in accordance with Table R40 1.4.1. Footings for wood 
foundations shall be in accordance with the details set forth 
in Section R403.2, and Figures R403.1(2) and R403.1(3). 

R403.1.2 Continuous footings in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries Dl and D2. The braced wall panels at exterior walls of 



all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D, and 
D 2 shall be supported by continuous footings. All required 
interior braced wall panels in buildings with plan dimen- 
sions greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall also be sup- 
ported by continuous footings. 

R403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Concrete footings located in 
Seismic Design Categories D; and D 2 , as established in Ta- 
ble R301.2(l), shall have minimum reinforcement. Bottom 
reinforcement shall be located a minimum of 3 inches (76 
mm) clear from the bottom of the footing. 

In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 where a con- 
struction joint is created between a concrete footing and 
stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be provided at 
not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar 
shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the 
footing, have a standard hook and extend a minimum of 14 
inches (357 mm) into the stem wall. 

In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 where a grouted 
masonry stem wall is supported on a concrete footing and 
stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be provided at 
not more than four feet on center. The vertical bar shall ex- 
tend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the footing 
and have a standard hook. 

In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 masonry stem 
walls without solid grout and vertical reinforcing shall not 
be permitted. 

Exception: In detached one and two family dwellings 
which are three stories or less in height and constructed 
with stud bearing Walls, plain concrete footings without 
longitudinal reinforcement supporting walls and isolated 
plain concrete footings supporting columns or pedestals 
are permitted. 

R403.1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations 
with stemwalls shall be provided with a minimum of one 
No. 4 bar at the top of the wall and one No. 4 bar at the 
bottom of the footing. 

R403.1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down foot- 
ings. Slabs-on-ground with turned down footings shall 



TABLE R402.2 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 



TYPE OR LOCATIONS OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 3 (f'J 


Weathering potential" 


Negligible 


Moderate 


Severe 


Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not exposed to the weather 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 c 


Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except garage floor slabs 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 c 


Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical concrete 
work exposed to the weather 


2,500 


3,000" 


3,000 d 


Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, and garage floor slabs 


2,500 


3,000 d ' e 


3,500 d - e 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. At 28 days psi. 

b. See Table R301.2(l) for weathering potential. 

c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrained concrete in accordance with Footnote d. 

d. Concrete shall be air entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall not be less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent. 

e. See Section R402.2 for minimum cement content. 



58 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.1 - R403.1.6.1 



TABLE R403.1 
MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE OR MASONRY FOOTINGS (inches) 





LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf) 


1,500 


2,000 


2,500 


3,000 


3,500 


4,000 


Conventional light-frame construction 


1 -story 


16 


12 


10 


8 


7 


6 


2-story 


19 


15 


12 


10 


8 


7 


3-story 


22 


17 


14 


11 


10 


9 


4-Inch brick veneer over light frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry 


1 -story 


19 


15 


12 


10 


8 


7 


2-story 


25 


19 


15 


13 


11 


10 


3 -story 


31 


23 


19 


16 


13 


12 


8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry 


1 -story 


22 


17 


13 


11 


10 


9 


2-story 


31 


23 


19 


16 


13 


12 


3 -story 


40 


30 


24 


20 


17 


15 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 



have a minimum of one No. 4 bar at the top and bottom of 
the footing. 

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast mqnolithically 
with a footing, one No. 5 bar or two No. 4 bars shall be 
located in the middle third of the footing depth. 

R403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings and foun- 
dation systems shall extend below the frost line specified in 
Table R301.2(l). All exterior footings shall be placed at 
least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed ground 
surface. 

Exception: Frost-protected footings constructed in ac- 
cordance with Section R403.3 and footings and founda- 
tions erected on solid rock shall not be required to extend 
below the frost line. 

In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 , interior foot- 
ings supporting bearing or bracing walls and cast 
monohthicaliy with a slab on grade shall extend to a depth 
of not less than 1 2 inches (305 mm) below the top of slab. 

R403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. 
The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope exceed- 
ing one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). 
Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary to change the 
elevation of the top surface of the footings or where the slope 
of the bottom surface of the footings will exceed one unit ver- 
tical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). 

R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. When braced wall pan- 
els are supported directly on continuous foundations, the 
wall wood sill plate or cold-formed steel bottom track shall 
be anchored to the foundation in accordance with this sec- 
tion. In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 , the additional 
anchorage requirements of Section R602.11.1 shall apply 
for wood framing. In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 
where continuous wood foundations in accordance with 
Section R404.2 are used, the force transfer shall have a ca- 
pacity equal to or greater than the connections required by 
R602. 1 1 . 1 or the braced wall panel shall be connected to the 



wood foundations in accordance with the braced wall panel- 
to-floor fastening requirements of Table R602.3(l). 

The wood sole plate at exterior walls on monolithic slabs 
and wood sill plate shall be anchored to the foundation with 
anchor bolts spaced a maximum of 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) on cen- 
ter. Anchor bolts shall also be located within 12 inches (305 
mm) from the ends of each plate section. In Seismic Design 
Categories D, and D 2 , anchor bolts shall also be spaced at 6 
feet (1829 mm) on center and located within 12 inches (305 
mm) from the ends of each plate section at interior braced 
wall lines when required by Section R602.10.9 to be sup- 
ported on a continuous foundation. Bolts shall be at least V 2 
inch (12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a minimum of 7 
inches (178 mm) into masonry or concrete. Interior bearing 
wall sole plates on monolithic slab foundations shall be pos- 
itively anchored with approved fasteners. A nut and washer 
shall be tightened on each bolt to the plate. Sills and sole 
plates shall be protected against decay and termites where 
required by Sections R322 and R323. Cold-formed steel 
framing systems shall be fastened to the wood sill plates or 
anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section 
R505.3.1orR603.1.1. 

Exception: Foundation anchor straps, spaced as re- 
quired to provide equivalent anchorage to V 2 -inch-diam- 
eter (12.7 mm) anchor bolts. 

R403.1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design 
Categories Dj and D 2 . In addition to the requirements of 
Section R403.1.6, the following requirements shall ap- 
ply to light-wood frame structures in Seismic Design 
Categories D[ and D 2 . Anchor bolts shall be located 
within 12 inches (305 mm) from the ends of each plate 
section at interior bearing walls, interior braced wall 
lines and at all exterior walls. Plate washers a minimum 
of 2 inches by 2 inches by 3 / 16 inch (5 1 mm by 5 1 mm by 
4.8 mm) thick shall be used on each bolt. The maximum 
anchor bolt spacing shall be 4 feet (1219 mm) for two- 
story structures. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



59 



FIGURE R403.1(1) 



FOUNDATIONS 



BEARING WALL' 



3.5 IN. MIN. 




[e — W — p=| 




MONOLITHIC SLAB WITH 
INTEGRAL FOOTING 



INTERIOR 



W^W„% 



i^L 



INTERIOR 



a B 



-w- 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH CONCRETE WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



J&l 



INTERIOR 



W 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH FOUNDATION WALL 
BEARING DIRECTLY ON SOIL 



3.5 IN. MIN. 



-^jjwWp 




GROUND SUPPORT SLAB 
WITH MASONRY WALL 
AND SPREAD FOOTING 




INTERIOR 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH MASONRY WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1(1) 
CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS 



60 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



FIGURE R403.1(2) 



E3 PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED 



FIELD-APPLIED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 



4 FT. (MAX. BACKFILL) 



MIN. 3.5 IN. CONCRETE SLAB WITH • 
VAPOR BARRIER AND OPTIONAL 
1 IN. SCREED BOARD 



8 IN. 



2 x 6 IN. STUD WALL INSULATED 
AS APPROPRIATE AND WARM 
SIDE VAPOR BARRIER 



t\ IN. THICK PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED LUMBER OR PLYWOOD STRIP 
PROTECTING TOP OF POLYETHYLENE FILM 



4 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED / 
STONE FILL UNDER FLOOR 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 




■16 IN 



• PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED PLYWOOD 
(SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 



■ 6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 



■ 6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 
ON CRUSHED STONE OR 
GRAVEL BACKFILL 

FINISH GRADE SLOPE V 2 IN. 
PER FOOT, MIN. 6 FT. FROM 
WALL 



• PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



- PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED 2 x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1 (2) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



61 



FIGURE R403.1(3) - R403.1.7.4 



FOUNDATIONS 



• 



ESI PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED 



FLOOR JOIST s 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM. 



K\\V///\\\V//,WV ///,\\\* 
'///AW '///AW '///AW'/// : 
\\\V///\\\V///\W ///AW* . 
<///AW '///AW///AW'/// ■ 
V///A\W//,\\\> ///AW 1 ■ 
AW '///AWOTAW'/// 
y//AW//AW ///,\\V 
\\W '///AWy/AW//' 
//AWV//,\NV ///AW X 

t\w >///Awy //A\Wi 
Vwv/'swv/ 




FIELD-APPLIED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 

FLASHING 

2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 



6 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE ' 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 




FINISH GRADE SLOPE V 2 IN. 
PER FOOT, MIN. 6 FT. FROM 
WALL 



PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. STUD WALL 

PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED PLYWOOD 
(SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 



PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



- PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 
TREATED 2 x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



- BELOW FROST LINE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1(3) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION 



w 



R403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The place- 
ment of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes 
steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal (33.3- 
percent slope) shall conform to Sections R403. 1.7.1 
through R403. 1.7.4. 

R4®3.1.7.1 Building clearances from ascending 
slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a 
sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection 
from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. Ex- 
cept as provided in Section R403. 1.7.4 and Figure 
R403. 1 .7. 1 , the following criteria will be assumed to pro- 
vide this protection. Where the existing slope is steeper 
than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent 
slope), the toe of the slope shall be assumed to be at the 
intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from the top of 
the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the slope at 
an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal. Where 
a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the slope, the 
height of the slope shall be measured from the top of the 
wall to the top of the slope. 



'.1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope 
surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall 
be founded in material with an embedment and setback 
from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and 
lateral support for the footing without detrimental settle- 



ment. Except as provided for in Section R403. 1.7.4 and 
Figure R403 . 1 .7 . 1 , the following setback is deemed ade- 
quate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 
one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent 
slope), the required setback shall be measured from an 
imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal, 
projected upward from the toe of the slope. 

R403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the 
top of any exterior foundation shall extend above the ele- 
vation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet 
of an approved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches 
(305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are permit- 
ted subject to the approval of the building official, pro- 
vided it can be demonstrated that required drainage to the 
point of discharge and away from the structure is pro- 
vided at all locations on the site. 

R403.1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alter- 
nate setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the 
approval of the building official. The building official is 
permitted to require an investigation and recommenda- 
tion of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent 
of this section has been satisfied. Such an investigation 
shall include consideration of material, height of slope, 
slope gradient, load intensity and erosion characteristics 
of slope material. 



62 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R403.1.8-R404.1 



R403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation and 
floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils shall be 
designed in accordance with Section 1805.8 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation sys- 
tems which have performed adequately in soil conditions 
similar to those encountered at the building site are per- 
mitted subject to the approval of the building official. 

R403.1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils meet- 
ing all four of the following provisions shall be consid- 
ered expansive, except that tests to show compliance 
with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test pre- 
scribed in Item 4 is conducted: 

1 . Plasticity Index (PI) of 1 5 or greater, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4318. 

2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a 
No. 200 sieve (75 mm), determined in accordance 
with ASTM D 422. 

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less 
than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 422. 

4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in ac- 
cordance with UBC Standard 18-2 or SBCCI 
SSTD 7. 

R403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood 
foundations shall be in accordance with Figures R403. 1(2) and 
R403.1(3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded! The maxi- 
mum size stone shall not exceed 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm). Gravel 
shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Sand shall be 
coarse, not smaller than V 16 -inch (1.6 mm) grains and shall be 
free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall 
have a maximum size of V 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R403.3 Frost protected shallow foundations. For buildings 
where the monthly mean temperature of the building is main- 
tained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), footings are not required 
to extend below the frost line when protected from frost by in- 



sulation in accordance with Figure R403.3(l) and Table 
R403.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. No foundation not so protected may be attached to 
frost-protected shallow foundations. 

2. Unheated garages, porches, utility rooms and carports 
shall not be permitted to be attached to dwelling units 
with frost-protected shallow foundation. 

Materials used below grade for the purpose of insulating 
footings against frost shall be labeled as complying with 
ASTM C 578. 

R403.3.1 Protection of horizontal insulation below 
ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of hori- 
zontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches 
(610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected 
against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving 
on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by 
cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, or 
other approved materials placed below ground, directly 
above the top surface of the insulation. 

R403.3.2 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accor- 
dance with Section R401 .3. In other than Group I Soils, as 
detailed in Table R405.1, gravel or crushed stone beneath 
horizontal insulation below ground shall drain to daylight or 
into an approved sewer system. 

R403.3.3 Termite damage. The use of foam plastic in areas 
of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in 
accordance with Section R324.4. 



SECTION R404 
FOUNDATION WALLS 

R404.1 Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Concrete 
and masonry foundation walls shall be selected and con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions of this section or in 
accordance with ACI 3 1 8, NCMA TR68-A or ACI 530/ASCE 




'H/2BUT NEED NOT EXCEED IS FT. MAX. 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1. 7.1 
FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



63 



TABLER403.3-R404.1.4 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3 
fllMlMUM INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS 3 



AIR FREEZING 
INDEX (°F-days) b 


VERTICAL INSULATION 
R-VALUE c ' d 


HORIZONTAL 
INSULATION fl-VALUE ce 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS 

PER FIGURE R403.3(1) 

(inches) 


Along walls 


At corners 


A 


B 


c 


1,500 or less 


4.5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


2,000 


5.6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


2,500 


6.7 


1.7 


4.9 


12 


24 


40 


3,000 


7.8 


6.5 


8.6 


12 


24 


40 


3,500 


9.0 


8.0 


11.2 


24 


30 


60 


4,000 


10.1 


10.5 


13.1 


24 


36 


60 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8. 

a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings. Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards. Inter- 



polation between values is permissible. 
See Figure R403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values. 

Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum R-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The following 
R- values shall be used to determine insulation thicknesses required for this application: Type II expanded polystyrene — 2.4R per inch; Type IV extruded polysty- 
rene — 4.5R per inch; Type VI extruded polystyrene — 4.5R per inch; Type IX expanded polystyrene — 3.2R per inch; Type X extruded polystyrene — 4.5R per 
inch. NR denotes "not required." 

Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation. 
Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation. 



5/TMS 402 or other approved structural standards. When ACI 
3 1 8 or ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or the provisions of this sec- 
tion are used to design concrete or masonry foundation walls, 
project drawings, typical details and specifications are not re- 
quired to bear the seal of the architect or engineer responsible 
for design, unless otherwise required by the state law of the ju- 
risdiction having authority. 

R404.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete masonry 
and clay masonry foundation walls shall be constructed as 
set forth in Tables R404.1.1(l), R404.1.1(2), R404. 1.1(3) 
and R404.1.1(4) and shall also comply with the provisions 
of this section and the applicable provisions of Sections 
R606, R607 and R608. In Seismic Design Categories D, and 
D 2 , concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls 
shall comply with Section R404. 1 .4. Rubble stone masonry 
foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with 
Sections R404.1.8 and R606.2.2. Rubble stone masonry 
walls shall not be used in Seismic Design Categories D[ and 
D 2 . 

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete foundation 
walls shall be constructed as set forth in Tables R404. 1.1(1), 
R404. 1.1(2), R404. 1.1(3) and R404.1.1(4) and shall also 
comply with the provisions of this section and the applicable 
provisions of Section R402.2. In Seismic Design Categories 
Dj and D 2 , concrete foundation walls shall comply with Sec- 
tion R404. 1.4. 

R404.1.3 Design required. A design in accordance with ac- 
cepted engineering practice shall be provided for concrete 
or masonry foundation walls when any of the following con- 
ditions exist: 

1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from 
groundwater. 



2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of 
unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent lateral 
support at the top and bottom. 

R404.1.4 Seismic Design Categories D 1 and D 2 . In addi- 
tion to the requirements of Table R404. 1.1(1), plain con- 
crete and plain masonry foundation walls located in Seismic 
Design Categories D( and D 2 , as established in Table 
R301.2(l), shall comply with the following: 

1. Minimum reinforcement shall consist of one No. 4 
(No. 13) horizontal bar located in the upper 12 inches 
(305 mm) of the wall, 

2. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm), 

3. Height of unbalanced backfill shall not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm), and 

4. A minimum thickness of 7.5 inches (191 mm) is re- 
quired for plain concrete foundation walls except that 
a minimum thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) shall be 
permitted for plain concrete foundation walls with a 
maximum height of 4 feet, 6 inches (1372 mm). 

5. Plain masonry foundation walls shall be a minimum 
of 8 inches (203 mm) thick. 

Vertical reinforcement for masonry stem walls shall be 
tied to the horizontal reinforcement in the footings. Ma- 
sonry stem walls located in Seismic Design Categories D, 
and D 2 shall have a minimum vertical reinforcement of one 
No. 3 bar located a maximum of 4 feet (1220 mm) on center 
in grouted cells. 

Foundation walls located in Seismic Design Categories 
D, and D 2 , as established in Table R30 1.2(1), supporting 
more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill or ex- 
ceeding 8 feet ( 2438 mm) in height shall be constructed 
in accordance with Table R404.1.K2), R404.1.1(3) or 
R404. 1 . 1 (4) and shall have two No. 4 (No. 13) horizontal 
bars located in the upper 12 inches (305 mm) of the wall. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



FIGURE R403.3(1) 



INSULATION DETAIL 



FLASHING PER SECTION R703.8 

INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION, R403.3.1 
SLOPE FINAL GRADE PER SECTION R403.3.; 



12 IN. MIN, 



NOMINAL 4 IN. SCREENED AND 
WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE, DRAINED PER SECTION 
R403.3.2 




SLAB-ON-GROUND FOUNDATION FLOOR 
PER SECTIONS R403.1 AND R506 



1 jg_i ■__i\>_ s_ ; i J'/' 

WA\\y//A\V///"%'///A\'///A\V///\\v 



WW/// 
V//\\v 

WW/// 

>///\\v 
WW/// 
V//WV 

WW/// 



x VERTICAL WALL INSULATION 3 
^ HORIZONTAL INSULATION 8 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3 for required dimensions and R-values for vertical and horizontal insulation. 

FIGURE R403.3(1) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



65 




3 
Q 

C 
JO 

m 

3D 

*. 

C3 

u 
u 



m 

3D 

Z 

o 

2 
> 

I- 
30 

m 
v> 

D 

m 

z 

> 

I- 
o 
o 
o 
m 



For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8. 

NOTE: The air-freezing index is defined as cumulative degree days below 32°F. It is used as a measure of the combined magnitude and duration of air temperature below freezing. The index was computed over a 12- 
month period (July-June) for each of the 3,044 stations used in the above analysis. Data from the 195 1 -80 period were fitted to a Weibull probability distribution to produce an estimate of the 1 00-year return period. 

FIGURE R403.3(2) 

AIR-FREEZING INDEX 

AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD 



O 
C 

z 
o 

d 

o 

z 
to 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404.1.5.1 -TABLE R404.1.1(1) 



R404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls sup- 
ported. Tjhe thickness of concrete and masonry; foundation 
walls shall not be less than the thickness of thte wall sup- 
ported, except; that foundation walls of at least 8-inch (203 
mm) nominal thickness shall foe permitted under brick- ve- 
neered frame walls and under 10-inch-wide (254 mm) cav- 
ity walls where the total height of the wall supported, 
including gables, is not more than 20 feet (6096 mm), pro- 
vided the requirements of Sections R404.1.1 and R404.1.2 
are met. 

R404. 1.5.1 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Ex- 
cept in Seismic Design Categories D and E, pier and 
curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to be used 
to support light-frame construction not more than two 
stories in height, provided the following requirements 
are met: 

1 . All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continu- 
ous concrete footings placed integrally with the ex- 
terior wall footings. 



2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing 
masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 
mm) nominal or 3 3 / 8 inches (92 mm) actual thick- 
ness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers 
spaced in accordance with R606.8. 

3 . Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Section 
R606.5 and Section R606.5.1, and shall be bonded 
into the load-bearing masonry wall in accordance 
with Section R606.8.1.1 or Section R606.8.1.2. 

4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) load- 
bearing masonry foundation wall supporting wood 
framed walls and floors shall not be more than 4 
feet (1219 mm) in height. 

5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section 
R403.1.6 or as specified by engineered design ac- 
cepted by the building official. 

6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) founda- 
tion walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for 
solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow 
masonry. 



TABLE R404.1. 1(1) 
PLAIN CONCRETE AND PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS 



MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


PLAIN CONCRETE MINIMUM 

NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 

(inches) 


PLAIN MASONRY 8 MINIMUM 

NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 

(inches) 




Soil cl 


asses" 


GW, GP, SW and 
SP 


GM, GC, SM, SM- 
SC and ML 


SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL 


GW, GP, SW 
and SP 


GM, GC, SM, SM- 

SC and ML 


SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL 


5 


4 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


8 


10 




4 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid" or 8 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


8 


10 




6 


6 


88 


8« 


8 


10 


12 




4 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


8 


8 


7 


5 


6 


6 


88 


6 solid d or 8 


10 


10 


6 


6 


8 


8 


10 


12 


10 solid d 




7 


8 


8 


10 


12 


10 solid d 


12 solid" 




4 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


8 




5 


6 


6 


8 


6 solid d or 8 


10 


12 


8 


6 


8s 


8 


10 


10 


12 


12 solid" 




7 


8 


10 


10 


12 


12 solid d 


Footnote e 




8 


10 


10 


12 


10 solid d 


12 solid" 


Footnote e 




4 


6 


6 


6 


6 solid d or 8 


6 solid d or 8 


8 




5 


6 


8* 


8 


8 


10 


12 


9 


6 


8 


8 


10 


10 


12 


12 solid" 


7 


8 


10 


10 


12 


12 solid" 


Footnote e 




8 


10 


10 


12 


12 solid d 


Footnote e 


Footnote e 




9 


10 


12 


Footnote f 


Footnote e 


Footnote e 


Footnote e 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Pa. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated. 

b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units. 

e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with Table R404.1.1(2) or a design shall be provided. 

f. A design is required. 

g. Thickness may be 6 inches, provided minimum specified compressive strength of concrete,/,., is 4,000 psi. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



67 



TABLE R404.1.1(2)- TABLE R404.1.1(3) 



FOUNDATIONS 





TABLE R404.1. 1(2) 
REINFORCED CONCRETE AND MASONRY 3 FOUNDATION WALLS 


MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING"' c FOR 
B-INCH NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 


Soil classes" 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 


6 


5 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


6 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 40" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 




4 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48"o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


7 


5 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 40" o.c. 


6 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 40" o.c. 




7 


#4 at 40" o.c. 


#5 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




5 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 40" o.c. 


8 


6 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 40" o.c. 


7 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 




8 


#5 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 




5 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 




6 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


9 


7 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 




8 


#5 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 




9 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 


#6 at 16" o.c. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross- sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 5 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 



TABLE R404.1. 1(3) 
REINFORCED CONCRETE AND MASONRY 3 FOUNDATION WALLS 



MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 5 

(feet) 


VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING"' FOR 
12-INCH NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 


Soil classes" 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 


7 


4 
5 
6 

7 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 64" o.c. 
#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 48" o.c. 
#5 at 56" o.c. 


8 


5 
6 
7 
8 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 64" o.c. 
#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 56" o.c. 
#5 at 64" o.c. 
#4 at 32" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#5 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 32" o.c. 
#5 at 40" o.c. 


9 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 56" o.c. 
#4 at 64" o.c. 
#5 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#4 at 56" o.c. 
#4 at 40" o.c. 
#6 at 64" o.c. 
#7 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 
#5 at 64" o.c. 
#6 at 64" o.c. 
#6 at 48" o.c. 
#6 at 40" o.c. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacing having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 
8.75 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1 . 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 



• 



68 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.1(4) - R404.2.5 





TABLE R404.1.1(4) 
REINFORCED CONCRETE AND MASONRY 3 FOUNDATION WALLS 


MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 8 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING bc 
FOR 10-INCH NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 


Soil Classes' 1 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 




4 


#4at56"o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c 


7 


5 


#4at56"o.c 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


6 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c 


#4 at 40" o.c. 




7 


#4at56"o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#5at40"o.c. 




5 


#4at56"o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


8 


6 


#4 at 56" ox 


#4 at 48" o.c 


#5 at 56" o.c 


7 


#4at48"o.c. 


#4 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 




8 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 40" o.c. 


#7 at 56" o.c. 




5 


#4 at 56"o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 




6 


#4 at 56" o.c 


#4 at 40" o.c 


#4 at 32" o.c 


9 


7 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




8 


#4 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 16" o.c. 




9 


#5 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#7 at 40" o.c. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 
6.75 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 



R404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and ma- 
sonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished grade 
adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum of 4 
inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a mini- 
mum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere. 

R404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed 
against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and has 
been anchored to the floor above, or has been sufficiently 
braced to prevent damage by the backfill. 

Exception: Such bracing is not required for walls support- 
ing less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill. 

R404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry 
foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 
inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill 
exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a 
soil pressure greater than 30 psf (481 kg/m 2 ), and shall not 
be constructed in Seismic Design Categories D) or D 2 as es- 
tablished in Figure R301 .2(2). 

R404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls shall 
be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 
R404.2.1 through R404.2.6 and with the details shown in Fig- 
ures R403.1(2) and R403.1(3). 

R404.2.1 Wood grade. All load-bearing lumber shall be 
identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspec- 
tion agency which has been approved by an accreditation 
body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, 
a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or in- 
spection agency meeting the requirements of this section 



shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall conform to 
DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified by a grade 
mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved 
agency. 

R404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls 
shall be 2-inch-by-6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. 
When spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center, a wood species 
with an F b value of not less than 1 ,250 (8612 kPa) as listed in 
AF&PA/NDS shall be used. When spaced 12 inches (305 
mm) on center, an F b of not less than 875 (6029 kPa) shall be 
required. 

R404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations built in 
accordance with the provisions of this code, the height of 
backfill against a foundation wall shall not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm). When the height of fill is more than 12 inches 
(305 mm) above the interior grade of a crawl space or floor 
of a basement, the thickness of the plywood sheathing shall 
meet the requirements of Table R404.2.3. 

R404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be 
backfilled until the basement floor and first floor have been 
constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl space 
construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on the in- 
terior of the walls prior to placing backfill on the exterior. 

R404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood foundation 
basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accordance 
with Sections R405 and R406, respectively. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



69 



FIGURE R404.1. 5(1) 



FOUNDATIONS 



PIER SPACED NOT MORE 
THAN 6 FT. O.C. (TYP.) 



GALVANIZED OR STAINLESS STEEL 

STRAPS, MIN.2VielN. 

WIDE BY 12 GAGE THICK 

MIN. 2 IN. FROM EDGE OF PIER. 

(TYP.) 



MIN. TWO 9 GAGE BOX TIES 
OR TWO MASONRY 
HEADERS AT 8 IN. O.C. 
EACH PIER 




MIN. NINE 16D NAILS 
PER STRAP 



TREATED SIL PLATE 



MIN. 8 IN. BY 16 IN. 
MASONRY PIER. (TYP.) 



STRAPS ANCHORED WITH 90 DEGREE HOOK, 
MIN. TWO STRAPS PER PIER, 
MIN. 4 IN. EMBEDMENT INTO FOOTING, 
MIN. 1 .75 IN. HORIZONTAL LEG EXTENSION 



DOUBLE RIM JOISTS 



MIN. 18 GAGE PLATE 
CONNECTORS AT 
MAX. 12 IN. O.C. (TYP.) 




MIN. 4 IN. MASONRY 
CURTAIN WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = a79 / 45 rad. 



FIGURE R404.1. 5(1) 
FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS 



70 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.2.3 - R404.4.1 



TABLE R404.2.3" 

PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 

(30 pcf equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure) 



HEIGHT OF FILL 
(inches) 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS 


FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS 


Grade 3 


Minimum 
thickness 
(inches) 


Span rating 


Grade 8 


Minimum 
thickness 
(inches) bc 


Span rating 


24 


12 


B 


15/ 

'32 


32/16 


A 


lyi 


32/16 


B 


15/ c 
'32 


32/16 


16 


B 


15 / 
'32 


32/16 


A 


15/ c 
'32 


32/16 


B 


'V (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


36 


12 


B 


15 / 
'32 


32/16 


A 


'32 


32/16 


B 


15 / 32 < (4, 5 ply) 


32/16 


B 


% (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


15/ c 
'32 


32/16 


A 


% 


40/20 


B 


2 %? 


48/24 


48 


12 


B 


'32 


32/16 


A 


15/ c 
'37. 


32/16 


B 


'V (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


lyi 


40/20 


A 


19/ c 
'32 


40/20 


A 


23/ 
'32 


48/24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0.1572 kN/m 3 . 

a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2: 

1. DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked: 

1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1) 

1.2. C-D (Exposure 1) 

2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked: 

2.1. Structural I Sheathing (Exposure 1 ) 

2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1) 

3. Where a major portion of the wall is exposed above ground and a better appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable: 

3. 1. Structural I AC, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1 

3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 or MDO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1 

3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 

b. Minimum thickness 15 / 32 inch, except crawl space sheathing may be 3 / g inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2-foot depth of unequal 
fill. 

c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require blocking 
16 inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end. 

d. Fastening shall be in accordance with Section R323.3. 



R404.2.6; Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation wall 
sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance with 
Table R602.3(l) and Section R402.1.1. 

R404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a minimum 
of 2-inch by 4-inch (5 1 mm by 102 mm) nominal lumber. Sill 
plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 
and R602.ll. 

R404.4 Insulating concrete form foundation walls. Insulating 
concrete form (ICF) foundation walls shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions of this section or in 
accordance with the provisions of ACI 318. When ACI 318 or 
the provisions of this section are used to design insulating con- 
crete form foundation walls, project drawings, typical details 
and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the architect 



or engineer responsible for design unless otherwise required by 
the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R404.4.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall apply to the construction of insulating concrete 
form foundation walls for buildings not greater than 60 feet 
(18 288 mm) in plan dimensions, and floors not greater than 
32 feet (9754 mm) or roofs not greater than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) in clear span. Buildings shall not exceed two stories in 
height above-grade with each story not greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) high. Foundation walls constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to 
buildings subjected to a maximum ground snow load of 70 
psf (3.35 kN/m 2 ) and located in Seismic Design Category A, 
BorC. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



71 



TABLE R404.4(1) - R404.4.4 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(1) 
5.5-INCH THICK FLAT ICF FOUNDATION WALLS a,b,c 



HEIGHT OF BASEMENT 
WALL 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 1 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 6 


Soil group 1" 


Soil group ll e 


Soil group III 6 


8 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


#4@4" 


5 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@22"; 
#5@32" 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@26" 


6 


#3@12";#4@22"; 
#5@30"; 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20"; #6@24" 


#3@6";#4@10": 
#5@14";#6@20" 


7 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@22";#6@26" 


#3@5";#4@10"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5 @ 10"; #6 @ 14" 


9 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


5 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@20"; 
#5@28";#6@36" 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@22" 


6 


#3@10";#4@20"; 
#5 @ 28"; #6 @ 34" 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@20" 


#4@8": 
#5@14";#6@16" 


7 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5 @ 20"; #6 @ 22" 


#4@8";#5@12";#6@16" 


#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@12" 


8 


#3@6";#4@10"; 
#5@14";#6@16" 


#4@6";#5@10";#6@12" 


#4@4"; 
#5@6";#6@8" 


10 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


5 


#4@48" 


#3@10";#4@18"; 
#5@26"; #6@30" 


#3@6";#4@14"; 
#5@18";#6@20" 


6 


#3@10";#4@18"; 
#5@24"; #6@30" 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@16";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@14" 


7 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@16";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@8";#5@12" 


#4@6"; 
#5@8";#6@10" 


8 


#4@8";#5@12";#6@14" 


#4@6";#5@8";#6@12" 


#4@4"; 
#5@6";#6@8" 


9 


#4@6";#5@10";#6@12" 


#4@4";#5@6";#6@8" 


#5@4";#6@6" 



• 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accor- 
dance with ACI 318. 

b. Deflection criteria: Z/240. 

c. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

d. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

e. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



R404.4.2 Flat insulating concrete form wall systems. Flat 
ICF wall systems shall comply with Figure R611.3, shall 
have aminimum concrete thickness of 5.5 inches (140 mm), 
and shall have reinforcement in accordance with Table 
R404.4(l), R404.4(2) or R404.4(3). 

R404.4.3 Waffle grid insulating concrete form wall sys- 
tems. Waffle-grid wall systems shall have a minimum nom- 
inal concrete thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) for the 
horizontal and vertical concrete members (cores) and shall 
be reinforced in accordance with Table R404.4(4). The min- 



imum core dimension shall comply with Table R6 11.4(2) 
and Figure R61 1.4. 

R404.4.4 Screen grid insulating concrete form wall sys- 
tems. Screen-grid ICF wall systems shall have a minimum 
nominal concrete thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) for the 
horizontal and vertical concrete members (cores). The mini- 
mum core dimensions shall comply with Table R61 1.4(2) 
and Figure R6 1 1 .5. Walls shall have reinforcement in accor- 
dance with Table R404.4(5). 



72 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(2) - TABLE R404.4(3) 



• 







TABLE R404.4(2) 
7.5-INCH THICK FLAT ICF FOUNDATION WALLS 3 ' b ' c ' d 




HEIGHT OF- 
BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) ! 


MAXIMUM 
■ UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT 8 
(feet) 


j MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 1 


Soil group l f 


Soil group II 1 


Soil group III* 


i 
8 I 


6 


n/r: 


N/R 


N/R 


7 


n/r 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@28" 


#3@6";#4@10"; 
#5@16";#6@20" 


9 


6 


N/R 


N/R ; 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@28" 


7 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@26" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


8 


#3@8";#4@14"; 

#5 @ 22"; #6 @ 28" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@14" 


10 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@26" 


7 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@24" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@18" 


8 


#3@6";.#4@12"; 
#5@20";^6@26" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@16" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@8";#6@12" 


9 


#3@6";44@10"; 
#5@14";#6@20" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@12" 


#4@4"; 
#5@6";#6@10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 nim, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manufacturer' s tables based on engineering analysis in accor- 
dance with ACI 318. 

b. N/R denotes "not required." 

c. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

d. Interpolation!! between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior arid interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

f. Soil classes aire in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



TABLE R404.4(3) 
9.5-INCH THICK FLAT ICF FOUNDATION WALLS' 



a, b, c, d 



HEIGHT OF 
BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 8 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING* 


Soil l< 


Soil II' 


Soil III' 


8 


7 


N/R , 


N/R 


N/R 


9 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


7 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6"; #4@12"; #5@18"; #6@26" 


8 


N/R ', 


#3@6"; #4@12"; #5@18"; #6@26" 


#3@4" ; #4@8"; #5@ 14"; #6@ 18" 


10 


5 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@10"; #4@18"; #5@26"; #6@36" 


7 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6"; #4@10"; #5@18"; #6@24" 


8 


N/R 


#3@6"; #4@ 12"; #5@ 16"; #6@24" 


#3@4";#4@8"; #5@12";#6@16" 


9 


N/R ■ 


#3@4"; #4@8"; #5@ 12"; #6@ 18" 


#3@4";#4@6"; #5@10";#6@12" 



For SI: 1 inch!= 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. , 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accor- 
dance with Ad 318. 

b. N/R denotes ("not required." 

c. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

d. Interpolation! between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of theiexterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

f. Soil classes Eire in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



73 



TABLE R4Q4.4(4) 



FOUNDATIONS 







TABLE R404.4(4) 
WAFFLE GRID ICF FOUNDATION WALLS 3 


b,c,d 




MINIMUM NOMINAL 

WALL THICKNESS 18 

(inches) 


HEIGHT OF 

BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT* 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil group 1* 


Soil group ll f 


Soil group III* 


6 


8 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#3@12" 


5 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


#7@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


#7@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


9 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12'';#5@24" 


#3@12" 


5 


#3@12" 


#4@12" 


Design required 


6 


#5@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


10 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


5 


#3@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


6 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


8 


8 


4 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


5 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


6 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#4@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


7 


#3@12";#6@24" 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


9 


4 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


5 


N/R 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


6 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#4@12" 


#4@12" 


7 


#4@12";#5@24" 


#5@12" 


#5@12" 


8 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


#8@12" 


10 


4 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#6@36" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


5 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#6@36" 


#4@12";#5@24" 


6 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


7 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


#6@12" 


8 


#4@12" 


#6@12" 


Design required 


9 


#5@12" 


Design required 


Design required 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. N/R denotes "not required." 

b. Deflection criteria: Z/240. 

c. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

d. Refer to Table R6 11.4(2) for wall dimensions. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground, 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior 

f. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1 



Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
concrete slab. 



74 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(5) - R404.4.7.2 



TABLE R404.4(5) 
SCREEN-GRID ICF FOUNDATION WALLS 3 ' bc 



MINIMUM N6MINAL 

WALL THICKNESS" 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 6 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil classes 


Soil group l' 


Soil group II 1 


Soil group III' 


6 


8 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


5 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#3@12" 


#4@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


Design required 


7 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


9 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#3@12";#6@24" 


5 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


#7@12" 


f •, 6 


#4@ 12" 


Design required 


Design required 


:; ? 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


8 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


10 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#3@12" 


5 


#3@12" 


#4@12" 


#7@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


■ 8 , 


Design required 


Design required 


. Design required 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. N/R denotes "not required." 

b. Deflection criteria: 1/240. 

c. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

d. Refer to Table R6 11.4(2) for wall dimensions. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced 
backfill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

f. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



R404.4.5 Concrete material. Ready-mixed concrete for in- 
sulating concrete form walls shall be in accordance with 
Section R|M)2.2. Maximum slump shall not be greater than 6 
inches (152 mm) as determined in accordance with ASTM 
C 143. Maximum aggregate size shall not be larger than 3 / 4 
inch (19.1 mm). 

Exception: Concrete mixes conforming to the ICF man- 
ufacturer's recommendations. 

R404.4.6 Reinforcing steel. 

R404.4.6.1 General. Reinforcing steel shall meet the re- 
quirements of ASTM A 615, A 616, A 617 or A 706. The 
minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 
40,00Q psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Vertical and horizontal 
wall reinforcements shall be placed no closer to the out- 
side face of the wall than one-half the wall thickness. 
Steel reinforcement for foundation walls shall have con- 
crete cover in accordance with ACI 318. 

Exception: Where insulated concrete forms are used 
and the form remains in place as cover for the con- 
crete, the minimum concrete cover for the reinforcing 
steel is permitted to be reduced to 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm). 

R404.4.6.2 Horizontal reinforcement. When vertical 
reinforcement is required,; ICF foundation walls shall 
have horizontal reinforcement in accordance with this 



section. ICF foundation walls up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
height shall have a minimum of one continuous No. 4 
horizontal reinforcing bar placed at 48 inches (1219 mm) 
on center with one bar located within 12 inches (305 mm) 
of the top of the wall story. ICF Foundation walls greater 
than 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall have a minimum of 
one continuous No. 4 horizontal reinforcing bar placed at 
36 inches (914 mm) on center with one bar located within 
12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall story. 

R404.4.6.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall reinforcement 
required by Section R404.4.2, R404.4.3 or R404.4.4 that 
is interrupted by wall openings shall have additional ver- 
tical reinforcement of the same size placed within 12 
inches (305 mm) of each side of the opening. 

R404.4.7 Foam plastic insulation. Foam plastic insulation 
in insulating concrete foam construction shall comply with 
this section. 

R404.4.7.1 Material. Insulating concrete form material 
shall meet the surface burning characteristics of Section 
R318.1.1. A thermal barrier shall be provided on the 
building interior in accordance with Section R318.1.2. 

R404.4.7.2 Termite hazards. In areas where hazard of 
termite damage is very heavy in accordance with Figure 
R30 1 .2(6), foam plastic insulation shall be permitted be- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



75 



R404.4.8 - R405.2 



FOUNDATIONS 



low grade on foundation walls in accordance with one of 
the following conditions: 

1 . When in addition to the requirements in Section 
R324.1, an approved method of protecting the 
foam plastic and structure from subterranean ter- 
mite damage is provided. 

2. The structural members of walls, floors, ceilings 
and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials 
or pressure preservatively treated wood. 

3. On the interior side of basement walls. 

R404.4.8 Foundation wall thickness based on walls sup- 
ported. The thickness of ICF foundation walls shall not be 
less than the thickness of the wall supported above. 

R404.4.9 Height above finished ground. ICF foundation 
walls shall extend above the finished ground adjacent to the 
foundation at all points a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) 
where masonry veneer is used and a minimum of 6 inches 
(152 mm) elsewhere. 

R404.4.10 Backfill placement. Backfill shall be placed in 
accordance with Section R404.1.7. 

R404.4.11 Drainage and daroipproofiing/waterproofing. 
ICF foundation basements shall be drained and damp 
proofed/waterproofed in accordance with Sections R405 
and R406. 



SECTION R405 
FOUNDATION DRAINAGE 

R405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be 
provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that retain 
earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below 
grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, perforated 
pipe or other approved systems or materials shall be installed at 
or below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity 
or mechanical means into an approved drainage system. Gravel 
or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot (305 mm) be- 
yond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the top of the footing and be covered with an approved fil- 
ter membrane material. The top of open joints of drain tiles shall 
be protected with strips of building paper, and the drainage tiles 
or perforated pipe shall be placed on a minimum of 2 inches (5 1 
mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock at least one sieve size 
larger than the tile joint opening or perforation and covered with 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of the same material. 

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the 
foundation is installed on well-drained ground or sand- 
gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil Classifi- 
cation System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1. 

R405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing hab- 
itable or usable spaces located below grade shall be adequately 





TABLE R405.1 
PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 




SOIL 
GROUP 


UNIFIED SOIL 
CLASSIFICATION 
SYSTEM SYMBOL 


SOIL DESCRIPTION 


DRAINAGE 
CHARACTERISTICS 8 


FROST 

HEAVE 

POTENTIAL 


VOLUME 

CHANGE 

POTENTIAL 

EXPANSION" 


Group I 


GW 


Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines. 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GP 


Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines. 


Good 


Low 


Low 


SW 


Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines. 


Good 


Low 


Low 


SP 


Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines. 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GM 


Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures. 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


SM 


Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures. 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


Group II 


GC 


Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures. 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


SC 


Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture. 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


ML 


Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey 
fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity. 


Medium 


High 


Low 


CL 


Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, 
sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays. 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 
to Low 


Group III 


CH 


Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays. 


Poor 


Medium 


High 


MH 


Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty 
soils, elastic silts. 


Poor 


High 


High 


Group IV 


OL 


Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity. 


Poor 


Medium 


Medium 


OH 


Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts. 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 


Pt 


Peat and other highly organic soils. 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The percolation rate for £ 

b. Soils with a low potential 
high potential expansion 



>ood drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour. 
expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of to 15, soils with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils with a 
have a PI greater than 20. 



78 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R405.2.1 - R407.3 



drained in accordance with Sections R405.2.1 through 
R405.2.3. 

R405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or 
coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 
inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall 
be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel 
or crushed stone wall footings. 

R405.2.2jMoisture barrier. A 6-mil-fhick (0. 15 mm) poly- 
ethylene moisture barrier shall be applied over! the porous 
layer with the basement floor constructed over the polyeth- 
ylene. 

R405.2.3 Drainage system. In other than Group I soils, a 
sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and foot- 
ings. The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in diam- 
eter or 20 inches square (0.0129 m 2 ), shall extend at least 24 
inches (610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor 
and shall be capable of positive gravity or mechanical drain- 
age to remove any accumulated water. The drainage system 
shall discharge into an approved sewer system or to day- 
light. 



SECTION R406 

FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING 

AND DAMPPROOFING 

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampproofing. 

Except where required to be waterproofed by Section R406.2, 
foundation walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or us- 
able spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed from the 
top of the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall 
have not less than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging ap- 
plied to the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be 
dampproofed with a bituminous coating, 3 pounds per square 
yard (1 .63 kg/m 2 ) of acrylic modified cement, V g -inch (3.2 mm) 
coat of surface-bonding mortar complying with ASTM C 887 
or any material permitted for waterproofing in Section R406.2. 
Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying any one of 
the above listed dampproofing materials or any one of the wa- 
terproofing materials listed in Section R406.2 to the exterior of 
the wall. 

R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. 

In areas where a high water table or other severe soil- water con- 
ditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain 
earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below 
grade shall be waterproofed with a membrane extending from 
the top of the footing to the finished grade. The membrane shall 
consist of 2-ply hot-mopped felts, 55 pound (25 kg) roll roof- 
ing, 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride, 6-mil (0.15 mm) poly- 
ethylene or 40-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt. The 
joints in the membrane shall be lapped and sealed with an adhe- 
sive compatible with the waterproofing membrane. 

Exception: Organic solvent based products such as hydro- 
carbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketons and esters shall 
not be used for ICF walls with expanded polystyrene form 
material. Plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, latex 
coatings, mortars and pargings are permitted to be used to 



seal ICF walls. Cold setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall con- 
form to type C of ASTM D 449. Hot asphalt shall be applied 
at a temperature of less than 200 degrees. 

R406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood founda- 
tions enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade 
shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections R406.3.1 
through R406.3.4. 

R406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the 
foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking 
compound capable of producing a moisture-proof seal un- 
der the conditions of temperature and moisture content at 
which it will be applied and used. 

R406.3.2 Below grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-fhick 
(0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the be- 
low-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to 
backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 
6 inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge 
of the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing to 
form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected 
from mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure pre- 
servatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to the 
wall several inches above finish grade level and extending 
approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The joint 
between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full length 
prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other coverings ap- 
propriate to the architectural treatment may also be used. 
The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bottom of 
the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or extend into 
the gravel or crushed stone footing. 

R406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation and 
the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same mate- 
rial used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 mm) 
above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half the total 
backfill height for poorly drained sites. The porous fill shall 
be covered with strips of 30-pound (13.6 kg) asphalt paper 
or 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene to permit water seepage 
while avoiding infiltration of fine soils. 

R406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area 
shall be backfilled with the same type of soil as was removed 
during the excavation. 



SECTION R407 
COLUMNS 

R407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be 
protected against decay as set forth in Section R323. 

R407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and out- 
side) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of rust- 
inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and steel 
treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance. 

R407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be re- 
strained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. 
Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches by 
4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm) and steel columns shall not be 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



77 



R408 - R408.6 



FOUNDATIONS 



less than 3 -inch-diameter (76 mm) standard pipe or approved 
equivalent. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C col- 
umns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a pier 
or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral displace- 
ment requirement within underfloor areas enclosed by a 
continuous foundation. 



SECTION R408 
UNDER-FLOOR SPACE 

R408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bot- 
tom of the floor joists and the earth under any building (except 
space occupied by a basement or cellar) shall be provided with 
ventilation openings through foundation walls or exterior 
walls. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not 
be less than 1 square foot for each 150 square feet (0.67 m 2 for 
each 100 m 2 ) of under-floor space area. One such ventilating 
opening shall be within 3 feet (914 mm) of each corner of said 
building. 

R408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum 
net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square 
foot (0.0929 m 2 ) for each 150 square feet (100 m 2 ) of under- 
floor space area. One such ventilating opening shall be within 3 
feet (914 mm) of each corner of the building. Ventilation open- 
ings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the 
following materials provided that the least dimension of the 
covering shall not exceed 7 4 inch (6.4 mm): 

1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch 
(1.8 mm) thick. 

2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch 
(1.2 mm) thick. 

3. Cast iron grills or grating. 

4. Extruded load-bearing brick vents. 

5 . Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch (0. 89 mm) wire or heavier. 

6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension 
being V 8 inch (3.2 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where warranted by climatic conditions, venti- 
lation openings to the outdoors are not required 
if ventilation openings to the interior are pro- 
vided. 

2. The total area of ventilation openings may be 
reduced to 1/1,500 of the under-floor area 
where the ground surface is treated with an ap- 
proved vapor retarder material and the required 
openings are placed so as to provide cross-ven- 
tilation of the space. The installation of opera- 
ble louvers shall not be prohibited. 

3. Under-floor spaces used as supply plenums for 
distribution of heated and cooled air shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section M 1 60 1 .4. 

4. Ventilation openings are not required where 
continuously operated mechanical ventilation 
is provided at a rate of 1 .0 cfm (10 m 2 ) for each 
50 square feet (1.02 L/s) of underfloor space 



floor area and ground surface is covered with an 
approved vapor retarder material. 

5. Ventilation openings are not required when the 
ground surface is covered with an approved va- 
por retarder material, the space is supplied with 
conditioned air and the perimeter walls are in- 
sulated in accordance with Section Nl 102. 1.7. 

R408.3 Access. An access opening 1 8 inches by 24 inches (457 
mm by 610 mm) shall be provided to the under-floor space. See 
Section Ml 305. 1.4 for access requirements where mechanical 
equipment is located under floors. 

R408.4 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be 
cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood forms 
used for placing concrete shall be removed before a building is 
occupied or used for any purpose. All construction materials 
shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any 
purpose. 

R408.S Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor sur- 
face may be located at the bottom of the footings; however, 
where there is evidence that the groundwater table can rise to 
within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the building 
perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface water does 
not readily drain from the building site, the grade in the under- 
floor space shall be as high as the outside finished grade, unless 
an approved drainage system is provided. 

R408.6 Flood resistance. For buildings located in areas prone 
to flooding as established in Table R301 .2( 1), the walls enclos- 
ing the underfloor space shall be provided with flood openings 
in accordance with Section R327.2.2. 



78 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

FLOORS 



SECTION R501 
GENERAL 

R501.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the floors for all buildings 
including the floors of attic spaces used to house mechanical 
and/or plumbing fixtures and equipment. 

R501.2 Requirements. Floor construction shall be capable of ac- 
commodating all loads according to Section R301 and of trans- 
mitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements. 



SECTION R502 
WOOD FLOOR FRAMING 

R502.1 General. Load-bearing dimension lumber for joists, 
beams and girders shall be identified by a grade mark of a lum- 
ber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an 
accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a 
grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grad- 
ing or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this sec- 
tion shall be accepted. 

R502.1.1 Preservatively treated lumber. Preservatively 
treated dimension lumber shall also be identified as required 
by Section R323.1. 

R502.1.2 Blocking and subflooring. Blocking shall be a 
minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring may be a mini- 
mum of utility grade lumber or No. 4 common grade boards. 

R502.1.3 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jpinted lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R501 .2 may be used interchangeably with solid- sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R502.1.4 Prefabricated wood I-joists. Structural capaci- 
ties and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists 
shall be established and monitored in accordance with 
ASTM D 5055. 

R502.2 Design and construction. Floors shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chap- 
ter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R323 and R324 or in accor- 
dance with AF&PA/NDS. 

R502.2.1 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an ex- 
terior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary 
structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as 
applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by 
the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where 
positive connection to the primary building structure cannot 
be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-support- 
ing. For decks with cantilevered framing members, connec- 
tions to exterior walls or other framing members, shall be 
designed jiand constructed to resist uplift resulting from the 
full live load specified in Table R301 .4 acting on the cantile- 
vered portion of the deck. 



R502.3 Allowable joist spans. Spans for floor joists shall be in 
accordance with Tables R502.3.1(l) and R502.3.1(2). For 
other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer 
to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. 

R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists. Table 
R502.3. 1(1) shall be utilized to determine the maximum al- 
lowable span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and 
attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway pro- 
vided that the design live load does not exceed 30 psf (1.44 
kN/m 2 ) and the design dead load does not exceed 10 psf 
(0.48 kN/m 2 ). The allowable span of ceiling joists that sup- 
port attics utilized for limited storage or no storage shall be 
determined in accordance with Section R802.4. 

R502.3.2 Other floor joists. Table R502.3.1(2) shall be uti- 
lized to determine the maximum allowable span of floor 
joists that support all areas of the building, other than sleep- 
ing and attics, provided that the design live load does not ex- 
ceed 40 psf (1.92 kN/m 2 ) and the design dead does not 
exceed 10 psf (0.48 kN/m 2 ). 

R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions. Joists under parallel 
bearing partitions shall be doubled or a beam of adequate size 
to support the load shall be provided. Double joists that are sep- 
arated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full 
depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on 
center. 

R502.5 Allowable girder spans. The allowable spans of gird- 
ers fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values 
set forth in Tables R502.5(l) and R502.5(2). 

R502.6 Bearing. The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall 
have not less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or 
metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or con- 
crete except where supported on a l-inch-by-4-inch (25.4 mm 
by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by 
the use of approved joist hangers. 

R502.6.1 Floor systems. Joists framing from opposite sides 
over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 3 inches (76 
mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three lOd 
face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to or 
greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted. 

R502.6.2 Joist framing. Joists framing into the side of a 
wood girder shall be supported by approved framing an- 
chors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 2 
inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports. Joists shall be sup- 
ported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less 
than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment 
to a header, band, or rim joist, or to an adjoining stud; or shall be 
otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories D! andD 2 , lateral 
restraint shall also be provided at each intermediate support. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



79 



FIGURE R502.2 



FLOORS 



BOTTOM WALL v 
PLATE 



OPTIONAL FINISH 
FLOOR 



, STUDS 



JOISTS— SEE TABLES 
R502.3.1(1) ANDR502,3.1( 



2 IN. CLEARANCE 
SEE SECTION 
R1 003.1 2 



FIREPLACE 



SOLID 

BLOCKING— SEI 
SECTION R502. 



SILL PLATE 



FOUNDATION 




SILL PLATE 



BAND, RIM OR 
HEADER JOIST 



BRIDGING BETWEEN 
JOISTS— SEE SECTION 
R502.7.1 



PROVISION FOR PIPES 
AND VENTS 



DOUBLE JOISTS UNDER BEARING 
PARTITIONS. IF JOISTS ARE 
SEPARATED FOR PIPES, BLOCK 
4 FT. ON CENTER MAXIMUM 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R502.2 
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 



80 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODEd 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1(1) 



TABLE R502.3.1(1) 
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/A = 360) 



JOIST 
SPACING 

(inches) 




DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


i SPECIES AND GRADE 


(ft.- In.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) ; 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-7 


19-0 


22-0 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


23-0 


11-6 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Hem-fir SS 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 




Hem-fir #1 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-2 


18-6 


21-6 




Hem-fir #2 


11-0 


14-6 


18-6 


22-6 


11-0 


14-4 


17-6 


20-4 


12 


Hem-fir #3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


Southern pine SS 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25- 1 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 




Southern pine #1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 




Southern pine #2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


18-7 


21-9 




Southern pine #3 


10-5 


13-3 


15-8 


18-8 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-0 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


21-4 


10-8 


13-6 


16-5 


19-1 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


10-9 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 




Hem-fir SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 




Hem-fir #1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


20-9 


10-4 


13-1 


16-0 


18-7 




Hem-fir #2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


19-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 


16 


Hem-fir #3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


Southern pine SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine #1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


17-1.1 


21-4 




Southern pine #2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-1 


10-5 


13-6 


16-1 


18-10 




Southern pine #3 


9-0 


11-6 


13-7 


16-2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-4 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-10 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-0 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-9 


19-6 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


10-1 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14- i 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Hem-fir SS 


10-1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-8 


10- 1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-7 




Hem-fir #1 


9-10 


13-0 


16-4 


19-0 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Hem-fir #2 


9-5 


12-5 


15-6 


17-1 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


19.2 


Hem-fir #3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 




Southern pine #1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-4 


19-6 




Southern pine #2 


10-1 


13-4 


16-5 


19-3 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine #3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-5 


14-9 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


20-2 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


19-6 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


9-11 


13-1 


16-8 


20-3 


9-11 


13-1 


16-2 


18-9 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


9-7 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 




Hem-fir SS 


9-4 


■ 12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


18-5 




Hem-fir #1 


9-2 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 


8-6 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 




Hem-fir #2 


8-9 


11-4 


13-10 


16- 1 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


24 


Hem-fir #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


Southern pine SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 




Southern pine #1 


9-7 


12-7 


16-1 


19-6 


9-7 


12-4 


14-7 


17-5 




Southern pine #2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 




Southern pine #3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-0 


17-5 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NOTE: Check sources for availability of lumber 



1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 
in lengths greater than 20 feet. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



81 



TABLER502.3.1(2) 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1(2) 

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/A = 360) 



JOIST 
SPACING 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


















(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 


(ft.- in.) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-0 


10-11 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


17-9 


20-7 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 




Hem-fir 


#1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


16-11 


19-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


20-4 


10-0 


13-1 


16-0 


18-6 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-9 


10-9 


14-2 


16-11 


19-10 




Southern pine 


#3 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 


8-6 


10-10 


12-10 


15-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-5 


19-1 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-9 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


18-7 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-1 


12-0 


15-2 


17-7 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-9 


20-4 


9-11 


13-1 


16-4 


19-6 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-1 


18-10 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4 


19-10 


9-8 - 


12-10 


16-4 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-0 


11-10 


14-8 


17-0 


8-8 


10-11 


13-4 


15-6 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-7 


11-3 


13-10 


16-1 


8-2 


10-4 


12-8 


14-8 




Hem-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 


19.2 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-11 


17-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-2 


12-1 


14-8 


17-2 


8-8 


11-3 


13-5 


15-8 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-9 


8-7 


10-1 


12-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


18-4 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


17-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-9 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-9 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-0 


11-11 


15-2 


18-5 


9-0 


11-11 


14-9 


17-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


17-5 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


16-10" 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-4 


10-9 


13- 1 


15-2 


7-9 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-11 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


7-4 


9-3 


11-4 


13-1 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-8 


11-5 


14-7 


17-5 


8-8 


11-3 


13-4 


15-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 


7-9 


10-0 


12-0 


14-0 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 


6-0 


7-8 


9- 1 


10-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-4 


11-0 


14-0 


17-0 


8-4 


11-0 


13-8 


15-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 



NOTE: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches. 



82 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1) 



TABLE R502.5(1) 

GIRDER SPANS 3 AND HEADER SPANS 3 FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum header spans for douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psff 


30 


50 


Building width (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Roof and ceiling 


2-2x4 


3-6 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-10 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-2x6 


5-5 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-2 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-1 


1 


3-8 


2 


2-2x8 


6-10 


1 


5-11 


2 


5-4 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-7 


2 


2-2x10 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


2-2x12 


9-9 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-6 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


3-2x8 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


3-2x10 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


7-10 


2 


7-0 


2 


3-2x12 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-2 


2 


4-2x8 


7-0 


1 ■ 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2x10 


11-8 


1 


10-6 


1 


9-5 


2 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


4-2x12 


14-1 


1 , 


12-2 


2 


10-11 


2 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


Roof, ceiling and one center- 
bearing floor 


2-2x4 


3-1 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


4-0 


1 


3-7 


2 


4-1 


1 


3-7 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-2x8 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-6 


2 


4-1 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-6 


2 


5-0 


2 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


3 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-8 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


3-2x10 


8-9 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-11 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


3-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-11 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-3 


2 


4-2x8 


5-10 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-2 


2 


4-2x10 


10-1 


1 


8-10 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-1 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


4-2x12 


11-9 


2 


10-3 


2 


9-3 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-3 


2 


8-4 


2 


Roof, ceiling and one clear 
span floor 


2-2x4 


2-8 


1 


2-4, 


1 


2-1 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-2x6 


3-11 


1 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-2x8 


l 5 "° 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-10 


2 ' 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


2-2x10 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-11 


2 


. 5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


2-2x12 


7-1 


2 


6-1 


3 


5-5 


3 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


3-2x8 


6-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-10 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


3-2x10 


7-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-11 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


3-2x12 


8-10 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-8 


2 


4-2x8 


5-1 


2 


4-5 ■ 


2 


3-11 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-10 


2 


4-2x10 


8-9 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-11 


2 


9-11 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-8 


2 


Roof, ceiling and two center- 
bearing floors 


2-2x4 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-2 


1 


1-11 


1 


2-2x6 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-10 


2 


2-2x8 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-0 


2 


3-8 


2 


2-2x10 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-8 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


2-2x12 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-6 


2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


3-2x8 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


2 


3-2x10 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-7 


2 


3-2x12 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


3 


4-2x8 


4-10 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-10 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-2x10 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 


4-2x12 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-3 


2 


7-5 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m . 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted 
tached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 

e. Use 30 psf ground show load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 



to be supported by an approved framing anchor at- 
20 psf. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



83 



TABLE R502.5(2) - R502.10 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(2) 
GIRDER SPANS 8 AND HEADER SPANS 3 FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS 



(Maximum header spans for douglas 


fir-larch, hem-fir, southern 


pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 


HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


BUILDING WIDTH (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


One floor only 


2-2x4 


3-1 


1 


2-8 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


3-11 


1 


3-6 


1 


2-2x8 


5-9 


l 


5-0 


2 


4-5 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-0 


2 


6-3 


2 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


1 _, 


5-7 


2 


3-2x10 


8-9 


1 


7-7 


2 


6-9 


2 


3-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-10 


2 


4-2x8 


9-0 


1 


7-8 


1 


6-9 


2 


4-2x10 


10-1 


1 


8-9 


1 


7-10 


2 


4-2x12 


11-9 


1 


10-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


Two floors 


2-2x4 


2-2 


1 


1-10 


1 


1-7 


1 


2-2x6 


3-2 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-5 


2 


2-2x8 


4-1 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-2x10 


4-11 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-10 


3 


2-2x12 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


3 


4-5 


3 


3-2x8 


5-1 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-11 


2 


3-2x10 


6-2 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-10 


2 


3-2x12 


7-2 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


3 


4-2x8 


6-1 


1 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2x10 


7-2 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-2x12 


8-4 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an ap- 
proved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 



R502.7.1 Bridging. Joists exceeding a nominal 2 by 12 shall 
be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging 
(wood or metal), or a continuous l-inch-by-3-inch (25.4 mm 
by 76 mm) strip nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicu- 
lar to joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). 

M502.8 Drilling and notching. Structural floor members shall 
not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations speci- 
fied in this section. See Figure R502.8. 

R502.8.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumber joists, raf- 
ters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the 
member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of 
the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third 
of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not ex- 
ceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side 
of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thick- 
ness shall not be notched except at the ends of the members. 
The diameter of holes bored or cut into members shall not 
exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall not be 
closer than 2 inches (5 1 mm) to the top or bottom of the 
member, or to any other hole located in the member. Where 
the member is also notched, the hole shall not be closer than 
2 inches (5 1 mm) to the notch. 



R502.8.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and 
holes bored in trusses, laminated veneer lumber, glue-lami- 
nated members or I-joists are not permitted unless the ef- 
fects of such penetrations are specifically considered in the 
design of the member. 

R502.9 Fastening. Floor framing shall be nailed in accordance 
with Table R602.3( 1). Where posts and beam or girder construc- 
tion is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall 
be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement. 

RS02.10 Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing 
shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. When the 
header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header 
joist may be a single member the same size as the floor joist. 
Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a single header joist 
that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmer joist bear- 
ing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the 
trimmer joists and the header joist shall be doubled and of suffi- 
cient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the 
header. Approved hangers shall be used for the header joist to 
trimmer joist connections when the header joist span exceeds 6 
feet (1 829 mm). Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be 
supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips 
not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 



84 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



FIGURE R502.8 



•L/3 



•L/3 



4- 



T' ' I NO NOTCHES I I 

D/6 MAX. J* PERMITTED "j -*- , 



I 



D/6 MAX. 



I" 



FLOOR JOIST— CENTER CUTS 



D/4 MAX. 



1 



1° 



T 



r 



D/4 MAX. 



MAX. D FROM 
SUPPORT 

r — 1 1 



i_r 



J- 



FLOOR JOIST— END CUTS 



TS1 



1 



D/3MAX 



RAFTER/CEILING JOISTS (802.7.1) 



D/3 MAX. 



2 IN, MIN. FROM TOP 
AND 3QTTOM OF JOIST 




PIPE OR CONDUIT 



D (ACTUAL DEPTH) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R502.8 
CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



85 



R502.1 11 -TABLE R503.1 



FLOORS 



R502.ll Wood trasses. 

R502.11.1 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accor- 
dance with approved engineering practice. The design and 
manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall 
comply with ANSI/TPI 1 . The truss design drawings shall be 
prepared by a registered professional where required by the 
statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be con- 
structed in accordance with Section R106.1. 

R5Q2.1L2 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rota- 
tion and provide lateral stability in accordance with the re- 
quirements specified in the construction documents for the 
building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the 
absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be 
braced in accordance with the TPI, HIB. 

R502.11.3 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and 
components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise 
altered in any way without the approval of a registered de- 
sign professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of 
load (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater, etc.), that exceed 
the design load for the truss, shall not be permitted without 
verification that the truss is capable of supporting the 
additional loading. 

R502.11.4 Trass design drawings. Truss design drawings, 
prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1, shall be 
provided to the building official and approved prior to in- 
stallation. Truss design drawing shall be provided with the 
shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design 
drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information spec- 
ified below: 

1. Slope or depth, span, and spacing. 

2. Location of all joints. 

3. Required bearing widths. 

4. Design loads as applicable. 

4.1. Top chord live load (including snow loads). 

4.2. Top chord dead load. 

4.3. Bottom chord live load. 

4.4. Bottom chord dead load. 

4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of appli- 
cation. 

4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads. 

5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design 
values for conditions of use. 

6. Each reaction force and direction. 

7. Joint connector type and description (e.g., size, thick- 
ness or gauge); and the dimensioned location of each 
joint connector except where symmetrically located 
relative to the joint interface. 

8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member. 

9. Connection requirements for: 



9.1. Truss-to-truss girder. 

9.2. Truss ply-to-ply. 

9.3. Field splices. 

10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum descrip- 
tion for live and total load. 

11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss 
members to enable the building designer to design the 
size, connections and anchorage of the permanent 
continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on 
the trass drawing or on supplemental documents. 

12. Required permanent truss member bracing location. 

RS02.12 Draftstopping required. When there is usable space 
both above and below the concealed space of a floor/ceiling as- 
sembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the con- 
cealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet (92.9 m 2 ). 
Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approxi- 
mately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor 
membrane above and a ceiling membrane below draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling assemblies under the follow- 
ing circumstances: 

1. Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing. 

2. Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or 
perforated members. 

R502.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be 
less than V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) 
wood structural panels, 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) Type 2-M-W 
particleboard or other approved materials adequately sup- 
ported. Draftstopping shall be installed parallel to the floor 
framing members unless otherwise approved by the building 
official. The integrity of all draftstops shall be maintained. 

RS02.13 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in wood-frame floor construction and floor-ceiling as- 
semblies in accordance with Section R602.8. 



SECTION R503 
FLOOR SHEATHING 

R503.1 Lumber sheathing. Maximum allowable spans for 
lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503. 1 , 
R503.2.1.1(l)andR503.2.1.1(2). 

TABLE R503.1 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING 



JOIST OR BEAM SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM NET THICKNESS 


Perpendicular to joist 


Diagonal to joist 


24 


"/,« 


% 


16 


5 /8 


% 


48" 


l'/ 2 T&G 


N/A 


54 b 


60 c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F b of 675 
and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

b. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F b of 765 
and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

c. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Ft of 855 
and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 



86 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R503.2.1.1(1) 



I TABLE R503.2.1. 1(1) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF 
AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENT a ' bc 



SPAN RATING 


MINIMUM NOMINAL 

PANEL THICKNESS 

(Inch) 


MAXIMUM SPAN 
(inches) 


LOAD (pounds per square foot, at 
maximum span) 


MAXIMUM SPAN 
(inches) 


With edge support* 1 


Without edge support 


Total load 


Live load 


Sheathing e 


Roof' 


Subfloor' 


12/0 


5 / 16 


12 


12 


40 


30 





16/0 


5 /,6 


16 


16 


40 


30 





20/0 


5 /,6 


20 


20 


40 


30 





24/0* 


'/. 


24 


20 s 


40 


30 





24/16 


7 / 16 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16 


32/16 


hi, h 


32 


28 


40 


30 


16 h 


40/20 


19/ 5/ 
'32, '8 


40 


32 


40 


30 


20 h - i 


48/24 


23/ 3, 
'32. '48 


48 


36 


45 


35 


24 


60/32 


X 


60 


48 


45 


35 


32 


Underlayment, C-C plugged, single floor 6 


Roof' 


Combination subfloor 
underlayment k 


16o.c. 


19/ 5/ 
'32, '8 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16' 


20 o.c. 


19/ 5/ 
'32, '8 


32 


32 


40 


30 


20 iJ 


24 o.c. 


23 /32, 3 /4 


48 


36 


35 


25 


24 


32 o.c. 


X 


48 


40 


50 


40 


32 


48 o.c. 


l 3 /32, l'/ 8 


60 


48 


50 


40 


48 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly. 

b. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of possible effect of con- 
centrated loads. 

c. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider. 

d. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports when span is 48 inches), tongue-and-groove 
panel edges* or other approved type of edge support. 

e. Includes Structural 1 panels in these grades. 

f. Uniform load deflection limitation: '/ lg0 of span under live load plus dead load, V240 of span under live load only. 

g. Maximum span 24 inches for 15 / 32 -and '/ 2 -inch panels. 

h. Maximum span 24 inches where 3 /4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists. 

i. Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor. 

j. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal 'A-inch thick underlayment with end and 
edge joints offset at least 2 inches or 1 .5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or 3 / 4 -inch wood finish flooring is 
installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniformjlive load at maximum span, based on deflection of V360 of span, is 100 psf. 

k. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal '/ 4 -inch-thick underlayment with end and edge joints 
offset at least 2 inches or 3 / 4 -inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflec- 
tion of V360 °f span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



87 



R503.1.1 -R504.3 



FLOORS 



R503.1.1 End joints. End joints in lumber used as 
subflooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched 
lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at 
least two joists. Subflooring may be omitted when joist 
spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a 1-inch 
(25.4 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring 
is applied perpendicular to the joists. 

R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing. 

R503.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panel 
sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to 
DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, 
CSA 0437 or CSA 0325. All panels shall be identified by a 
grade mark of certificate of inspection issued by an ap- 
proved agency. 

R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combined subfloor 
underlayment. Where used as subflooring or combina- 
tion subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall 
be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2. 1.1(1). 
When sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor 
underlayment, the grade shall be as specified in Table 
R503.2.1.1(2). 

TABLE R503.2.1. 1(2) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PLYWOOD COMBINATION 

SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENT 3 



IDENTIFICATION 


SPACING OF JOISTS (inches) 


16 


20 


24 


Species group" 








1 


% 


5 / S 


% 


2,3 


5 / s 


% 


7 / 8 


4 


X 


% 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m . 

a. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to 
supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except 
where nominal '/ 4 -inch-thick underlayment or 3 / 4 -inch wood finish floor is 
used. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 
V360 of span is 100 psf. 

b. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. 

R503.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable span 
for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination 
subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table 
R503.2. 1.1(1). The maximum span for sanded plywood 
combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in 
TableR503.2.1.1(2). 

R5Q3.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panels used as 
subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be at- 
tached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(l ) 
and shall be attached to cold-formed steel framing in accor- 
dance with Table R505.3.1(2). 

R503.3 Particleboard. 

R503.3.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall 
conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a 
grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an ap- 
proved agency. 



R503.3..2 Floor underlayment. Particleboard floor 
underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall not be 
less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness. 

R503.3..3 Installation. Particleboard underlayment shall be 
installed in accordance with the recommendations of the 
manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with 
Table R602.3(l). 



SECTION R504 

PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED-WOOD 

FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R504.1 General. Pressure preservatively treated-wood base- 
ment floors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand 
axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil 
pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and 
dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist de- 
flection requirements in accordance with Section R301 . 

R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads. Unless special provision 
is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil 
loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applications 
where the differential depth of fill on opposite exterior foun- 
dation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less. 

R504.1.2 Construction. Joists in wood basement floors 
shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the 
foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears on 
the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over-lapped 
joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient 
blocking shall be provided between joists to transfer lateral 
forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system. 

R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling. Where required, resistance 
to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by in- 
terior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls an- 
chored in the supporting soil below. 

R504.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation walls 
shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material removed, 
and any fill material that is added shall be free of vegetation and 
foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uniform 
support of the pressure preservatively treated-wood floor 
sleepers. 

R504.2.1 Base. A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granu- 
lar base of gravel having a maximum size of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 
mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of V 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth. 

R504.2.2 Moisture barrier. Polyethylene sheeting of mini- 
mum 6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the 
granular base. Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and 
left unsealed. The polyethylene membrane shall be placed 
over the pressure preservatively treated-wood sleepers and 
shall not extend beneath the footing plates of the exterior 
walls. 

R504.3 Materials. All framing materials, including sleepers, 
joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure 
preservatively treated and dried after treatment in accordance 
with AWPA C22. 



88 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



R505 - R505.2.2 



SECTION R505 
STEEL FLOOR FRAMING 

R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing. Elements shall be 
straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect 
structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing mem- 
bers shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

R505.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of steel floor framing for 
buildings not greater than 60 feet (1 8 288 mm) in length per- 
pendicular to the joist span, not greater than 36 feet (10 973 
mm) in width parallel to the joist span, and not greater than 
two stories in height with each story not greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) high. Steel floor framing constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to 
sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 130 
miles per hour (209 km/hr) Exposure A, B or C and a maxi- 
mum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 
kN/m 2 ). 

R505.1.2 In-line framing. When supported by steel-framed 
walls in accordance with Section R603, steel floor framing 
shall be constructed with floor joists located directly in-line 
with load-bearing studs located below the joists with a max- 
imum tolerance of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) between the center 
lines of the joist and the stud. 

R505.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing floor framing 
members shall comply with Figure R505.2(l) and with the di- 
mensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in 
Tables R505.2(l) and R505.2(2). Tracks shall comply with 
Figure R505.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 
1V 4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for 
members shall be the greater of 3 / 32 inch (2.4 mm) or twice the 
uncoated steel thickness. Holes in joist webs shall conform to 



Figure R505.2(3) and to the dimensional requirements speci- 
fied in Table R505.2(3). Holes shall be permitted only along the 
centerline of the web of the framing member. Holes for 
800S162-33, 1000S162-43, 1200S162-43 and 1200S162-54 
nominal joist sizes located less than 10 inches (254 mm) from 
the edge of load-bearing surface shall be patched in accordance 
with Section R505.3.6. 

R505.2.1 Material. Load-bearing members utilized in steel 
floor construction shall be cold formed to shape from struc- 
tural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of 
one of the following: 

1 . ASTM A 653: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 875 : Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

4. Steels that comply with ASTM A 653, except for ten- 
sile and elongation, shall be permitted provided the 
ratio of tensile strength to yield point is at least 1.08 
and the total elongation is at least 10 percent for a 2- 
inch (5 1 mm) gage length or 7 percent for an 8-inch 
(203 mm) gage length. 

R505.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing steel framing mem- 
bers shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment 
with the following information as a minimum: 

1 . Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum uncoated steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) 
(kPa). 



TABLE R505.2(1) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATION 3 


WEB DEPTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


550S162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


800S162-t 


8 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


1000S162-: 


10 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


1200S162-1 


12 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in Vioo inches, the letter "S" representing a stud or joist member, the second 

number representing the flange width in Vioo inches, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table 

R505.2(2)]. 

TABLE R505.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION 
(mils) 


MINIMUM UNCOATED THICKNESS 
(inches) 


REFERENCE GAGE NUMBER 


33 


0.033 


20 


43 


0.043 


18 


54 


0.054 


16 


68 


0.068 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25:4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



89 



TABLE R505.2(3) - FIGURE R505.2(3) 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.2(3) 
MAXIMUM HOLE DIMENSIONS AND SPACING IN JOIST WEBS 



NOMINAL 
MEMBER SIZE 


MAXIMUM HOLE DEPTH 3 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM HOLE LENGTH b 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM HOLE SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM HOLE EDGE DISTANCE 
(inches) 


550S162-33 


2 


5.25 


16.5 


10 


550S 162-43 


2 


5.25 


16.5 


10 


550S 162-54 


2 


5.25 


16.5 


10 


550S 162-68 


2 


5.25 


16.5 


10 


800S162-33 


1.5 


4 


24 


10 


800S 162-43 


3 


6 


24 


10 


800S 162-54 


3 


6 


24 


10 


800S 162-68 


3 


6 


24 


10 


1000S 162-43 


1.5 


4 


24 


10 


1000S 162-54 


4 


6 


24 


10 


1000S 162-68 


4 


6 


24 


10 


1200S 162-43 


1.5 


4 


24 


10 


1200S 162-54 


1.5 


4 


24 


10 


1200S 162-68 


4.75 


6 


24 


10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The dimension of the hole measured across the depth of the joist web. 

b. The dimension of the hole measured along the length of the joist. 

c. Edge distance is measured from the edge of the hole to the edge of bearing support. 



FLANGE 




DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 



FLANGE 



WEB 



SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO 
INSIDE) 




FIGURE R505.2(1) 
C-SECTION 



FIGURE R505.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 



I — SEE TABLE R505.2(3) 



SEE TABLE 
R505.2(3) 



G9 



SEE TABLE 
R505.2(3) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



■ i— E^ 



SEE TABLE .. 

' R505.2(3) *! 



BEARING CONDITION 



s 




FIGURE R505.2(3) 
FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES 



90 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



R505.2.3 - R505.3.1 



R505.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing shall have a metallic coating complying with one of the 
following: 

1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792. 

3 . A minimum of GF 60 in accordance with ASTM A 875 . 

R505.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- 
steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm), 
shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to S AE J78. 
Floor sheathing shall be attached to steel joists with mini- 
mum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to SAE 
J78. Screws attaching floor-sheathing-to-steel joists shall 
have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with 
countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum 
edge distance of 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board ceil- 
ings shall be attached to steel joists with minimum No. 6 
screws conforming to ASTM C 954 and shall be installed in 
accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws 
shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed 
threads. All self-drilling tapping screws conforming to SAE 
J78 shall have a Type II coating in accordance with ASTMB 
633. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel to steel con- 
nection the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 



factors in Table R505.2.4 when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 
than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor 
the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 



TABLE R505.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R505.3 Floor construction. Cold-formed steel floors shall be 
constructed in accordance with this section and Figure R505.3. 

R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or bearing wall connec- 
tions. Cold-formed steel floors shall be anchored to founda- 
tions, wood sills or load-bearing walls in accordance with 
Table R505.3.1(l) and Figure R505.3.1(l), R505.3.1(2), 
R505.3.1(3), R505.3.1(4), R505.3.1(5) or R505.3.1(6). 
Continuous steel joists supported by interior load-bearing 
walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 
R505.3.1(7). Lapped steel joists shall be constructed in ac- 
cordance with Figure R505.3.1(8). Fastening of steel joists 
to other framing members shall be in accordance with Table 
R505.3.K2). 



SUBFLOOR SHEATHING 



8 FT. MAX. HEADER SPAN 



MAX. 24 IN. 
CANTILEVER 



36 FT. MAX. 
BUILDING WIDTH 



BLOCKING 
12 FT. 




BEARING 
STIFFENER 



HEADER TRIMMER 



USE FLAT STRAP WITH BLOCKING 
OR GYPSUM BOARD TO BRACE 
BOTTOM FLANGE 



STRAPPING 12 FT. 
MAX. (TYP.) 



GIRDER BEAM OR LOAD-BEARING WALL 



FOUNDATION WALL' 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3 
STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 

(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODES 



91 



FIGURE R505.3 



FLOORS 



BUILT-UP HEADER AND TRIMMER JOISTS SHALL 
CONSIST OF A C-SECTION INSIDE A TRACK 
SECTION, SCREWED TOGETHER 24 IN. O.C. 
MAXIMUM THROUGH THE TOP AND BOTTOM 
FLANGES 



CLIP ANGLE (BOTH SIDES OF CONNECTION) 
MIN. LENGTH = JOIST WEB DEPTH 
MINUS V 2 IN. 




FLOOR JOIST INSIDE TRACK 



8 SCREWS (4 PER LEG OF CUP ANGLE) 



BUILT-UP HEADER OR TRIMMER JOIST 



JOIST 



CLIP ANGLE (BOTH SIDES OF CONNECTION) 
MINIMUM LENGTH = JOIST WEB DEPTH 
MINUS 1 / 2 IN. 




BUILT-UP HEADER AND TRIMMER JOISTS 
SHALL CONSIST OF A C-SECTION INSIDE A 
TRACK SECTION, SCREWED TOGETHER 24 IN. 
O.C. MAXIMUM THROUGH THE TOP AND 
BOTTOM FLANGES 



BUILT-UP HEADER JOIST 



8 SCREWS (4 PER LEG OF CLIP ANGLE) 



JOIST TO HEADER JOIST 



1 SCREW THROUGH BRACE. 
AT EACH FLANGE 




2 SCREWS THROUGH EACH LEG OF 
33 MIL 2 IN. X 2 IN. x BLOCKING 
DEPTH, CUP ANGLE 



33 MIL TRACK OR C-SECTION 
MINIMUM HEIGHT OF JOIST 
DEPTH MINUS 2 IN. 



OR 




X-BRACING 



SOLID BLOCKING 



BLOCKING OPTIONS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3— continyed 

STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION! 



92 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.1(1)- R505.3.3 



TABLE R505.3.1(1) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS abc 


FRAMING CONDITION 


, WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


Up to 110 A/B or 85 C or Seismic 
Design Categories 1 A, B, C and D1 


Up to 130 B or 110 C or Seismic 
Design Category D2 


Upto130C 


Floor joist to wall track of exterior 
steel load-bearing wall per Figure 
R505.3.1(l) ! 


2-No. 8 screws 


3-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


Floor joist track to wood sill per 
Figure R505.3. 1(2) 


Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate, spaced at 2' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced at l'o.c with 4- 
No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d 
common nails 


Floor joist track to foundation per 
Figure R505^3.1(3) 


7 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 6' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


V 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 4' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


V 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 2' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


Joist cantilever to wall track per 
Figure R505.3. 1(4) 


2-No. 8 screws peristiffener or 
bent plate 


3-No. 8 screws per stiffener or 
bent plate 


'/ 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 2' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


Joist cantilever to wood sill per 
Figure R505.3.1(5) 


Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c, with 
4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d 
common nails 


Steel plate spaced at Y o.c. with 
4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d 
common nails 


Joist cantilever to foundation per 
Figure R505.3.1(6) 


V 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 6' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


7 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 4' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


V 2 " minimum diameter anchor 
bolt and clip angle spaced at 2' 
o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

a. Anchor bolts shallibe located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings). Bolts shall extend a minimum of 1 5 
inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

c. In Seismic Design Category Di and D 2 or where the basic wind speed equals or exceeds 1 1 mph, connection shall comply with requirements in Section R603.8, 
but shall be no less than the minimum required herein. 

TABLER505.3.1(2) 
FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULE 3 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall 
per Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1(8) 


2 No. 8 screws 


Each joist 


Floor joist to track at end of joist 


2 No. 8 screws 


One per flange or two per bearing stiffener 


Subfloor to floor joists 


No. 8 screws 


6" o.c on edges and 10" o.c. at intermediate 
supports 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



R505.3.2 Allowable joist spans. The clear span of cold- 
formed steel floor joists shall not exceed the limits set forth in 
Table R5p5.3.2. Floor joists shall have a minimum bearing 
length ofi 1.5 inches (38 mm). When continuous joists are 
used the interior bearing supports shall be located within 2 
feet (610 mm) of mid span of the steel joists, and the individ- 
ual spans shall not exceed the spans in Table R505.3.2. Bear- 
ing stiffeners shall be installed at each bearing location in 
accordance with Section R505.3.4 and as shown in Figure 
R505.3. 

R505.3.21 Joist bracing. The top flanges of steel joists shall 
be laterally braced by the application of floor sheathing fas- 
tened to the joists in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2). 
Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) shall 



have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accordance with 
one of the following: 

1. Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws 
in accordance with Section R702. 

2. Continuous steel strapping installed in accordance 
with Figure R505.3. Steel straps shall be at least 1.5 
inches (38 mm) in width and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in 
thickness. Straps shall be fastened to the bottom flange 
at each joist with at least one No. 8 screw and shall be 
fastened to blocking with at least two No. 8 screws. 
Blocking or bridging (X-bracing) shall be installed be- 
tween joists in-line with straps at a maximum spacing 
of 12 feet (3658 mm) measured perpendicular to the 
joist run and at the termination of all straps. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



93 



FIGURE R505.3.1(1) - FIGURE R505.3.1(2) 



FLOORS 



TRACK 



BEARING STIFFENER 



SCREWS THROUGH JOIST 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



SCREW FLOOR TRACK 
TO WALL TRACK WITH 
SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 



TRACK 




JOIST 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



For SI: L inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(1) 
FLOOR TO LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION 



FOUNDATION 




4 -10d COMMON OR 
6 - 8d COMMON 

3 IN. x4IN. x33 MIL PLATE 
(WIN.) 



WOOD SILL AND ANCHOR BOLT 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (2) 
FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



FIGURE R505.3.1(3) - FIGURE R505.3.1(4) 



BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



8 SCREWS 




JOIST 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(3) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



SCREW AT EACH 
FLANGE 



TRACK 




SCREWS THROUGH JOIST 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



TRACK 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



FIGURE R505.3.1(4) 
FLOOR CANTILEVER TO LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



95 



FIGURE R5Q5.3.1{5) - FIGURE R505.3.1(6) 



FLOORS 



BLOCKING CONNECTED TO JOIST , 
WITH SCREWS THROUGH WEB 
STIFFENER OR CLIP ANGLE 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST , 
(MIN. THICKNESS OF TRACK) 



SHEATHING 



For SI: 







STIFFENER 






Ul'l ^^T" 


WOOD SILL AND ^ 
ANCHOR BOLT 






A 










\ 4 SCREWS"--^ ^5 






H \ 
U \ 


M-10dOR6-8d ^x. 

COMMON NAILS \ 




•'!•,'"•; 








*3IN.x4IN.x33MIL 
PLATE (MIN.) 






\ 

N FOUNDATION 




1 inch = 2 


5.4 m 


m, 1 mil = 


= 0.0254 


mm. 





"SCREW AT 
EACH FLANGE 



TRACK 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (5) 
FLOOR CANTILEVER TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



BLOCKING EVEFIY OTHER JOIST 
(MIN. THICKNESS AS TRACK) 



SCREW AT EVERY 
FLANGE 



BEARING STIFFENER 




6IN.x6IN.x6IN.x54 MIL 
CLIP ANGLE AND 
ANCHOR BOLT 



FOUNDATION 



CONNECTION OF BLOCKING TO 
JOIST THROUGH WEB STIFFENER 
OR CLIP ANGLE WITH 4 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(6) 
FLOOR CANTILEVER TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



96 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



FIGURE R505.3.1(7)- FIGURE R505.3.1(8) 



BEARING STIFFENER 



2 SCREWS THROUGH JOIST 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



TRACK 




JOIST 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



'SCREW AT 
EACH FLANGE 



FIGURE R505.3.1(7) 
CONTINUOUS JOIST SPAN SUPPORTED ON STUD 



TRACK 




ONE BEARING STIFFENER 
(4 SCREWS THROUGH 
STIFFENER AND BOTH 
JOISTS) 

TWO SCREWS 



LOAD-BEARINi 
STUD 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (8) 
LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON STUD 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



97 



TABLE R505.3.2 - R505.3.9 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS 3 '" 



NOMINAL JOIST SIZE 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


16 


24 


16 


24 


550S162-33 


10'-7" 


9'-l" 


9'-7" 


8'-l" 


550S 162-43 


ll'-6" 


lO'-O" 


10'-5" 


9'-l" 


550S162-54 


12'-4" 


10'-9" 


11 '-2" 


9'-9" 


550S 162-68 


13'-2" 


ll'-6" 


12'-0" 


10'-6" 


800S162-33 


13'-3" 


8'-10" 


10'-7" 


7'-l" 


800S 162-43 


15'-6" 


13'-7" 


14'-1" 


12'-3" 


800S 162-54 


16'-8" 


14'-7" 


15'-2" 


13'-3" 


800S 162-68 


17'-11" 


15'-7" 


16'-3" 


14'-2" 


1000S162-43 


18'-8" 


15'-3" 


16'-8" 


13'-1" 


1000S162-54 


20'-l" 


17'-6" 


18'-3" 


15'- 11" 


1000S 162-68 


21'-6" 


18'-10" 


19'-7" 


17'-1" 


1200S162-43 


20'-3" 


14'-1" 


16'-10" 


ll'-3" 


1200S 162-54 


23'- 4" 


19'-7" 


21'-3" 


17'-6" 


1200S 162-68 


25'- 1" 


21'-11" 


22'- 10" 


19'- 11" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot 

a. Deflection criteria: Z7480 for live loads, L/360 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 



= 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 



R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners shall be in- 
stalled at all bearing locations for steel floor joists. A bearing 
stiffener shall be fabricated from a minimum 33 mil (0.84 
mm) C-section or 43 mil (1 .09 mm) track section. Each stiff- 
ener shall be fastened to the web of the joist with a minimum 
of four No. 8 screws equally spaced as shown in Figure 
R505.3.4. Stiffeners shall extend across the full depth of the 
web and shall be installed on either side of the web. 

R505.3.5 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of load- 
bearing steel floor framing members shall not be cut or 
notched. 

R505.3.6 Hole patching. Web holes for 800S 162-33, 
1000S162-43, 1200S162-43 and 1200S162-54 nominal 
joist sizes with dimensions conforming to Section R505.2 
that are closer than 10 inches (305 mm) from the edge of the 
hole to the edge of the bearing surface shall be patched with 
a solid steel plate, C-section or track section in accordance 
with Figure R505 .3.6. The steel patch shall be of a minimum 
thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 
inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch 
shall be fastened to the web with No. 8 screws (minimum) 
spaced no greater than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center 
along the edges of the patch, with a minimum edge distance 
of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

R5®5.3.7 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilevers shall not ex- 
ceed 24 inches (610 mm) as illustrated in Figure R505.3. 
The cantilever back-span shall extend a minimum of 6 feet 
(1830 mm) within the building, and shall be fastened to a 
bearing condition in accordance with Section R505.3.1. 
Floor cantilevers shall be permitted only on the second floor of 



a two-story building or the first floor of a one-story building. 
Floor framing that is cantilevered and supports the cantilevered 
floor only shall consist of single joist members in accordance 
with Section R505.3.2. Floor framing that is cantilevered and 
supports the cantilevered floor and the roof framing load above 
shall consist of double joist members of the same size and ma- 
terial thickness as that for single joist members in accordance 
with Section R505.3.2, and shall be fastened web-to-web with 
minimum No. 8 screws at 24 inches (610 mm) maximum on- 
center spacing top and bottom. Built-up floor framing consist- 
ing of a C-section inside a track section, fastened at the top and 
bottom flanges by minimum No. 8 screws at 24 inches (610 
mm) maximum on center spacing, is permitted in lieu of the 
web-to- web double joist method. 

R505.3.8 Splicing. Joists and other structural members 
shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform with 
Figure R505.3.8. 

R505.3.9 Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing 
shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. Header joist 
spans shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). Header and trim- 
mer joists shall be fabricated from joist and track sections, 
which shall be of a minimum size and thickness as the adja- 
cent floor joists and shall be installed in accordance with 
Figure R505.3. Each header joist shall be connected to trim- 
mer joists with a minimum of four 2-inch-by-2-inch (5 1 mm 
by 51 mm) clip angles. Each clip angle shall be fastened to 
both the header and trimmer joists with four No. 8 screws, 
evenly spaced, through each leg of the clip angle. The clip 
angles shall have a steel thickness not less than that of the 
floor joist. 



98 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



FIGURE R505.3.4 - FIGURE R505.3.6 



BEARING STIFFENER 




FIGURE R505.3.4 
BEARING STIFFENER 



/SOLID STEEL PLATE, C-SECTION 
1 TRACK (MINIMUM THICKNESS 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.6 
HOLE PATCH 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



99 



FIGURE R505.3.8 - R506.2.3 



FLOORS 




4 SCREWS ON EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE 



1 TRACK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.8 
TRACK SPLICE 



SECTION R506 
CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

E506.1 General Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be a 
minimum 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see 
Section R403. 1 .8). The specified compressive strength of con- 
crete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2. 

MS06.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation walls 
shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material removed. 

E5Q6.2.1 Fill. Fill material shall be free of vegetation and 
foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uni- 
form support of the slab, and except where approved, the fill 
depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean sand 
or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth. 

RS06.2.2 Base. A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course con- 
sisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone or 
crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve 
shall be placed on the prepared subgrade when the slab is be- 
low grade. 

Exception: A base course is not required when the con- 
crete slab is installed on well-drained or sand-gravel 
mixture soils classified as Group I according to the 
United Soil Classification System in accordance with Ta- 
ble R405.1. 



M506.2.3 Vapor retarder. An approved vapor retarder with 
joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed 
between the concrete floor slab and the base course or the 
prepared subgrade where no base course exists. 

Exception: The vapor retarder may be omitted: 

1 . From detached garages, utility buildings and other 
unheated accessory structures. 

2. From driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork 
not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date. 

3. Where approved by the building official, based on 
local site conditions. 



100 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R601 
GENERAL 

R601.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of all walls and partitions for all 
buildings. 

R601.2 Requirements. Wall construction shall be capable of 
accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 
and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting struc- 
tural elements. 



.2.1 Compressible floor-covering materials. Com- 
pressibleifloor-covering materials that compress more than 
V32 inch (0.794 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) 
applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are 
greater than V 8 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncom- 
pressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or 
columns, which are fastened to the floor. 



SECTION R602 
WOOD WALL FRAMING 

R602.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of a 
lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by 
an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of 
a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber 
grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this 
section shall be accepted. 

R602.O End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R602. 1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R602.2 Grade. Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or 
stud grade lumber. 

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting , floors and 
nonhealing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the 
studs are-spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5). 

M602.3 Design and construction. Exterior walls of 
wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures 
R602.3(l) and R602.3(2) or in accordance with AF&PA's 
NDS . Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accor- 
dance with tables R602.3(l) through R602.3(4). 

R602.3.1 Stud spacing. In bearing walls, studs that are 
not more, than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length shall be spaced 
not more than is specified in Table R602.3(5). In bearing 
walls, studs that are more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in 



height shall be spaced not more than specified in Table 
R602.3.1. 

R602.3.2 Top plate. Wood stud walls shall be capped 
with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at 
corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End 
joints in top plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 
mm). 

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud 
walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, cor- 
ners and intersecting walls by a minimum 
3-inch-by-6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 
mm by 0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to 
each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, 
provided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs 
with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm). The 
top plate may be omitted over lintels that are adequately 
tied to adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equiva- 
lent as previously described. 

R602.3.3 Bearing studs. Where joists, trusses or rafters are 
spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the 
bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on cen- 
ter, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of 
the studs beneath. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 
140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 
mm) members. 

2. A third top plate is installed. 

3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed 
to reinforce the double top plate. 

R602.3.4 Bottom (sole) plate. Studs shall have full bearing 
on a nominal 2 by (38 mm) or larger plate or sill having a 
width at least equal to the width of the studs. 

R602.4 Interior load-bearing walls. Interior load-bearing 
walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified 
for exterior walls. 

R602.5 Interior nonbearing walls. Interior nonhealing walls 
shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch-by-3-inch (5 1 
mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, 
when not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch-by-4-inch (5 1 mm 
by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. 
Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with at least a single 
top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in ac- 
cordance with Section R602.8. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



101 



TABLE R602.3(1) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1) 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 




DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND TYPE 
OF FASTENER 3 '"' ' 11 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Joist to sill or girder, toe nail 


3-8d 





1" x 6" subfloor or less to each joist, face nail 


2-8d 
2 staples, l 3 / 4 


— 


2" subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail 


2-16d 


— 


Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail 


16d 


16"o.c. 


Top or sole plate to stud, end nail 


2-16d 





Stud to sole plate, toe nail 


3-8d or 2-16d 





Double studs, face nail 


lOd 


24"o.c. 


Double top plates, face nail 


lOd 


24" o.c. 


Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels 


3-16d 


16"o.c. 


Double top plates, minimum 24-inch offset of end joints, face nail in 
lapped area 


8-16d 


— 


Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail 


3-8d 


— 


Rim joist to top plate, toe nail 


8d 


6" o.c. 


Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail 


2-10d 


— 


Built-up header, two pieces with V 2 " spacer 


16d 


16" o.c. along each edge 


Continued header, two pieces 


16d 


16" o.c. along each edge 


Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail 


3-8d 


— 


Continuous header to stud, toe nail 


4-8d 


— 


Ceiling joist, laps over partitions, face nail 


3-10d 


— 


Ceiling joist to parallel rafters, face nail 


3-10d 





Rafter to plate, toe nail 


2-16d 


— 


1" brace to each stud and plate, face nail 


2-8d 
2 staples, 1V 4 


— 


1" x 6" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d 
2 staples, P/ 4 


— 


1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d 
3 staples, 1V 4 


— 


Wider than 1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


3-8d 

4 staples, l 3 / 4 


— 


Built-up corner studs 


lOd 


24"o.c. 


Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 


lOd 


Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c. at 
top and bottom and staggered. Two 
nails at ends and at each splice. 


2" planks 


2-16d 


At each bearing 


Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters: 
toe nail 
face nail 


4-16d 
3-16d 





Rafter ties to rafters, face 


3-8d 


— 



(continued) 



102 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1) 



TABLE R602.3(1)— continued 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING 
MATERIALS 


DESCRIPTION OF FASTENER bcde 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges (inches) 1 


Intermediate supports 015 (inches) 


Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing, and particleboard wall sheathing to framing 


'16 '2 


6d common nail (subfloor, wall) 
8d common nail (rpof) f 


6 


12s 


%-l 


8d common nail 


6 


12s 


l'/ 8 -l>/ 4 


1 Od common nail or 8d deformed nail 


6 


12 


Other wall sheathing h 


V 2 " regular cellulosic fiberboard 
sheathing 


1 V 2 galvanized roofing nail 6d common nail staple 
16 ga., l'/ 2 long 


3 


6 


V 2 structural cellulosic fiberboard 
sheathing 


1 V 2 galvanized roofing nail 8d common nail staple 
16 ga., lV 2 long 


3 


6 


25 / 32 structural cellulosic fiberboard 
sheathing 


l 3 / 4 galvanized roofing nail 8d common nail staple 
16 ga., l 3 / 4 long 


3 


6 


V 2 gypsum sheathing 


l'/ 2 galvanized roofing nail; 6d common nail; staple 
galvanized, 1 V 2 long; 1V 4 screws, Type W or S 


4 


8 


5 / 8 gypsum sheathing 


l 3 / 4 galvanized roofing nail; 8d common nail; staple 
galvanized, 1% long; l 5 / 8 screws, Type W or S 


4 


8 


Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing 


V 4 and less 


6d deformed nail or 8d common nail 


6 


12 


7 /s-l 


8d common nail or 8d deformed nail 


6 


12 


l'/,-l'/ 4 


lOd common nail or 8d deformed nail 


6 


12 



For SI: 1 inch- 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. 

b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7, 6 -inch on diameter crown width. 

c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. 

d. Four-foot-by-8-foot or 4-foot-by-9-foot panels shall be applied vertically. 

e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2). 

f. For regions having basic wind speed of 1 10 mph or greater, 8d deformed nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof sheathing to 
framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum. 

g. For regions having basic wind speed of 1 00 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches 
on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for 
minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing. 

h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 79 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to either AHA 194. 1 or 

ASTM C 208. 
i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and at all floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on 

roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and at all roof plane perimeters. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges 

perpendicular to the framing members shall not be required except at intersection of adjacent roof planes. Floor and roof perimeter shall be supported by framing 

members or solid blocking. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



103 



TABLE R602.3(2) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(2) 
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS 



NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


DESCRIPTION 3 ' b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Intermediate supports 
(inches) 


Wood structural panels subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing' 


7, s 


0.097- 0.099 Naill'A, 
Staple 15 ga. 17, 
Staple 16 ga. 17., 


6 


12 


% 


Staple 15 ga. 17,, 


6 


12 


0.097 -0.099 Naill'A 


4 


10 


Staple 16 ga. 17., 


6 


12 


% and 7 2 


Staple 15 ga. 17 2 


6 


12 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 17, 


3 


6 


Staple 16 ga. 17, 


6 


12 


%and7» 


0.113 Nail 17 S 

Staple 15 and 16 ga. 17, 


6 


12 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 17 4 


3 


6 


2 7 ]2 and7 4 


Staple 14 ga. 17., 


6 


12 


Staple 15 ga. 17„ 


5 


10 


0.097 -0.099 Nail 17, 


3 


6 


Staple 16 ga. 2 


4 


8 


1 


Staple 14 ga. 2 


5 


10 


0.113 Nail 2'/ 4 , Staple 15 ga. 2 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 27, 


3 


6 


NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


DESCRIPTION 8 '" OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 


SPACING OF FASTENERS A 


Edges 
(inches) 


Body of panel d ^Q 
(inches) 


Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboard' 


Plywood 


'1, and 7, 6 


17 4 ring or screw shank nail — minimum 
127 2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7,, 7 1S crown width 


2 


5 


'%, %, % and 7 2 


1 7 4 ring or screw shank nail — minimum 
127 2 ga. (0.099) shank diameter 


6 


8 C 


% 2 ,%,»/ i2 andX 


1 7 2 ring or screw shank nail — minimum 
127 2 ga. (0.099) shank diameter 


6 


12 


Staple 16 ga. 17 4 


6 


8 


Hardboard' 


0.200 


1 7 2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


6 


4d cement-coated sinker nail 


6 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7, long (plastic coated) 


3 


6 


Particleboard 


7 4 


4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


3 


6 


Staple 1 8 ga., 7, long, 7, 6 crown 


3 


6 


V, 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., 17, long, '/« crown 


3 


6 


7 2 ,7, 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., l7,long, 7, crown 


3 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head. 

b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7,,-inch on diameter except as noted. 

c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 1 2 inches on center at intl 
mediate supports for floors. 

d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel. 

e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way. 

f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to ANSI/AHA A 1 35.4. 



ntd* 1 



104 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(3) - TABLE R602.3(5) 



TABLE R602.3(3) 
ALLOWABLE STUD SPACING FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING 



PANEL SPAN RATING 


PANEL NOMINAL THICKNESS 
(Inch) 


MAXIMUM STUD SPACING (inches) 


Siding nailed to: a 


Stud 


Sheathing 


12/0, 16/01' 20/0, or wall —16 ox. 


5/ 3/ 
'16' '8 


16 


16" 


24/0, 24/16, 32/16 or wall— 24 o.c. 


3/ 7/ 15/ 1/ 

'8> M6> '32' '2 


24 


24 c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Blocking of horizontal joints shall not be required. 

b. Plywood sheathing 7,-inch thick or less shall be applied with long dimension across studs. 

c. Three-ply plywood panels shall be applied with long dimension across studs. 



TABLE R602.3(4) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHING 3 



THICKNESS 

(inch) 


GRADE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


When siding is nailed to studs 


When siding is nailed to sheathing 


% 


M-l Exterior glue 


16 


— 


% 


M-2 Exterior glue 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not meet. 
All panel edges must be supported. Leave a V, 6 -inch gap between panels and nail no closer than 3 / 8 inch from panel edges. 



TABLE R602.3(5) 
MAXIMUM STUD SPACING 



STUD SIZE 
(inches) 


SUPPORTING ROOF AND 

CEILING ONLY 

(inches) 


SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR 
ROOF AND CEILING (inches) 


SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS 

ROOF AND CEILING 

(inches) 


SUPPORTING ONE 

FLOOR ONLY 

(inches) 


2x4 


24" 


16 


— 


24 


3x4 


24» 


24 


16 


24 


2x5 


24 


24 


— 


24 


2x6 


24 


24 


16 


24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Shall be reduced to 16 inches if utility grade studs are used, 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



105 



FIGURE R602.3(1) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




TOP PLATE 



BOTTOM PLATE 



X 



TOP PLATE 



X 



BAND JOIST 
OR BLOCKING 



SILL PLATE 



N, 



'///AW/// 



RAFTERS AND CEILING- 
JOISTS OH APPROVED 
ROOF TRUSS 



SECOND STORY 



^ 




FLOOR JOIST- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R502.8 , 



JOIST IS PERMITTED TO 
BE CUT OR NOTCHED 

BETWEEN THESE LIMITS 



X 




, V3SPAN 



, 1 /3SPAN, 



O: 



'BAND JOIST OR 
BLOCKING 



BOTTOM PLATE 



FOR BLOCKING AND 
BRIDGING— SEE 
SECTION H502.5 



BEARING 
WALL 



, LAP JOIST 3 IN. MIN, 
OR SPLICE— SEE 
SECTION R502.4.1 



JOIST 



CRAWL SPACE OR 

BASEMENT 

FOUNDATION 



'/// \\\\ '/// s\\\ '/// AW/// Ytt 



-X. 



,W///\\\\ 

v/r 



v SUBFLOOR 



TOP PLATE- 
SEE DRI LUNG AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6.1 



* WALL STUD- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6 



JOIST NAILED TO 
STUD 



\ 



1 IN. x 4 IN. RIBBON 
CUT INTO STUD- 
SEE SECTION R602.8 
FOR FIRE BLOCKING 



W7Z// 



^mw/, 



PLATFORM FRAMING 



INTERMEDIATE 
BEARING WALL 



MONOLITHIC 

SLAB-ON-GRADE 

FOUNDATION 



BALLOON FRAMING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(1) 

TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING 



106 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R602.3(2) 



SINGLE OR DOUBLE 
TOP PLATE 



STAGGER JOINTS 24 IN. 
USE SPLICE PLATES 
SEE SECTION R602.3.2 



FIREBLOCK AROUND 

PIPE 



HEADER- 
SEE TABLES R502.5(1) 
AND R502.5(2) 



WALL STUDS- 
SEE SECTION R602.3 




SUBFLOOR 



APPLY APPROVED SHEATHING OR BRACE 
EXTERIOR WALLS WITH 1 IN. BY 4 IN. BRACES LET 
INTO STUDS AND PLATES AND EXTENDING FROM 
BOTTOM PLATE TO TOP PLATE, OR OTHER 
APPROVED METAL STRAP DEVICES INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER'S 
SPECIFICATIONS. SEE SECTION R602.10. 



NOTE: A THIRD STUD AND/OR PARTITION INTERSECTION 
BACKING STUDS MAY BE OMITTED THROUGH THE USE 
OF WOOD BACKUPS, CLEATS, METAL DRYWALL CLIPS OR 
OTHER APPROVED DEVICES THAT WILL SERVE AS AN 
ADEQUATE BACKING FOR THE FACING MATERIALS, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(2) 
FRAMING DETAILS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODEd 



107 



TABLE R602.3.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3.1 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 MPH OR LESS 





IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C and Di DC 




HEIGHT 
(feet) 


ON-CENTER SPACING (inches) 


24 


16 


12 


8 


Supporting a roof only 


>10 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


16 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


18 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA" 


NA 1 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NA* 


NA" 


NA" 


2x6 




Supporting one floor and a roof 




>10 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA" 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NA" 


NA" 


NA" 


2x6 


Supporting two floors and a roof 


>10 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NA" 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NA" 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA' 


NA" 


NA- 


2x6 


22 


NA- 


NA» 


NA" 


NA" 


24 


NA" 


NA" 


NA" 


NA* 



• 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 

a. Design required. 

b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf, f b not less than 13 10 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NDS tabular 
base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1.6 by 106 psi, tributary dimensions for 
floors and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 12 feet, eaves not greater than 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing. 
Where the conditions are not within these parameters, design is required. 

c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted. 

(continued) 



108 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3.1 



TABLE R602.3.1— continued 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 MPH OR LESS 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C and Di 




H = HEIGHT 



1 ROOF LOAD 



1 ROOF LOAD 
1 FLOOR LOAD 



1 FLOOR 



H= HEIGHT 



1 ROOF LOAD 

2 FLOOR LOADS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



109 



R602.6 - R602.6.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



M602.6 Drilling and notching — studs. Any stud in an exterior 
wall or bearing partition may be cut or notched to a depth not ex- 
ceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonhealing partitions 
may be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single 
stud width. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that the 
diameter of the resulting hole is no greater than 40 percent of the 
stud width, the edge of the hole is no closer than 5 / 8 inch (15.9 
mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the 
same section as a cut or notch. See Figures R602.6(l) and 
R602.6(2). 

Exceptions: 

1. A stud may be bored to a diameter not exceeding 60 
percent of its width, provided that such studs located 
in exterior walls or bearing partitions are doubled and 
that not more than two successive studs are bored. 



2. Approved stud shoes may be used when installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's recommenda- 
tion. 

R602.6.1 Drilling and notching of top plate. When piping 
or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or inte- 
rior, braced or load-bearing wall, necessitating a cutting of 
the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galva- 
nized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 
gage) and 1 .5 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened to each 
plate across and to each side of the opening with not less 
than six 16d nails (see Figure R602.6.1). 

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch 
or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing. 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 40 PERCENT" 
OF STUD DEPTH 



5 / B IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 25 
PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 




STUD 



% IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



F HOLE IS BETWEEN 40 PERCENT AND 
60 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH, THEN STUD 
MUST BE DOUBLE AND NO MORE THAN TWO 
SUCCESSIVE STUDS ARE DOUBLED AND SO 
BORED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Condition for exterior and bearing walls. 



FIGURE R602.6(1) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R602.6(2) - FIGURE R602.6.1 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 60 PERCENT \ 
OF STUD DEPTH ^ 



5 /e IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 
40 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 




5 /a IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6(2) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS 



EXTERIOR OR BEARING WALL, 



NOTCH GREATER THAN 50 
PERCENT OF THE PLATE WIDTH 




16 GAGE (0.054 IN.) AND 1.5 IN. WIDE 
METAL TIE ACROSS AND TO EACH 
SIDE OF THE NOTCH WITH 6-1 6d 
NAILS EACH SIDE 



TOP PLATES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602:6.1 
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



111 



R602.7 - R602.8 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.7 Headers. For header spans see Tables R502.5(l) and 
R502.5(2). 

R602.7.1 Wood structural panel box headers. Wood 
structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2. 

R602.7.2 Nonbearing walls. Load-bearing headers are not 
required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single 
flat 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be 
used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for 
openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical dis- 
tance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 



24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, no crip- 
ples or blocking are required above the header. 

R602.8 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided to cut off all concealed draft openings (both vertical and 
horizontal) and to form an effective fire barrier between stories, 
and between a top story and the roof space. Fireblocking shall 
be provided in wood-frame construction in the following loca- 
tions: 

1 . In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, includ- 
ing furred spaces, at the ceiling and floor level and at 10 
foot (3048 mm) intervals both vertical and horizontal. 
Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other ap- 



TABLE R602.7.2 
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERS 3 



HEADER 
CONSTRUCTION" 


HEADER DEPTH 
(inches) 


HOUSE DEPTH (feet) 


24 


26 


28 


30 


32 


Wood structural 

panel — one side 


9 

15 


4 
5 


4 

5 


3 
4 


3 

3 


3 


Wood structural 
panel — both sides 


9 

15 


7 
8 


5 
8 


5 
7 


4 
7 


3 
6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls. 

b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details. 



CRIPPLE TOP PLATE 



STRENGTH AXIS 



HEADER DEPTH 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NOTES: 

a. The top plate shall be continuous over header. 

b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet. SECTION 

c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs. 

d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of '7 32 -inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the 
header. 

e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 'A 
inch. 

f. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled. 

FIGURE R602.7.2 
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION 



• 



112 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.8.1 - R602.10.3 



proved nonrigid materials shall be allowed as 
fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs. 

2. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and 
horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings 
and cove ceilings. 

3. In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and 
bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall 
comply with Section R314.8. 

4. At openings around vents, pipes, and ducts at ceiling and 
floor level, with an approved material to resist the free 
passage of flame and products of combustion. 

5. For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Sec- 
tion R1001. 16. 

6. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is re- 
quired at the line of dwelling unit separation. 

R602.8.1 Materials. Except as provided in Section R602.8, 
Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of 2-inch (5 1 mm) nominal 
lumber, or two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal 
lumber with broken lap joints, or one thickness of 23 / 32 -inch 
(19.8 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 
23 / 32 -inch (19.8 mm) wood structural panels or one thickness 
of 3 / 4 -inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 
3 / 4 -inch (19.1 mm) particleboard, '/ 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gyp- 
sum board, or V 4 -inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 
Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other ap- 
proved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely 
retained in place shall be permitted as an acceptable fire 
block. Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a 
fire block unless specifically tested in the form and manner 
intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place 
and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases. 

R602.8.1.1 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt 
insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross 
section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 
inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, con- 
duit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insula- 
tion shall be packed tightly around the obstruction. 

R602.8.1.2 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of all 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

R602.9 Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be 
framed of studs not less in size than the studding above. When 
exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be 
framed of studs having the size required for an additional story. 

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 
mm) shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood struc- 
tural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l), or the cripple walls shall be 
constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported 
on continuous foundations. 

R602.10 Wall bracing. Walls shall be braced in accordance 
with this section. For buildings in Seismic Design Categories 
D, and D 2 , walls shall be constructed in accordance with the ad- 
ditional requirements of Sections R602.10.9, R602.10.ll and 
R602.ll. 



R602.10.1 Braced wall lines. Braced wall lines shall con- 
sist of braced wall panel construction methods in accor- 
dance with Section R602. 10.3. The amount and location of 
bracing shall be in accordance with Table R602. 10. 1 and the 
amount of bracing shall be the greater of that required by the 
Seismic Design Category or the design wind speed. Braced 
wall panels shall begin no more than 12.5 feet (3810 mm) 
from each end of a braced wall line. Braced wall panels that 
are counted as part of a braced wall line shall be in line, ex- 
cept that offsets out-of-plane of up to 4 feet (1219 mm) shall 
be permitted provided that the total out-to-out offset dimen- 
sion in any braced wall line is not more than 8 feet (2438 
mm). 

A designed collector shall be provided if the bracing be- 
gins more than 12 feet (3658 mm) from each end of a braced 
wall line. 

R602.10.2 Cripple wall bracing. Cripple walls shall be 
braced with an amount and type of bracing as required for 
the wall above in accordance with Table R602. 10. 1 with the 
following modifications for the cripple wall bracing: 

1. The percent bracing amount as determined from Ta- 
ble R602.10.1 shall be increased by 15 percent. 

2. The wall panel spacing shall be decreased to 18 feet 
(5486 mm) instead of 25 feet (7620 mm). 

R602.10.3 Braced wall panel construction methods. The 

construction of braced wall panels shall be in accordance 
with one of the following methods: 

1. Nominal l-inch-by-4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) 
continuous diagonal braces let in to the top and bot- 
tom plates and the intervening studs or approved 
metal strap devices installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's specifications. The let-in bracing 
shall be placed at an angle not more than 60 degrees 
(1.06 rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the 
horizontal. 

2. Wood boards of 5 / 8 inch (15.9 mm) net minimum 
thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced a maxi- 
mum of 24 inches (610 mm). Diagonal boards shall be 
attached to studs in accordance with Table R602.3(l). 

3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not 
less than 5 / 16 inch (7.9 mm) for 16-inch (406 mm) stud 
spacing and not less than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) for 24-inch 
(610 mm) stud spacing. Wood structural panels shall 
be installed in accordance with Table R602.3(3). 

4. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) or 25 / 32 -inch (19.8 mm) thick 
structural fiberboard sheathing applied vertically on 
studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center. Structural fiberboard sheathing shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Table R602.3(l). 

5. Gypsum board with minimum V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) 
thickness placed on studs spaced a maximum of 24 
inches (610 mm) on center and fastened at 7 inches 
(178 mm) on center with nails in accordance with Ta- 
ble R602.3(l). 

6 . Particleboard wall sheathing panels installed in accor- 
dance with Table R602.3(4). 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



113 



R602.10.4-R602.10.9 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced a maximum 
of 16 inches (406 mm) on center and installed in ac- 
cordance with Section R703.6. 

8. Hardboard panel siding when installed in accordance 
with Table R703.4. 

Exception: Alternate braced wall panels con- 
structed in accordance with Section R602.10.6 
shall be permitted to replace any of the above 
methods of braced wall panels. 

92.10.4 Length of braced panels. For Methods 2, 3, 4, 
6, 7 and 8 above, each braced wall panel shall be at least 48 
inches (1219 mm) in length, covering a minimum of three 
stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center and covering a minimum of two stud spaces where 
studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center. For Method 
5 above, each braced wall panel shall be at least 96 inches 
(2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a braced 
wall panel and at least 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied 
to both faces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Lengths of braced wall panels for continuous 
wood structural panel sheathing shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R602.10.5. 

2. Lengths of alternate braced wall panels shall be in 
accordance with Section R602.10.6. 

R602.10.5 Continuous structural panel sheathing. When 
continuous wood structural panel sheathing is provided in 
accordance with Method 3 of Section R602. 10.3, including 
areas above and below openings, braced wall panel lengths 
shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.5. Wood struc- 
tural panel sheathing at corners shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Figure R602.10.5. The bracing amounts in Table 
R602. 1 0. 1 for Method 3 shall be permitted to be multiplied 
by a factor of 0.9 for walls with a maximum opening height 
that does not exceed 85 percent of the wall height or a factor 
of 0.8 for walls with a maximum opening height that does 
not exceed 67 percent of the wall height. 



10.6 Alternate braced wall panels. Alternate braced 
wall lines constructed in accordance with one of the follow- 
ing provisions shall be permitted to replace each 4 feet 
(1219 mm) of braced wall panel as required by Section 
R602.10.4: 

1 . In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a length 
of not less than 2 feet, 8 inches (813 mm) and a height 
of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each panel shall 
be sheathed on one face with 3 / 8 -inch-mini- 
mum-thickness (9.5 mm) wood structural panel 
sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized box 
nails in accordance with Table R602 .3(1) and blocked 
at all wood structural panel sheathing edges. Two an- 
chor bolts installed in accordance with Figure 
R403.1(l) shall be provided in each panel. Anchor 
bolts shall be placed at panel quarter points. Each 
panel end stud shall have a tie-down device fastened 
to the foundation, capable of providing an uplift ca- 
pacity of at least 1,800 pounds (816.5 kg). The 
tie-down device shall be installed in accordance with 



the manufacturer's recommendations. The panels 
shall be supported directly on a foundation or on floor 
framing supported directly on a foundation which is 
continuous across the entire length of the braced wall 
line. This foundation shall be reinforced with not less 
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. When the continu- 
ous foundation is required to have a depth greater than 
12 inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch-by- 12-inch 
(305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned 
down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the 
braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned 
down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less than 
one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement 
shall be lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the rein- 
forcement required in the continuous foundation lo- 
cated directly under the braced wall line. 

2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each braced 
wall panel shall be in accordance with Item 1 above, 
except that the wood structural panel sheathing shall 
be provided on both faces, at least three anchor bolts 
shall be placed at one-fifth points, and tie-down de- 
vice uplift capacity shall not be less than 3,000 pounds 
(1360.8 kg). 

R602.10.7 Panel joints. All vertical joints of panel sheath- 
ing shall occur over studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall 
panels shall occur over blocking of a minimum of 1 V 2 inch 
(38 mm) thickness. 

Exception: Blocking is not required behind horizontal 
joints where permitted by the manufacturer's installation 
requirements for the specific sheathing material. 

R602.10.8 Connections. Braced wall panel sole plates shall 
be fastened to the floor framing and top plates shall be con- 
nected to the framing above in accordance with Table 
R602.3( 1 ). Sills shall be fastened to the foundation or slab in 
accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.ll. Where 
joists are perpendicular to the braced wall lines above, 
blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced 
wall panels. 

R602.10.9 Interior braced wall support. In one-story 
buildings located in Seismic Design Category D 2 , interior 
braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous founda- 
tions at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two 
story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D 2 , all 
interior braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous 
foundations. 

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to 
have interior braced wall lines supported on continuous 
foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 
mm) provided that: 

1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm). 

2. First-floor braced wall panels are supported on 
doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or floor 
beams. 

3. The distance between bracing lines does not ex- 
ceed twice the building width measured parallel to 
the braced wall line. 



114 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.1 



TABLE R602.10.1 
WALL BRACING 



SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY OR 
WIND SPEED 


CONDITION 


TYPE OF BRACE" 


AMOUNT OF BRACING ade 


Category A and B (S s < 0.35g 
and S DS < 0.33g) or 100 mph 
and less 


One story 

Top of two or three story 


Methods 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 16% of braced wall 
line. 


First story of two story" 
Second story of three story 


Methods 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 16% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 25% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Minimum 48-inch-wide panels located at each 
end and at least every 25 feet on center but not 
less than 25% of braced wall line for method 3 
and 35% of braced wall line for Methods 2, 4, 
5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Category C (S s < 0.6g and 
S DiS < 0.50g) or less than 1 10 
mph 


One story 

Top of two or three story 


Methods 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 16% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 25% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of two story 
Second story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 30% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 45% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 45% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 60% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Category D,^ < 1.25g and 
S DS < 0.83g) or less than 1 10 
mph 


One story 

Top of two or three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 20% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 30% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of two story 
Second story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and not more than 25 feet 
on center but not less than 45% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 60% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and not more than 25 feet 
on center but not less than 60% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 85% of braced wall line 
for Method 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Category D 2 or less than 
1 10 mph 


One story 

Top of two story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and at least every 25 feet 
on center but not less than 25% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 40% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of two story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located at each end and not more than 25 feet 
on center but not less than 55% of braced wall 
line for Method 3 and 75% of braced wall line 
for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Cripple walls 


Method 3 


Located at each end and not more than 25 feet 
on center but not less than 75% of braced wall 
line. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

a. Wall bracing amounts are based on a soil site class "D." Interpolation of bracing amounts between the Si> s values associated with the Seismic Design Categories 
shall be permitted when a site specific S M value is determined in accordance with Section 1615 of the International Building Code. 

b. Foundation cripple wall panels shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.2. 

c. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.3. The alternate braced wall panels described in Section R602.10.6 shall also be permitted. 

d. The bracing amounts for Seismic Design Categories are based on a 1 5 psf wall dead load. For walls with a dead load of 8 psf or less, the bracing amounts shall be 
permitted to be multiplied by 0.85 provided that the adjusted bracing amount is not less than that required for the site's wind speed. The minimum length of braced 
panel shall not be less than required by Section R602. 10.3. 

e. When the dead load of the roof/ceiling exceeds 15 psf, the bracing amounts shall be increased in accordance with Section R301 .2.2.4. Bracing required for a site's 
wind speed shall not be adjusted. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



115 



TABLE R602.10.5- FIGURE R602.10.5 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.10.5 
LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS IN A CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED WALL a,b 



LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM OPENING HEIGHT NEXT TO THE BRACED WALL PANEL 
(% of wall height) 


8-foot wall 


9-foot wall 


10-foot wall 


48 


54 


60 


100% 


32 


36 


40 


85% 


24 


27 


30 


65% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Full-height sheathed wall segments to either side of garage openings that support light frame roofs with roof covering dead loads of 3 psf or less shall be permitted 
to have a 4: 1 aspect ratio. 



^ 



16d NAIL AT 24 IN. O.C. 



8d NAIL AT 6 IN. O.C. 
(ALL PANEL EDGES) 




GYPSUM WALL BOARD INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH CHAPTER 7 



8d NAIL AT 12 IN. O.C. ON ALL 
FRAMING MEMBERS NOT AT 
PANEL EDGES 



\ 



WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 
INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH TABLE R602.3(1) 



(a) OUTSIDE CORNER DETAIL 



16d NAIL AT 24 IN. O.C. 




/GYPSUM WALL BOARD INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH CHAPTER 7 (INTERIOR) 



A. 



^ 



WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 
INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH TABLE R602.3(1) 



8d NAIL AT 6 IN. O.C. ON ALL FRAMING 
MEMBERS AT PANEL EDGES AND 12 IN. 
O.C. ON ALL FRAMING MEMBERS NOT 
AT PANEL EDGES 



(b) INSIDE CORNER DETAIL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.5 
EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING 



116 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.10-R602.11.3 



R602.10.10 Design of structural elements. Where a build- 
ing, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of 
the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice. 

R602.10.ll Bracing in Seismic Design Categories Dj and 

D 2 . Structures located in Seismic Design Categories D, and 
D 2 shall be provided with exterior and interior braced wall 
lines. Spacing between braced wall lines in each story shall 
not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) on center in both the longitu- 
dinal and transverse directions. 

Exception: In one- and two-story buildings, spacing be- 
tween braced wall lines shall not exceed 35 feet (10 363 
mm) on center in order to accommodate one single room 
not exceeding 900 square feet (83.61 m 2 ) in each dwelling 
unit. The length of wall bracing in braced wall lines spaced 
greater or less than 25 feet (7620 mm) apart shall be the 
length required by Table R602.10.1 multiplied by the ap- 
propriate adjustment factor from Table R602.10.1 1. 

Exterior braced wall lines shall have a braced wall panel 
located at each end of the braced wall line. 

Exception: For braced wall panel construction Method 3 
of Section R602. 10.3, the braced wall panel shall be per- 
mitted to begin no more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each 
end of the braced wall line provided one of the following 
is satisfied: 

1. A minimum 24-inch- wide (610 mm) panel is ap- 
plied to each side of the building corner and the two 
24-inch- wide (610 mm) panels at the corner shall 
be attached to framing in accordance with Figure 
R602.10.5or, 

2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the comer 
shall have a tie-down device fastened to the stud at the 
edge of the braced wall panel closest to thfe comer and 
to the foundation or framing below. The tie-down de- 
vice shall be capable of providing an uplift allowable 
design value of at least 1 ,800 pounds (816.5 kg). The 
tie-down device shall be installed in accordance with 
the manufacturer's recommendations. 

A designed collector shall be provided if the bracing is 
not located at each end of a braced wall line as indicated 
above or more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of a 
braced wall line as indicated in the exception. 

TABLE R602.1 0.11 
ADJUSTMENT OF BRACING AMOUNTS FOR INTERlbR BRACED 
WALL LINES ACCORDING TO BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 8 * 



BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 

(feet) 


MULTIPLY BRACING AMOUNT IN 
TABLE R602.10-1 BY: 


15 or less 


0.6 


20 


0.8 


25 


1.0 


30 


1.2 


35 


1.4 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Linear interpolation is permissible. 

b. The adjustment is limited to the larger spacing between braced wall lines to 
either side of an interior braced wall line. 



R602.10.11.1 Cripple wall bracing. In addition to the 
requirements of Section R602.10.2, where interior 
braced wall lines occur without a continuous foundation 
below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing 
shall be one and one-half times the length required by Ta- 
ble R602. 10.1. Where cripple walls braced using Method 
3 of Section R602.10.3 cannot provide this additional 
length, the capacity of the sheathing shall be increased by 
reducing the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of 
each piece of sheathing to 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) on center. 

R602.10.11.2 Sheathing attachment. Adhesive attach- 
ment of wall sheathing shall not be permitted in Seismic 
Design Categories C, D L and D 2 . 

R602.ll Framing and connections for Seismic Design Cate- 
gories D t and D 2 . The framing and connection details of build- 
ings located in Seismic Design Categories D[ and D 2 shall be in 
accordance with Sections R602.1 1.1 through R602.1 1.3. 

R602.ll. 1 Wall anchorage. Braced wall line sills shall be 

anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance 
with Sections R403. 1 .6 and R602. 1 1. Plate washers, a mini- 
mum of 3 / 16 inch by 2 inches by 2 inches (4.8 mm by 5 1 mm 
by 5 1 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation 
sill plate and the nut. 

R602.11.2 Interior braced wall panel connections. Inte- 
rior braced wall lines shall be fastened to floor and roof 
framing in accordance with Table R602.3(l), to required 
foundations in accordance with Section R602.1 1.1, and in 
accordance with the following requirements: 

1 . Floor joists parallel to the top plate shall be toe-nailed 
to the top plate with at least 8d nails spaced a maxi- 
mum of 6 inches (150 mm) on center. 

2. Top plate laps shall be face-nailed with at least eight 
16d nails on each side of the splice. 

R602.11.3 Stepped foundations. Where stepped founda- 
tions occur, the following requirements apply: 

1 . Where the height of a required braced wall panel that 
extends from foundation to floor above varies more 
than 4 feet (1220 mm), the braced wall panel shall be 
constructed in accordance with Figure R602.11.3. 

2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) 
in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be con- 
sidered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud 
wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the 
lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the 
upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along 
the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maxi- 
mum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the 
step in the foundation. 

3. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the 
foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing 
requirements for a story shall apply. 

4. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped 
and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Section 
R602. 1.1.1 shall apply. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



117 



FIGURE R6Q2.11.3 - R603.2.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SPLICE 



2x SILL PLATE 




.WHERE FOOTING SECTION "A" IS MORE THAN 8 FT., 
PROVIDE METAL TIE 16 GA. BY 1 ,5 BY 4 FT. MIN., EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE VW 8-1 6d COMMON NAILS. 



- 2x PLATE 




'//AW//AW//A\V//AW//A\V/;7 




'//A\\WA\\WA\V 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

Note: Where footing Section "A" is less than 8 feet long in a 25 feet total length wall, provide bracing at cripple stud wall. 

FIGURE R602.1 1.3 
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R603 
STEEL WAL| _ FRAM|NG 

R603.1 General. Elements shall be straight and free of any de- 
fects that would significantly affect structural performance. 
Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with 
the requirements of this section. 

R603.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of exterior steel wall 
framing and interior load-bearing steel wall framing for 
buildings not greater than 60 feet(18 288 mm) in length per- 
pendicular to the joist or truss span, not greater than 36 feet 
(10 973 mm) in width parallel to the joist span or truss, and 
not greater than two stories in height with each story not 
greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) high. All exterior walls in- 
stalled in accordance with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Steel walls con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions of this section 
shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design 
wind speed of 1 30 miles per hour (209 km/h) Exposure A, B 
or C and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per 
foot (3.35 kN/m 2 ). 

M603.1.1.1 Additional limits in high wind and high 
seismic regions. Braced wall lines and diaphragms in re- 
gions with wind speeds greater than or equal to 1 1 miles 
per hour (177 km/hr) or in Seismic Design Category D, 
or greater shall be permitted to have offsets of no greater 
than 4 feet (1219 mm). When offsets exceed 4 feet (1219 
mm) the wall to either side shall be considered as a sepa- 
rate braced wall line with bracing amounts in accordance 
with Table R603 .7. 



R603.1.2 In-line framing. Load-bearing steel studs con- 
structed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located 
directly in-line with joists, trusses and rafters with a maxi- 
mum tolerance of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) between their center 
lines. Interior load-bearing steel stud walls shall be sup- 
ported on foundations or shall be located directly above 
load-bearing walls with a maximum tolerance of 3 / 4 inch 
(19.1 mm) between the centerline of the studs. 

R603.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing steel wall framing 
members shall comply with Figure R603.2(l) and the dimen- 
sional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Ta- 
bles R603.2(l) and R603.2(2). Tracks shall comply with 
Figure R603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 
l'/ 4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for 
load-bearing members shall be the greater of 3 / 32 inch (2.4 mm) 
or twice the uncoated steel thickness. Holes in wall studs and 
other structural members shall not exceed 1.5 inches (38 mm) 
in width or 4 inches (102 mm) in length as shown in Figure 
R603.2(3). Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline 
of the web of the framing member. Holes shall not be less than 
24 inches (610 mm) center to center and shall not be located 
less than 10 inches (254 mm) from edge of hole to end of mem- 
ber unless patched in accordance with Section R603.3.5. 

R603.2.1 Material. Load-bearing steel framing members 
shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet 
steel complying with the requirements of one of the follow- 
ing: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Classes 1 
and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50A. 



118 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.2(1)-R603.3 



TABLE R603.2(1) 
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATION 3 


WEB DEPTH 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


350S162-t 


3.5 


. 1.625 


2 


0.5 


550S162-1 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 'Aco inches, the letter "S" representing a stud or joist member, the second 

number representing the flange width in '/,«, inches, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table 

R603.2(2)]. 



TABLE R603.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STUDS 



DESIGNATION (mils) 


MINIMUM UNCOATED THICKNESS (inches) 


REFERENCE GAGE NUMBER 


33 


0.033 


20 


43 


0.043 


18 


54 


0.054 


16 


68 


0.068 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



3. ASTM A 875: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Classes 1 
and 3). 

4. Steels that comply with ASTM A 653, except for ten- 
sile and elongation, shall be permitted, provided the 
ratio of tensile strength to yield point is at least 1.08 
and the total elongation is at least 10 percent for a 
2-inch (5 1 mm) gage length or 7 percent for an 8-inch 
(203 mm) gage length. 

R603.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing steel framing mem- 
bers shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment 
with the following information as a minimum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum uncoated steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) 
(kPa). 

R603.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing shall have a metallic coating complying with one of the 
following: 

1 . A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653 . 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 
792. 

3. A minimum of GF 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
875. 

R603.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel- 
to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of V 2 inch (12.7 mm), 
shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to SAE J 78. 
Structural sheathing shall be attached to steel studs with 
minimum) No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to 
SAE J78. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to steel 



wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 
inch (7 .4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed 
with a minimum edge distance of 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum 
board shall be attached to steel wall framing with minimum 
No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 and shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Section R702. For all connec- 
tions, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of 
three exposed threads. All self-drilling tapping screws con- 
forming to SAE J 78 shall have a Type II coating in accor- 
dance with ASTM B 633. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel to steel con- 
nection the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 
factors in Table R505.2.4, when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 
than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor 
the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 



TABLE R603.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


. #8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R603.3 Wall construction. All exterior steel framed walls and 
interior load-bearing steel framed walls shall be constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section and Figure 
R603.3. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



119 



FIGURE R6Q3.2{1) - FIGURE R603.2(2) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 



FIGURE R603.2(1) 
C-SECTION 



FIANGE 



WEB, 




SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R603.2(2) 

TRACK SECTION 



120 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R603.3.1 - R603.3.4 





1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


11 


7 

_j 



24 IN, MIN, 



10 IN. MIN. 



/"K~ 



s4^ 



4 IN. MAX. 



1.5 IN. MAX. 



"END OF MEMBER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.2(3) 
WEB HOLES 



R603.3.1 Wall to foundation or floor connections. Steel 
framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in 
accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(l) or 
R603.3.1(2). 

R603.3.2 Load-bearing walls. Steel studs shall comply 
with Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603. 3.2(7) for steels 
with minimum yield strength of 33 ksi (227.7 MPa) and 
Tables R603.3.2(8) through R603.3.2(13) fori steels with 
minimum yield strength of 50 ksi (345 MPa). Fastening 
requirements shall be in accordance with Section 
R603.2.4 and Table R603.3.2(l). Tracks shall have the 
same minimum steel thickness as the wall studs. Exterior 
walls with a minimum of Vj'inch (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board installed in accordance with Section R702 on the 
interior surface and wood structural panels of minimum 
7 / 16 -inch-thick (11.1 mm) oriented strand board or 
15 / 32 -inch-thick (11.9 mm) plywood installed in accor- 
dance with Table R603.3.2(l) on the outside surface shall 
be permitted to use the next thinner stud, from Tables 
R603. 3.2(2) through R603.3.2(13) but not less than 33 
mils (0.84 mm). Interior load-bearing walls with a mini- 
mum of V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board installed in ac- 
cordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall 



shall be permitted to use the next thinner stud, from Ta- 
bles R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(13) but not less than 
.33 mils (0.84 mm). 

R603.3.3 Stud bracing. The flanges of steel studs shall 
be laterally braced in accordance with one of the follow- 
ing: 

1. Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws 
in accordance with Section R702 or structural sheath- 
ing installed in accordance with Table R603.3.2. 

2. Horizontal steel strapping installed in accordance 
with Figure R603.3 at mid-height for 8-foot (2438 
mm) walls, and one-third points for 9-foot and 
10-foot (2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. Steel straps 
shall be at least 1.5 inches in width and 33 mils in 
thickness (38 mm by 0.836 mm). Straps shall be at- 
tached to the flanges of studs with at least one No. 8 
screw. In-line blocking shall be installed between 
studs at the termination of all straps. Straps shall be 
fastened to the blocking with at least two No. 8 
screws. 

R603.3.4 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of steel 
studs and headers shall not be cut or notched. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



121 



FIGURE R603.3 - TABLE R603.3.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING 




FOUNDATION 
ANCHOR 



STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING 



INTERIOR HORIZONTAL STUD BRACING 
(OR 1 / 2 IN. GYPSUM BOARD) 



v IN-LINE FRAMING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3 
STEEL WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.1 
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 3 '"' 



FRAMING CONDITION 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


85 A/B or Seismic Design 
Categories A, B and C 


85 C or less than 1 10 A/B 


Less than 110 C 


Wall bottom track to floor joist or track 


1-No. 8 screw at 12" ox. 


1-No. 8 screw at 12"o.c. 


2-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c. 


Wall bottom track to wood sill per Figure 
R603.3.1(2) 


Steel plate spaced at 4' o.c, 
with 4-No. 8 screws and 
4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c, 
with 4-No. 8 screws and 
4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c, 
with 4-No. 8 screws and 
4-10d or 6-8d common nails 


Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure 
R603.3.1(l) 


V 2 " minimum diameter 
anchor bolt at 6' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum diameter 
anchor bolt at 6' o.c. 


V 2 " minimum diameter 
anchor bolt at 4' o.c. 


Wind uplift connector capacity for 16-inch stud 
spacing 


N/R 


N/R 


65 lbs. 


Wind uplift connector capacity for 24-inch stud 
spacing 


N/R 


N/R 


100 lbs. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/hr, 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

a. Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 1 2 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolts shall extend a min- 
imum of 7 inches into concrete or masonry. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

c. N/R = uplift connector not required. Uplift connectors are in addition to other connection requirements and shall be applied in accordance with Section R603.8. 



122 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R603.3.1(1)- FIGURE R603.3.1(2) 



fk« 



4 SCREWS IN EACH 
FLANGE 



STJUD BLOCKING INSIDE WALL 
TRACK (MIN. THICKNESS AS 
WALL STUD) 



TRACK 



FOUNDATION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 .4 mm. 




-WALL STUD 



SCREWS AT 
EACH FLANGE 



ANCHOR BOLT 



FIGURE R603.3.1(1) 
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



WALL STUD 




FOUNDATION 



3 IN, x 4 IN. x 33 MIL PLATE (MIN.) 
4 SCREWS 
4-1 Od OR 6-8d COMMON 



ANCHOR BOLT THROUGH 
WOOD SILL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.1(2) 
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



123 



TABLE R603.3.2(1) - TABLE R603.3.2(2) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



TABLE R603.3.2(1) 
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULE 3 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENT 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS 3 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floor joist to track of load-bearing wall 


2-No. 8 screws 


Each joist 


Wall stud to top or bottom track 


2-No. 8 screws 


Each end of stud, one per flange 


Structural sheathing to wall studs 


No. 8 screws 


6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate 
supports 


Roof framing to wall 


Approved design or tie down in accordance with Section R802.1 1 



TABLE R603.3.2(2) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 8-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting roof and ceiling only (one-story building or second floor of a two-story building) 33 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils)"'" 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet)" 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



124 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(3) 



TABLE R603.3.2(3) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 8-FOOT WALLS 
Studs supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (first story of a two-story building) 33 ksi 



steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SJUD THICKNESS (mils) ab 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 

A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


: : Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 • 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


:;: '33' 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 ; 


,33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


54 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


I350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 ' 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


, 33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


iU 4 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


:;33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


L 33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 61895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: IV240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load (assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed used if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



125 



TABLE R603.3.2(4) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(4) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 9-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting roof and ceiling only (one-story building or second floor of a two-story building) 33 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) ab 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


550S162 


i 16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m. 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: Z7240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



126 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(5) 



TABLE R603.3.2(5) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 9-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (first story of a two-story building) 33 ksi steel 







i 

MEMBER 
! SIZE C 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) ab 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


: 70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


i350S162 


16 


;33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


133 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43' 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


.33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


!33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54' 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


;43 


: 43 


43 


! 43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


:54 


54 


54: 


54 


■ 54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


; 33 


33 


33 


'33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


'33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43' 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


68 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


■ 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


• 43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54: 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


24 


■(d) 


(d) 


(d). 


"(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 ' 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


'(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


— 


(d) 


(d) 














:550S 162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 '; 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour =1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is' fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



127 



TABLE R603.3.2(6) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(6) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 10-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting roof and ceiling only (one-story building or second floor of a two-story building) 33 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE C 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) ab 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


SO 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33' 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33' 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 ; 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 





(d) 


(d) 








(d) 


(d) 








(d) 











550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: ZV240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



128 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(7) 



TABLE R603.3.2(7) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 10-FOOT WALLS 
Studs supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (first story of a two-story building) 33 ksi 



steel 







MEMBER 
! SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) 8 " 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


:20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


SO 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


;.:43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


': 54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


:33' 


!33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 . 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


,33 


■33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


A3 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


,43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


68 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


• 33 


33 


33 


:'33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 ■ 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


; 43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


■ =54 


; 54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


68 


68 


68 . 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(4) 


24 


(d) 


(d) 






























550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


".(d) 


.(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


24 


































550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


' 68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254' mm, 1 mile per hour =U.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick!stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



• 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



129 



TABLE R603.3.2(8) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(8) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 8-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting roof and ceiling only (one-story building or second floor of a two-story building) 50 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils)"'" 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet)" 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


.33 


33 


33 


100 

mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


100 

mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


•33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


120 
mph 


110 

mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


,43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


■33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: Z/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



130 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(9) 



TABLE R603.3.2(9) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 8-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (first story of a two-story building) 50 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 

(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) a ' b 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



131 



TABLE R603.3.2(10) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(10) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 9-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting roof and ceiling only (one-story building or second floor of a two-story building) 50 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE C 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils)"" 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, ] pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



• 



132 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(11) 



TABLE R603.3;2(11) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 9-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (first story of a two-story building) 50 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) ab 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


' 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


■33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


■33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



• 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



133 



TABLE R603.3.2(12) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(12) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 10-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting roof and ceiling only (one-story building or second floor of a two-story building) 50 ksi steel 







MEMBER 
SIZE" 


MEMBER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


STUD THICKNESS (mils) 3 " 


WIND 

SPEED 


Building width (feet)" 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


54 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


68 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



134 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(13) 



TABLER603.3.2(13) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD THICKNESS FOR 10-FOOT WALLS 

Studs supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (first story of a two-story building) 50 ksi steel 



• 







MEMBER 
SIZE C 


MEMBER 
SPACING 

(inches) 


'STUD THICKNESS (mils) ab 


WIND 
SPEED 


Building width (feet) d 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. 

C ■ 


' 1 
Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


Ground snow load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 , 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 : 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 : 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 ^ 

mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


'33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


; 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


, 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


: 54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


54 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


' 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43. 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


120 
mph 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54. 


24 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


130 
mph 


120 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 ■ 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


■(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


■ 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


— 


130 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


'54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


54 


68 


68 


68 


24 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) : 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


:(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


(d) 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


, 54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 
1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 

c. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live ! load is 10 psf. 

d. 68-mil-thick stud is allowed if wall is fully sheathed per Section R603.3.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



135 



R603.3.5 - R603.7 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R603.3.5 Hole patching. Stud web holes with dimensions 
conforming to Section R603.2 that are closer than 10 inches 
(254 mm) from the edge of the hole to the end of the member 
shall be patched with a solid steel plate, C-section or track 
section in accordance with Figure R603.3.5. The patch shall 
be of a minimum thickness as the stud member and shall ex- 
tend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. 
The patch shall be fastened to the web with No. 8 screws 
(minimum) spaced not greater than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center 
to center along the edges of the patch, with a minimum edge 
distance of V 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R6Q3.3.6 Splicing. Steel studs and other structural mem- 
bers shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accor- 
dance with Figure R603.3.6. 

R603.4 Corner framing. Corner studs and the top tracks shall 
be installed in accordance with Figure R603.4. 

R603.5 Exterior wall covering. The method of attachment of 
exterior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud wall 
framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation in- 
structions. 

R603.6 Headers. Headers shall be installed above wall open- 
ings in all exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls in ac- 
cordance with Figure R603.6 and Tables R603.6(l), 
R603.6(2), and R603.6(3). The number of jack and king studs 
shall comply with Table R603.6(4). King and jack studs shall 
be of the same dimension and thickness as the adjacent wall 
studs. Headers shall be connected to king studs in accordance 
with Table R603.6(5). One-half of the total number of screws 
shall be applied to the header and one-half to the king stud by 



use of a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch (5 1 mm by 51 mm) clip an- 
gle or 4-inch (102 mm) wide steel plate. The clip angle or plate 
shall extend the depth of the header minus V 2 inch (12.7 mm) 
and shall have a minimum thickness of the header members or 
the wall studs, whichever is thicker. 

R603.7 Structural sheathing. In areas where the basic wind 
speed is less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), wood struc- 
tural sheathing panels shall be installed on all exterior walls of 
buildings in accordance with this section. Wood structural 
sheathing panels shall consist of minimum 7 / 16 -inch (11.1 mm) 
thick oriented strand board or 15 / 32 -inch (11.9 mm) thick ply- 
wood and shall be installed on all exterior wall surfaces in ac- 
cordance with Section R603.7.1 and Figure R603.3. The 
minimum length of full height sheathing on exterior walls shall 
be determined in accordance with Table R603.7, but shall not 
be less than 20 percent of the braced wall length in any case. 
The minimum percentage of full height sheathing in Table 
R603.7 shall include only those sheathed wall sections, unin- 
terrupted by openings, which are a minimum of 48 inches 
(1120 mm) wide. The minimum percentage of full-height 
structural sheathing shall be multiplied by 1 . 10 for 9-foot (2743 
mm) high walls and multiplied by 1.20 for 10-foot (3048 mm) 
high walls. In addition, structural sheathing shall: 

1. Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the stud 
framing and shall cover the full vertical height of studs, 
from the bottom of the bottom track to the top of the top 
track of each story. 

2. Be applied to each end (corners) of each of the exterior 
walls with a minimum 48-inch-wide (1220 mm) panel. 



SCREWS 1 IN. O.C. (TYP.) 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SOLID STEEL PLATE, 
C-SECTION OR TRACK 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 
AS STUD 



FIGURE R603.3.5 
HOLE PATCH 



136 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R603.3.6 - FIGURE R603.4 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



For SI: 1 inch" = 25.4 mm. 



4 SCREWS ON EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE 



^STUD SECTION 
INSIDE TRACK 



FIGURE R603.3.6 
TRACK SPLICE 



4 SCREWS AT LAPPED TRACK 




FIGURE R603.4 
CORNER FRAMING 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



137 



TABLE R603.6(1) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(1) 

ALLOWABLE HEADER SPANS ab 

Headers supporting roof and ceiling only (33 ksi steel) 



NOMINAL 
MEMBER 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(SO psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


2-350S 162-33 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


3'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 








2-350S 162-43 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


4'-0" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'- 11" 


3'-9" 


3'-10" 


3'-7" 


3'-4" 


3'-2" 


3'-5" 


3'-2" 


3'-0<' 


2'-9" 


2-350S162-54 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


4'-3" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-7" 


3'- 10" 


3'-7" 


3'-4" 


3'-2" 


2-350S 162-68 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


5'-3" 


5'-0" 


5'-7" 


5'-3" 


4'-] 1" 


4'-8" 


4'-10" 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


4'-0" 


4'-3" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-7" 


2-550S 162-33 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-5" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 











— 


„_ 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


4'-5" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2-550S 162-54 


7'-3" 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


6'-l" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


5'-l" 


4'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


2-550S 162-68 


8'-2" 


7'-8" 


7'-2" 


6'- 11" 


T-T 


7'-2" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


6'-6" 


6'-l" 


5'-9" 


5'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


5'-l" 


4'-10" 


2-800S162-33 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-3" 


— 





— 





— 





— 











2-800S162-43 


6'-8" 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


5'- 10" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


2-800S162-54 


9'-6" 


8'- 10" 


8'-4" 


7'-ll" 


8'- 10" 


8'-3" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


7'-7" 


7'-l" 


6'-7" 


5'-ll" 


6'-9" 


5'- 10" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


2-800S162-68 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'-ll" 


9'- 11" 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-4" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


7'-2" 


7'-7" 


7'-l" 


6'-8" 


6'-4" 


2-1000S162-43 


5'-7" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


4'- 10" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 





2-1000S162-54 


10'-6" 


9'-8" 


8'-7" 


7'-9" 


9'-8" 


8'-5" 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


4'-ll" 


5'-7" 


4'- 11" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


2-1000S162-68 


12'-7" 


11 '-9" 


ll'-l" 


10'-6" 


ll'-9" 


10'-12" 


10'-4" 


9'- 10" 


lO'-l" 


9'-5" 


8'-10" 


8'-5" 


8'- 11" 


8'-4" 


7'-H" 


7'-6" 


2-1200S162-43 


































2- 1200S 162-54 


9'-6" 


8'-3" 


7'-4" 


6'-7" 


8'-3" 


7'-3" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2-1200S162-68 


13'-5" 


12'-7" 


ll'-lO" 


11 '-3" 


12'-6" 


1 l'-9" 


ll'-l" 


10'-6" 


10'-9" 


lO'-l" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


9'-7" 


8'-5" 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 



304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 
loads, L/240 for total loads. 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 7 psf. 
Ceiling dead load is 5 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



MPa. 



138 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(2) 



TABLE R603.6(2) 

ALLOWABLE HEADER SPANS 3 '" 

Headers supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (33 ksi steel) 



NOMINAL 
MEMBER 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


2-350S 162-42 


3'-3" 


3'-l" 


2'-ll" 


2'-8" 


3'-2" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'- 11" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-2" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2'-l" 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-8" 


3'-6" 


3'-3" 


3'-2" 


3'-6" 


3'-4" 


3'-2" 


3'-0" 


3'-4" 


3'-l" 


2'-ll" 


2'-9" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-10" 


2'-9" 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-2" 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


3'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-6" 


3'-4" 


3'-8" 


3'-6" 


3'-3" 


3'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-5" 


3'-2" 


3'-l" 


2-550S162-43 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


3'- 10" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-550S 162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


4'-10" 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


4'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


2-550S162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-l" 


4'- 10" 


4'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


4'-ll" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


2-800S 162-43 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


— 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


6'-3" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


4'-10" 


4'-3" 


3'-10" 


3'-5" 


2-800S162-68 


7'-4" 


6'- 11" 


6'-7" 


6'-3" 


7'-l" 


6'-8" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


6'-7" 


6'-2" 


5'-10" 


5'-7" 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


2-1000S162-43 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 








2'-5" 























— 


— 


— 





2-1000S162-54 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


4'-10" 


4'-3" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'-10" 


2-1000S 162-68 


8'-8" 


8'-2" 


7'-9" 


7'-4" 


8'-4" 


7'- 10" 


7'-5" 


7'-0" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


r-i" 


7'-l" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


2-1000S162-54 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


2'-7" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2-1000S162-68 


9'-l" 


8'-0" 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


8'-4" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


7'-3" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-2" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


4'-ll" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m , 1 kilogram per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 7 psf. 
Ceiling dead load is 5 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor wall dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



139 



TABLE R603.6(3) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(3) 

ALLOWABLE HEADER SPANS abc 

Headers supporting one floor, roof and ceiling first story of a two-story building with center load bearing beam (33 ksi steel) 



NOMINAL 
MEMBER 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf ) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


24 


28 


32 


36 


2-350S 162-33 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


— 


2'-7" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2'-2" 





— 











_ 





2-350S 162-43 


3'-9" 


3'-6" 


3'-4" 


3'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-4" 


3'-2" 


3'-0" 


3'-3" 


3'-l" 


2'- 11" 


2'-8" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-350S 162-54 


4'-2" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-7" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-7" 


3'-5" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


3'-3" 


3'-l" 


3'-5" 


3'-2" 


3'-0" 


2'- 10" 


2-350S162-68 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


4'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


4'-0" 


3'-10" 


4'-l" 


3'-10" 


3'-8" 


3'-6" 


3'-9" 


3'-7" 


3'-4" 


3'-2" 


2-550S162-33 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 








2-550S162-43 


5'-l" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-10" 


4'-10" 


4'-3" 


3'-10" 


3'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-550S162-54 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-l" 


4'-10" 


5'-5" 


5'-l" 


4'-10" 


4'-7" 


4'-ll" 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'- 11" 


2-550S162-68 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-9" 


5'-6" 


6'-l" 


5'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-3" 


4'-ll" 


4'-9" 


5'-2" 


4'-10" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


2-800S 162-33 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 


2'-8" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-3" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 








2-800S162-43 


7'-5" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


2-800S 162-54 


8'-4" 


7-11" 


7'-6" 


7'-l" 


7'- 11" 


7'-6" 


7'-l" 


6'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'-10" 


6'-6" 


6'-2" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


2-800S 162-68 


lO'-O" 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-6" 


9'-6" 


9'-0" 


8'-6" 


8'-l" 


8'-8" 


8'-2" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


8'-l" 


7'-7" 


7'-2" 


6'-10" 


2-1000S162-43 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2'-7" 


2'-3" 


2'-l" 





2'-3" 











2-1000S162-54 


6'-10" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


9'-10" 


9'-4" 


8'- 10" 


8'-5" 


9'-4" 


8'-10" 


8'-4" 


8'-0" 


8'-7" 


8'-l" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


7'-0" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


2-1200S162-43 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 





— 


2'-3" 





— 





— 











2-1200S 162-54 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2-1200S162-68 


10'-6" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'-6" 


9'-12" 


9'-5" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


8'-10" 


7'-10" 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


7'-7" 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 kilogram per square inch = 

a. Deflection criteria: ZV360 for live loads, t/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof dead load is 7 psf. 
Ceiling dead load is 5 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor wall dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



6.895 MPa. 



140 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(4) - TABLE R603.7 



TABLE R603.6(4) 
TOTAL NUMBER OF JACK AND KING STUDS REQUIRED AT EACH END OF AN OPENING 



SIZE OF OPENING 
(feet-inches) 


24" O.C. STUD SPACING 


16" O.C. STUD SPACING 


No. of jack studs 


No. of king studs 


No. of jack studs 


No. of king studs 


Up to 3'-6" 


1 


1 


1 


1 


>3'-6fto5'-0" 


1 


2 


1 


2 


> 5'-Q" to 5'-6" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 5'-6f to 8'-0" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 8'-0'> to lQ'-6" 


2 


2 


2 


3 


>10'-6hol2'-0" 


2 


2 


3 


3 


>12'-0"tol3'-0" 


2 


3 


3 


3 


> 13'-6" to U'-O" 


2 


: 3 


3 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 





TABLE R603.6(5) 
HEADER TO KING STUD CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 8 '"' 011 ' 6 






HEADER SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph), EXPOSURE 


85 A/B or Seismic; Design 
Categories A, B, G and D 


85 C or less than 110 A/B 


Less than 1 10 C 


<4' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


> 4' to 8' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


> 8' to 12' 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


10-No. 8 screws 


> 12'to 16' 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


12-No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

b. For headers located on the first floor of a two-story building, the total number of screws may be reduced by two screws, but the total number of screws shall be no 
less than four. 

c. For roof slopes of 6: 12 or greater, the required number of screws may be reduced by half, but the total number of screws shall be no less than four. 

d. Screws can be replaced by a up-lift connector which has a capacity of the number of screws multiplied by 164 pounds (e.g., 1 2-No. 8 screws can be replaced by an 
up-lift connector whose capacity exceeds 12 by 164 pounds = 1,968 pounds) 

e. In Seismic Design Category D, and D$ or where the basic wind speed equals or exceeds 110 miles per hour, connection shall comply with the requirements in Sec- 
tion R603.8! but shall be no less than the minimum required herein. 



TABLE R603.7 
MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF FULL HEIGHT STRUCTURAL SHEATHING ON EXTERIOR WALLS abcde 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF 
SLOPE 


WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


85 A/B 


100 A/B 


110 A/B or 85 C 


100 C 


110C 


Roof and ceiling only 


3:12 


8 


9 


12 


16 


20 


6:12 


12 


15 


20 


26 


35 


9:12 


21 


25 


30 


50 


58 


12:12 


30 


35 


40 


66 


75 


One story, roof and ceiling 


3:12 


24 


30 


35 


50 


66 


6:12 


25 


30 


40 


58 


74 


9:12 


35 


40 


55 


74 


91 


12:12 


40 


50 


65 


100 


115 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Bracing amount shall not be less than 20 percent of the wall length after all applicable adjustments are made. 

c. Minimum percentages are based on a building aspect ratio of 1 : 1 . Minimum percentages for the shorter walls of a building shall be multiplied by a factor of 1 .5 and 
2.0 for building aspect ratios of 1 .5 : 1 and 2: 1 respectively. 

d. For hip roofed homes with continuous structural sheathing, the amount of bracing shall be permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not exceed- 
ing 7: 12 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12. 

e. Sheathing percentage are permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section R603.7.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



141 



FIGURE R603.6 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 
(ONE PER HEADER FLANGE) 



2 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 




,(SEE ALTERNATE DETAIL) 



CLIP ANGLE ATTACHED WITH SCREWS 
IN EACH LEG OF CUP ANGLE, 
MINIMUM ANGLE LENGTH = HEADER 
DEPTH MINUS V 2 IN. 



JACKSTUD(S) 
KING STUD(S) 



STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING EXTERIOR 



SCREW AT 24 IN. O.C. THROUGH EXTERIOR 
SHEATHING TO EACH JACK AND KING STUD 



2 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 
(ONE PER HEADER FLANGE) 




PLATE ATTACHED TO BOTH 

THE BOX BEAM HEADER AND STUD 

WITH SCREWS, 

MINIMUM PLATE LENGTH = 

HEADER DEPTH MINUS V 2 IN. 



ALTERNATE DETAIL 
(BOX BEAM HEADER) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.6 
HEADER DETAIL 



142 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R603.7.1-R603.8.1.2 



R603.7.1 Structural sheathing fastening. All edges and 
interior areas of wood, structural sheathing panels shall be 
fastened to a framing member and tracks in accordance with 
Table R603.3.2(l). 

R603.7.2 Hold-down requirements. The percent of struc- 
tural sheathing, required in Table R603.7, is permitted to be 
multiplied by 0.6 where a hold down anchor with a capacity 
of 4,300 pounds (1952.2 kg) is provided at each end of exte- 
rior walls. A single hold down anchor is permitted to be in- 
stalled at wall corners per Figure R603.8.1.3. 

R603.8 Braced walls and diaphragms in high seismic and 
high wind regions. Braced walls and diaphragms in high seis- 
mic and high wind regions shall comply with this section. 

R603.8.1 General. Buildings in Seismic Design Categories 
D, and D 2 and buildings in areas where the basic wind speed 
equals or exceeds 1 10 miles per hour (177 km/h) shall have 
braced wall lines and diaphragms constructed in accordance 
with the additional provisions of Section R603.8. Where a 
building, or portion thereof, does not comply with the provi- 
sions of this section, those portions shall be designed and 
constructed in compliance with Section R301 . 

R603.8.1.1 Building configuration. Floor and roof dia- 
phragm plan aspect ratios shall not exceed four to one 
(4: 1). The diaphragm aspect ratio shall be determined by 
dividing the length of the diaphragm between braced 



wall lines by the width of the diaphragm between braced 
wall lines. Braced wall lines shall be placed on all exte- 
rior walls and on interior walls as required. 

Floor and roof diaphragm plan offsets shall not exceed 
4 feet (1219 mm). 

Exception: Buildings where diaphragm plan offsets 
exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), buildings shall be analyzed 
as separate buildings, separated by a braced wall line 
or lines (see Figure R603.8.1). 

Where a braced wall line separates different portions 
of a building, the required length of braced wall panels 
separating the two portions shall be determined by sum- 
ming the required lengths of braced wall panels for each 
portion of the building. 

Vertical offsets in floor and roof diaphragms shall be 
supported by braced wall lines. Braced wall lines shall be 
in a single vertical plane from the foundation to the up- 
permost story in which they are required. 

R603.8.1.2 Braced wall lines. Braced wall lines shall be 
composed of either Type I braced wall panels or Type II 
(perforated) braced walls as shownin Figure R603. 8.1.2. 
The required length of bracing shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with the greater requirement for seismic or 
wind. Each braced wall line shall have not less than two 
full height braced wall panels, each meeting the mini- 



. BUILDING OFFSET 
GREATER THAN 4 FT. 



« « — •> 



BUILDING FOOTPRINT 
(PLAN VIEW) 



WHERE PLAN OFFSET IS GREATER THAN 4 FEET, BUILDING SHALL 
BE ANALYZED AS SEPARATE STRUCTURES. 



PARTS@&©AS SHOWN BELOW 





BRACED WALL LINE 


PART 




PART 




® 




® 


PART 




PART 


| ® 




® 


OPTION 1 
(PLAN VI EV 


V) 




OPTION £ 
(PLAN VIEV 


V) 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 ram. 



FIGURE R603.8.1 
BUILDING CONFIGURATION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



143 



TABLE R603.8.1.2 - R603.8.1.2.2 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



mum height to width aspect ratios in Sections R603.8.2 
or R603.8.3. Braced wall panels shall begin not more 
than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end. 

Sheathing on Type I and Type II braced walls shall 
have wood structural sheathing panels one side and 
V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard on the other. Wood 
structural sheathing panels shall be as specified in Sec- 
tion R603.7 and shall be attached to framing members 
with minimum No. 8 screws spaced as required by Table 
R603.8.1.2 on all edges and 12 inches (305 mm) in the 
field. Gypsum wallboard shall be attached as required by 
Table R702.3.5. In braced wall lines, all edges of wood 
structural sheathing panels shall be attached to framing 
members or 2-inch-by-33-mil (5 1 mm by 0.84 mm) hori- 
zontal strapping. Where horizontal strapping is used to 
attach adjacent sheets of sheathing material, solid block- 
ing as shown in Figure R603.3 shall not be required. 

TABLER603.8.1.2 

EDGE SCREW SPACING SHEARWALL LENGTH 

ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 



EDGE SCREW SPACING (inches) 


6 


4 


3 


2 


Shearwall length adjustment factors 


1.00 


0.72 


0.60 


0.56 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



R603.8.1.2.1 Type I braced wall panels. Type I 
braced wall panels shall have no openings and shall be 
continuous between hold-down anchors. Hold-down 
anchors shall be as required by Section R603.8.1.3. 
The required length of Type I braced wall panels shall 
be determined by Section R603.8.2 for seismic appli- 
cations and Section R603.8.3 for wind applications. 
The required length is permitted to be adjusted by the 
edge screw spacing adjustment factors in Table 
R603.8.1.2. The total length of Type I braced wall 
panels on a braced wall line shall be the sum of the 
lengths of panels conforming to the minimum height 
to width aspect ratio herein. 

R603.8J.2.2 Type II braced wall lines. Type II 
braced wall lines are fully sheathed and are permitted 
to have openings. Where sheathing does not extend 
above and below window openings and above door 
openings, the height of unrestrained opening shall be 
defined as the full height of the wall. 

The required length of full height sheathing panels 
in Type II braced wall lines shall be determined by 
multiplying the required length of Type I braced wall 
panels, including adjustments permitted by Tables 
R603.8.1.2 and R603.8.2.2, by the length adjustment 
factors in Table R603.8.1.2.2. The length adjustment 
factors in Table R603.8.1.2.2 are permitted only in 



BRACED WALL - 



/WOOD STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING 





HOLD-DOWN ANCHORS 
PER SECTION R603.8.1. 3 



HOLD-DOWN ANCHORS 
PER SECTION R603.8.1. 3 



TYPE I BRACED WALL PANEL 



WOOD STRUCTURAL. 
SHEATHING N 



MAXIMUM 
UNRESTRAINED 
OPENING HEIGHT 



HOLD-DOWN ANCHORS 
PER SECTION R603.8.1 .3 



HOLD-DOWN ANCHORS 
PER SECTION R6 03.8. 1.3 



TYPE II BRACED WALL 

FIGURE R603.8.1.2 
TYPE I AND TYPE II BRACED WALLS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R603.8.1.3-R603.8.1.4 



seismic applications. For a segment to count toward 
Unrequired length, it shall have a height to width ratio 
of two to one (2:1). Type II braced wall lines shall 
have hold-down anchors as required by Section 
R603.8.1.3 at each end, attached to wall segments 
meeting the minimum height-to- width ratio. 

R603.8.1.3 Braced wall, hold-down anchorage and 
support- Hold-down anchors shall be installed at each 
end of Type I braced wall panels and at each end of Type 
II braced wall lines. The required hold-down force shall 
be determined by Table R603.8. 1 .3. Hold-down anchors 
shall attach to the foundation or to framing members be- 
low. Where hold-down anchors are attached to framing 
members below, the required anchor force shall be trans- 
ferred to the foundation. Where hold-down anchors from 
an upper story align with those in the lower story, the re- 
quired lower-story anchor force shall be determined by 
summing the upper-story anchor force and the 
lower-story anchor force. Hold-down anchors are per- 
mitted to be attached to blocking members provided the 
required hold-down forces are transferred to structural 
framing members. Hold-down anchors shall be attached 
to a minimum of two back-to-back, 33 mil (0.84 mm) 
studs in accordance with the anchor manufacturer's in- 
structions. 



A single hold-down anchor installed in accordance 
with Figure R603.8.1.3 is permitted at the corners of 
buildings. 

Hold-down anchors shall be fastened to studs that 
have the required sheathing edge fastening. A minimum 
of two studs shall support end studs of Type I braced wall 
panel above. These supporting studs shall be in addition 
to load bearing studs required at the level below. 

R603.8.1.4 Attachment of braced walls to founda- 
tions and floor and roof diaphragms. The top track of 
braced wall lines shall be attached directly to the roof 
sheathing in accordance with Figure R603.8.1.4(l) or 
shall have blocking, installed in accordance with Figure 
R603.8.1.4(2), connecting the top track to the roof 
sheathing at locations specified herein. Blocking shall be 
installed at each end of braced wall lines. Continuous 
blocking shall be installed above all Type I braced wall 
panels and above full height sheathing panels in Type II 
braced wall lines. Where the roof diaphragm spans more 
than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between braced wall lines, con- 
tinuous blocking shall also be installed in the middle 
one-third of the braced wall lines. 

Splices in top tracks in braced walls shall comply 
with Figure R603.3.6 except the number of screws in 
the splice shall be as shown in Table R603.8.1.4(l). 





TABLE R603.8. 1.2.2 
TYPE II BRACEDWALL LINE LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 






MAXIMUM UNRESTRAINED OPENING HEIGHT (feet) 


Wall height H (feet) 


V 3 H 


V 2 H 


%H 


3 / 4 H 


%H 


H 


8 


2.67 


4.00 


5.33 


5.93 


6.67 


8.00 


9 


3.00 


4.50 


6.00 


6.67 


7.50 


9.00 


10 


3.33 


5.00 


6.67 


7.41 


8.33 


10.00 


Percent fully sheathed wall 


Type II braced wall line length adjustment factors 





1.00 


1.50 


2.00 


2.22 


2.50 


3.00 


20 


1.00 


1.36 


1.67 


1.79 


1.92 


2.14 


40 


1.00 


1.25 


1.43 


1.49 


1.56 


1.67 


60 


1.00 


1.15 


1.25 


1.28 


1.32 


1.36 


80 


1.00 


1.07 


1.11 


1.12 


1.14 


1.15 


100 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



TABLE R603.8.1.3 
REQUIRED HOLD-DOWN ANCHOR FORCE 



WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 


REQUIRED HOLD-DOWN ANCHOR FORCE (pounds) 


Panel edge screw spacing (inches) 


6 


4 


3 


2 


8 


3,440 


4,760 


5,720 


6,120 


9 


3,870 


5,355 


6,435 


6,885 


10 


4,300 


5,950 


7,150 


7,650 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



145 



FIGURE R603.8.1.3 - R603.8.2.2 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



NO. 8 SHEATHING ATTACHMENT, 
SCREWS AS REQUIRED BY 
SECTION R603.8.1 .2 



NO. 8 SCREWS ATTACHING 
TRACK TO STUD AT 8 IN. 
O.C. EACH FLANGE 



PLYWOOD, OSES OR GWB 
SHEATHING PER SHEARWALL 
REQUIREMENTS 



DOUBLE STUDS BACK TO BACK WITH 
' OUTSIDE STUD CAPPED W/ TRACK 



DOUBLE ROW OF NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 12 IN. O.C. 



HOLDOWN AS REQUIRED BY 
SECTION R603.8.1. 3 



> 



OUTSIDE FACE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 




WALLBOARD BACKING STUDS 



FIGURE R603.8.1. 3 
CORNER STUD HOLD-DOWN 



Screws used to attach blocking to the top track are per- 
mitted to be counted toward the required number of 
track splice screws. Splices in the top track and the strap 
at the roof sheathing shall not occur in the same stud 
bay. 

The top and bottom track of braced walls shall be at- 
tached to floor diaphragms in accordance with Figure 
R603. 8. 1.4.(3). 

Splices in the floor track shall not occur in the same 
bay as splices in the wall track immediately above or be- 
low the floor track splice. 

The bottom track of braced walls supported on foun- 
dations shall have anchor bolts installed in accordance 
with Figure R603.3.1(l). Floor track or rim joists sup- 
porting braced wall lines shall be attached to foundations 
in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(3). The maximum 
spacing between anchor bolts shall be as shown in Table 
R603.8. 1.4(2). Anchor bolts shall extend 7 inches (178 
mm) into concrete or masonry. An anchor bolt shall be 
located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from wall cor- 
ners or the termination of bottom track sections. 

In regions where the basic wind speed equals or ex- 
ceeds 1 1 miles per hour (177 km/h), the bottom track in 
exterior walls shall also comply with the provisions of 
Section R603.8.3.2.6 for uplift. 



TABLE R603.8.1. 4(1) 
TOP TRACK SPLICE SCREW SCHEDULE 



UPTO120MPHOBSDCD1 


UP TO 130 MPH OR SDC D2 


6 #8 screws each side of splice 


1 1 #8 screws each side of splice 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 
NOTE: SDC = Seismic Design Category. 

R603.8.2 Seismic Design Categories B 1 and D 2 . 

R603.8.2.1 Limitations. The construction of buildings 
in Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 shall comply 
with the provisions of this section. Buildings shall be 
limited to slab on grade or continuous concrete or ma- 
sonry foundations and the weight of floors, roofs or 
walls shall not exceed the limits set forth in Section 
301.2.2.4. 

Exception: Buildings constructed in accordance with 
Section 301.1. 

R603.8.2.2 Required length of Type I braced wall 
panels. For the purposes of this section, the diaphragm 
aspect ratio shall be taken as the dimension of the dia- 
phragm perpendicular to the walls under consideration 
divided by the dimension of the diaphragm parallel to the 
walls under consideration, and shall be not less than 
one-quarter to one (0.25:1) nor more than four to one 
(4:1). The required length of Type I braced wall panels 
shall be determined from Figures R603.8.2(l) through 
R603. 8.2(4) where the diaphragm span is the dimension 
of the diaphragm perpendicular to the walls under con- 
sideration. 



146 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R603.8. 1.4(1)- TABLE R603.8.1.4(2) 



NO. 8 SCREWS PER 
TABLE R603.8. 1.2 



NO. 8 SCREWS AS REQUIRED 
BY TABLE R603.8.1 .2, EACH 
LOCATION 




NO. 8 SCREWS AT 6 IN. O.C. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.1.4(1) 
GABLE ROOF SHEATHING ATTACHMENT TO BRACE WALLS 



TABLE R603.8.1.4(2) 
REQUIRED SHEAR ANCHORAGE FOR BRACED WALLS 



ANCHOR BOLT DIAMETER 
(inch) 


REQUIRED ANCHOR BOLT SPACING (feet on center) 


Panel edge screw spacing (inches) 


6 


4 


3 


2 


% 


4.5 


3 


3 


2.5 


% 


5.5 


4 


3 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



147 



FIGURE R603.8.1.4(2) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



43 MIL BY LENGTH 
REQUIRED TO LAP 
WALL TRACK FLANGE 




BLOCKING DETAIL 



SHADED AREA INDICATES 
BLOCKING BREAK SHAPE 
PER SECTION R603.8.1.4. 



ZV 2 " BY 43 MIL CONT. STRAP, 
LAP 24' WITH NINE OS 
SCREWS WHERE LAP SPLICE 
REQUIRED, 




ROOF SLOPE 



TOP TRACK 



#8 AT 6" O.C. THROUGH ROOF 
SHEATHING TO STRAP. 



*B SCREWS AT 3' O.C. THROUGH STRAP' 
TO BLOCKING AND BLOCKING TO TOP 
WALL TRACK FLANGE. 

ROOF TRUSS AT 24' O.C. 



LIGHT 8AUGE STEEL BLOCKING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.1. 4(2) 

STRAP AND BLOCKING DIAPHRAGM LOAD TRANSFER AT ROOF EAVE 



148 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R603.8. 1.4(3) 



SHEATHING SCREW SPACING IN WALL 


•6 IN. O.C, 


4 IN. O.C. 


3 IN. O.C. 


2 IN. O.C. 


SCREVWSPACING - WALL TRACK TO FRAMING BELOW 


4N0.8AT24IN. O.C. 


5 NO. 8 AT 24 IN. O.C. 


7 NO. 8 AT 24 IN. O.C. 


8 NO. 8 AT 24 IN. O.C. 



SCREWS AS REQUIRED 
BY SECTION R603.8.1 .2 
LOCATION 




8 SCREW PER SCHEDULE 
HEREIN BASED ON SCREW 
SPACING FOR WALL ABOVE 



CONTINUOUS 
■t BLOCKING ATTACH 
PER FIG, R505.3 



8 SCREWS PER SCHEDULE 
HEREIN BASED ON SCREW 
SPACING FOR WALL BELOW 




8 SCREWS PER SCHEDULE 
HEREIN BASED ON SCREW 
SPACING FOR WALL ABOVE 



CONTINUOUS 
BLOCKING ATTACH 
PER FIG. R505.3 



43 MIL CLIP 
ANGLE 



8 SCREWS PER 
I SCHEDULE HEREIN 

BASED ON SCREW 
U— SPACING FOR WALL 

BELOW 



ALTERNATE 



SCREWS AS REQUIRED 
BY SECTION R603.8.i:2 
LOCATION 




8 SCREWS PER SCHEDULE 
HEREIN BASED ON SCREW 
SPACING FOR WALL ABOVE 



8 SCREWS PER 
SCHEDULE HEREIN 
BASED ON SCREW 
SPACING FOR WALL 
BELOW 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 mil = 0:0254 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.1. 4(3) 
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM-ATTACHMENT TO BRACED WALLS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



149 



FIGURE R603.8.2(1) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ASPECT RATIO = - 
SPAN = b 



SIDE WALL 



ASPECT RATIO = 
SPAN = a 



SIDE WALL 



100 




til 

IL. 

z" 

2 
w 




< 

d 

X 
Q. 

< 

Q 



1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 

FLOOR DIAPHRAGM ASPECT RATIO 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.2(1) 
SDC Di SINGLE STORY OR TOP OF TWO STORY 



150 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R603.8.2(2) 



100 




1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 

FLOOR DIAPHRAGM ASPECT RATIO 



3.5 



4.0 



ASPECT RATIO = 
SPAN = b 



SIDEVWLL 



ASPECT RATIO = 
SPAN = a 



SIDEW.LL 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.2(2) 
SDC Di BOTTOM OF TWO STORY 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



151 



FIGURE RS03.8.2(3) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



100 




2 

CO 

2 

< 
DC 
X 
0. 

< 

Q 



0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 

FLOOR DIAPHRAGM ASPECT RATIO 



3.5 



4.0 



ASPECT RATIO = - 
SPAN = b 



SIDE WALL 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



ASPECT RATIO = 

SPAN = a 



SIDE WALL 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.2(3) 

SDC D 2 SINGLE STORY OR TOP OF TWO STORY 



152 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R603.8.2(4) 




h 

uu 

HI 

I 

to 
5 

O 
< 

I 
Q. 
< 
Q 



0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 

FLOOR DIAPHRAGM ASPECT RATIO 



4.0 



ASPECT RATIO . 
SPAN = b 



SIDE WALL 



ASPECT RATIO . 
SPAN = a 



SIDE WALL 



DIRECTION UNDER 
CONSIDERATION 



DIRECTION UNDER 

CONSIDERATION 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.2(4) 
SDC D 2 BOTTOM OF TWO STORY 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



153 



TABLE R603.8.2.2 - R603.8.3.2 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Interpolation shall be permitted for determining dia- 
phragm span values. 

The required length of Type I braced wall panels is 
permitted to be adjusted by length adjustment factors 
in Table R603.8.2.2 where the dead weights of 
roof/ceiling assemblies and exterior walls are less than 
or equal to the unit weights specified therein. The re- 
quired length of Type I braced wall panels shall be in- 
creased by length adjustment factors in Table 
R603.8.2.2 where the dead weights of roof/ceiling as- 
semblies is greater than 15 psf (0.7185kN/m 2 ) and less 
than or equal to 25 psf (1.1975 kN/m 2 ). The length ad- 
justment factors in Tables R301. 2.2.4 and R603.8.2.2 
are permitted to be compounded with those in Table 
R603.8.1.2. 

The height to width aspect ratio in Type I braced wall 
panels and full height sheathing segments in Type II 
braced walls shall be limited to two to one (2:1). 

Exception: Type I braced wall panels on either side of 
garage openings, that support roofs only, are permit- 
ted to have an aspect ratio of four to one (4:1). 



TABLE R603.8.2.2 

LIGHT WEIGHT ROOF AND LIGHT WEIGHT 

EXTERIOR WALL TYPE I LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 



BRACED 

WALL 

SUPPORTING 


LIGHT WEIGHT 
ROOF/CEILING- 
UNIT WEIGHT 
LESS THAN 
11 PSF 


LIGHT WEIGHT 
EXTERIOR WALLS- 
UNIT WEIGHT 
LESS THAN 
7 PSF 


BUILDINGS 

HAVING BOTH 

LIGHT WEIGHT 

WALLS AND 

ROOFS 


Roof/ceiling 
only 


0.80 


0.95 


0.70 


One floor and 
roof/ceiling 


0.90 


0.90 


0.75 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 



R603.8.3 High wind requirements. 

R603.8.3.1 Braced wall design. Buildings in areas 
where the basic wind speed is 1 10 miles per hour (177 
km/h) or greater shall have braced wall lines complying 
with Section R603.8.1 as required by this section. 

For the purpose of this section, the end wall shall be 
defined as the exterior wall of the building perpendicular 
to the roof ridge and the sidewall shall be defined as the 
exterior wall of the building parallel to the roof ridge. For 
the purposes of determining uplift and lateral bracing re- 
quirements, the attic shall be considered an additional 
story when the roof slope is 7 in 12 or greater. 

The minimum and maximum allowable sidewall 
lengths shall be determined from Tables R603.8.3.1(l) 
and R603.8.3.1(2). The required length of Type I braced 
wall panels shall be determined from Tables 
R603.8.3.1(3) andR603.8.3.1(4). 

Braced wall hold down anchors shall comply with 
Section R603.8.1.3. The height to width aspect ratio of 
Type I braced wall panels shall be limited to four to one 
(4:1). The height to width aspect ratio of full height 
sheathing segments in Type II braced walls shall be lim- 
ited to two to one (2:1). 

Exterior walls shall be sheathed with wood structural 
sheathing panels or other approved materials. Wood struc- 
tural sheathing panels, and their attachments, shall comply 
with Section R603.8.1.2 except in regions where the basic 
wind speed exceeds 110 miles per hour (177 km/h) wood 
structural sheathing panels attached to framing spaced 24 
inches (610 mm) on center shall be a minimum of 19 / 32 mc h 
(15.1 mm). Attachment of wall sheathing materials other 
than wood structural sheathing panels shall comply with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

R603.8.3.2 High wind connections. Connections, as re- 
quired in this section, shall be provided to ensure a continu- 
ous load path capable of transferring shear and uplift loads 
from floors, studs and roof framing to the foundation. 



TABLE R603.8.3.1(1) 
RANGE OF ALLOWABLE SIDEWALL LENGTHS ONE-STORY SLAB ON GRADE 



FOUNDATION SUPPORTING 


BUILDING 

ENDWALL 

WIDTH 

(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Allowable building sidewall length (feet) 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Maximum 


One-story slab on grade 


12 


10 


48 


10 


48 


10 


43 


16 


10 


60 


10 


60 


10 


58 


20 


10 


60 


10 


60 


11 


60 


24 


10 


60 


11 


60 


13 


60 


28 


10 


60 


12 


60 


15 


60 


32 


11 


60 


14 


60 


17 


60 


36 


13 


60 


16 


60 


19 


60 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 



154 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.8.3.1(2) -TABLE R603.8.3.1(3) 



TABLER603.8.3.1(2) 
RANGE OF ALLOWABLE SIDEWALL LENGTHS ALL OTHER CASES 



FOUNDATION SUPPORTING 


BUILDING 

ENDWALL 

WIDTH 

(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Allowable building sidewall length (feet) 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Maximum 


One to two stories 


12 


10 


29 


10 


23 


10 


19 


16 


10 


38 


10 


31 


10 


26 


20 


10 


48 


10 


39 


12 


32 


24 


10 


58 


12 


47 


14 


39 


28 


11 


60 


14 


55 


17 


45 


32 


13 


60 


16 


60 


19 


51 


36 


15 


60 


18 


60 


22 


58 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h. 



TABLE R603.8.3.1(3) 
TYPE I BRACED WALL PANEL SIDEWALL SHEATHING LENGTH REQUIREMENTS 



BRACED WALL SUPPORTING 


BUILDING ENDWALL LENGTH (W) 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Minimum length of full height sheathing on building sidewall (L) a,b ' c (feet) 


Roof/ceiling only d 


12 


5 


5 


5 


16 


5 


5 


5 


20 


5 


5 


6 


24 


5 


6 


7 


28 


5 


6 


8 


32 


6 


7 


9 


36 


7 


8 


10 


One floor and roof/ceiling e 


20 


8 


10 


11 


24 


9 


11 


14 


28 


11 


13 


16 


32 


12 


15 


18 


36 


14 


17 


20 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

a. Tabulated sheathing lengths are based on 8-foot wall heights. For 9-foot wall heights, the tabulated values shall be multiplied by 1 . 1 3. For 1 0-foot wall heights, the 
tabulated values shall be multiplied by 1.25. 

b. Tabulated sheathing lengths assume a mean roof height of 33 feet. For mean roof heights of 15 feet or less, the tabulated values shall be permitted to be multiplied 
by 0.8. 

c. Tabulated sheathing lengths assume a 6-inch edge screw spacing. Required lengths shall be permitted to be multiplied by the adjustment factors in Table 
R603.8.1.2 for edge screw spacing other than 6 inches, but the resulting sheathing length shall not be less than 5 feet. 

d. Applies to a one-story building or the top story of a two-story building. 

e. Applies to the lower story of a two-story building. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



155 



TABLE R603.8.3.1(4) - R603.8.3.2.4 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.8.3.1(4) 
TYPE I BRACED WALL PANEL ENDWALL SHEATHING LENGTH REQUIREMENTS 




BRACED WALL SUPPORTING 


BUILDING SIDEWALL 
LENGTH 
(W) (feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Minimum length of full height sheathing on building endwall (L) a,b,c (f eet) 


Roof/ceiling only 


12 


5 


5 


5 


16 


5 


5 


5 


20 


5 


5 


5 


24 


5 


5 


5 


28 


5 


5 


5 


32 


5 


5 


6 


36 


5 


6 


7 


40 


5 


6 


8 


50 


6 


8 


9 


60 


8 


9 


11 


One floor and 
roof/ceiling 6 


20 


8 


10 


12 


24 


10 


12 


14 


28 


11 


14 


17 


32 


13 


16 


19 


36 


14 


18 


21 


40 


16 


20 


24 


50 


20 


24 


29 


60 


24 


29 


35 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

a. Tabulated sheathing lengths are based on 8-foot wall heights. For 10-foot wall heights, the tabulated values shall be multiplied by 1.25. 

b. Tabulated sheathing lengths are based on a mean roof height of 33 feet. For mean roof heights of 15 feet or less, the tabulated values shall be permitted to be multi- 
plied by 0.8. 

c. Tabulated sheathing lengths are based on a 6-inch edge screw spacing. Required lengths shall be permitted to be multiplied by the adjustment factors in Table 
R603 .8. 1 .2 for edge screw spacing other than 6 inches, but the resulting sheathing length shall not be less than 5 feet. 

d. Applies to a one-story building or the top story of a two-story building. 

e. Applies to the lower story of a two-story building. 



R6Q3.8.3.2.1 Uplift connection-roof rafter or truss 
to wall. Roof rafters and trusses shall be attached to 
their supporting wall assemblies by connections ca- 
pable of resisting the uplift loads listed in Table 
R603.8.3.2.1(l). Alternatively, a 1.25-inch-by-mini- 
mum-33-mil (32 mm by 0.84 mm) steel uplift strap 
connecting the rafter or truss to the in-line framing 
stud below shall be permitted. Each end of the uplift 
strap shall be fastened with minimum No. 8 screws as 
required by Table R603.8.3.2.1(2). 

R603.8.3.2.2 Uplift connection-wall assembly to 
wall assembly. Exterior wall studs in the upper story 
wall of a two-story building shall be attached to the 
in-line framing wall studs in the supporting wall be- 
low, with connections capable of resisting the uplift 
loads listed in Table R603.8.3.2.2(l). Alternatively, a 
1 .25-inch-by-33-mil (32 mm by 0.84 mm) steel uplift 
strap shall be permitted with minimum No. 8 screws 
attached to each stud, as required by Table 
R603.8.3.2.2(2). 

R603.8.3.2.3 Uplift connection — wall assembly to 
foundation or floor assembly. Exterior wall studs in 



bottom-story walls shall be attached to a wood sill 
plate or directly attached to the foundation by connec- 
tions capable of resisting the uplift loads listed in Ta- 
ble R603.8.3.2.3(l). Alternatively, a continuous 
1 .25-inch-by-33-mil (32 mm by 0.84 mm) steel uplift 
strap is permitted when placed under the wood sill and 
attached to both flanges of the exterior stud as shown 
in Figure R603.8.3.2.3. The uplift strap shall be fas- 
tened to each flange with minimum No. 8 screws as 
required by Table R603.8.3.2.3(2). 

R603.8.3.2.4 Ridge strap connection. Roof rafters 
shall be provided with a connection at the ridge line to 
transfer tension loads. The ridge connection shall be 
capable of resisting the unit loads listed in Table 
R804.3.3. 1.1(1), multiplied by the appropriate spac- 
ing multiplier. Alternatively, steel ridge strap shall be 
provided with minimum No. 8 screws on each end of 
the strap as required in Table R804.3.3. 1.1(1). The 
number of screws shall be increased to account for the 
spacing multipliers shown in the table. The width and 
thickness of the steel ridge strap shall be as shown in 
Table R804.3.3.1.1(2), based upon the required num- 
ber of screws on one side of the strap. 



156 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.1(1) - TABLE R603.8.3.2.1(2) 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.1(1) 
REQUIRED UPLIFT CAPACITY ROOF TRUSS OR RAFTER TO WALL 



FRAMING SPACING 
(inches) 


ROOF SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Required connection capacity"'" (pounds) 


12 


24 


245 


336 


435 


28 


279 


382 


495 


32 


312 


428 


555 


36 


346 


474 


615 


16 


24 


327 


447 


580 


28 


371 


509 


660 


32 


416 


570 


740 


36 


461 


632 


820 


19.2 


24 


392 


536 


696 


28 


446 


610 


792 


32 


499 


684 


888 


36 


553 


758 


984 


24 


24 


490 


671 


868 


28 


557 


763 


990 


32 


624 


855 


1,110 


36 


691 


947 


1,230 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m . 

a. Uplift requirements assume a roof/ceiling dead load of 10 psf (7, by 15 psf). 

b. Uplift connection requirements shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.70 for framing not located within 8 feet of building corners. 

c. The 12-inch and 1 9.2-inch framing spacing provides options for design, but shall not negate the in-line framing requirement of Section R603. 1.2. 



TABLE R603.8.3.2. 1(2) 
UPLIFT STRAP CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS ROOF RAFTER OR TRUSS TO WALL 



FRAMING SPACING 3 
(inches) 


ROOF SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Number of #8 screws in each end of a 1 1 / 4 inch by 33 mil steel strap 


12 


24 


2 


2 


2 


28 


2 


2 


3 


32 


2 


2 


3 


36 


2 


3 


3 


16 


24 


2 


3 


3 


28 


2 


3 


3 


32 


2 


3 


4 


36 


3 


3 


4 


19.2 


24 


2 


3 


4 


28 


3 


3 


4 


32 


3 


4 


5 


36 


3 


4 


5 


24 


24 


3 


4 


4 


28 


3 


4 


5 


32 


3 


4 


6 b 


36 


4 


5 


6 b 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The 12-inch and 19.2-inch framing spacing provides options for design, but shall not negate the in-line framing requirement of Section R603.1.2. 

b. Strap width shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches or thickness shall be a minimum of 0.043 inches. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



157 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.2(1)- TABLE R603.8.3.2.2(2) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.2(1) 
REQUIRED UPLIFT CAPACITY WALL ASSEMBLY TO WALL ASSEMBLY 



FRAMING SPACING 
(inches) 


ROOF SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Required connection capacity*'" 
(pounds) 


12 


24 


185 


276 


375 


28 


219 


322 


435 


32 


252 


368 


495 


36 


286 


414 


555 


16 


24 


242 


362 


495 


28 


286 


424 


575 


32 


331 


485 


655 


36 


376 


547 


735 


19.2 


24 


, 287 


431 


591 


28 


341 


505 


687 


32 


394 


579 


784 


36 


448 


653 


879 


24 


24 


355 


536 


733 


28 


422 


628 


855 


32 


489 


720 


975 


36 


556 


812 


1095 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. Uplift requirements assume a roof/ceiling dead load of 10 psf ( 2 / 3 by 15 psf). 

b. Uplift connection requirements shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.70 for framing not located within 8 feet of building corners. 

c. The 12-inch and 19.2-inch framing spacing provides options for design, but shall not negate the in-line framing requirement of Section R603. 1.2. 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.2(2) 
UPLIFT STRAP CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS WALL ASSEMBLY TO WALL ASSEMBLY 


FRAMING SPACING 3 
(inches) 


ROOF SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Number of #8 screws in each of a 1 1 / 4 inch by 33 mil steel strap 


12 


24 


2 


2 


2 


28 


2 


2 


2 


32 


2 


2 


3 


36 


2 


2 


3 


16 


24 


2 


2 


3 


28 


2 


2 


3 


32 


2 


3 


3 


36 


2 


3 


4 


19.2 


24 


2 


2 


3 


28 


2 


3 


4 


32 


2 


3 


4 


36 


3 


3 


4 


24 


24 


2 


3 


4 


28 


2 


3 


4 


32 


3 


4 


5 


36 


3 


4 


5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The 12-inch and 1 9.2-inch framing spacing provides options for design, but shall not negate the in-line framing requirement of Section R603. 1 .2. 



158 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.3(1)- TABLE R603.8.3.2.3(2) 



TABLE R603.8.3.2.3(1) 

required Uplift capacity wall assembly to foundation or floor assembly 


FRAMING SPACING 
(inches) 


ROOF SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Required connection capacity"'" (pounds) 


12 


24 


170 


261 


360 


28 


204 


307 


420 


32 


237 


353 


480 


36 


271 


399 


540 


16 


24 


227 


347 


480 


28 


271 


409 


560 


32 


316 


470 


640 


36 


361 


532 


720 


19.2 


24 


272 '' 


416 


576 


28 


326 


490 


672 


32 


379 


564 


768 


36 


433 


638 


864 


24 


24 


340 


521 


718 


28 


407 


613 


840 


32 


474 


705 


960 


36 


541 


797 


1,080 



For SI: 1 inctij = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N, 1 mile per hour = 1 .609 km/h, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. Uplift requirements assume a roof/ceiling dead load of 10 psf (V 3 byl5 psf)- 

b. Uplift connection requirements shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.70 for framing not located within 8 feet of building corners. 

c. The 12-inch and 19.2-inch framing spacing provides options for design, but shall not negate the in-line framing requirement of Section R603. 1.2. 

TABLE R603.8.3.2.3(2) 
UPLIFT STRAP CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS WALL ASSEMBLY TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR ASSEMBLY 



FRAMING SPACING" 
(inches) 


ROOF SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


Number of #8 screw in a 1.25 inch by 33 mil strap in each flange of studs 
(see Figure R603.8.3.2.3) 


12 


24 




1 


1 


28 




1 


1 


32 




1 


2 


36 




1 


2 


16 


24 




1 


2 


28 




1 


2 


32 




2 


2 


36 




2 


2 


19.2 


24 




1 


2 


28 




2 


2 


32 




2 


2 


36 




2 


2 


24 


24 




2 


2 


28 




2 


2 


32 


2 


2 


3 


36 


2 


2 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The 12-inch; and 19.2-inch framing spacing provides options for design, but shall not negate the in-line framing requirement of Section R603.1.2. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



159 



FIGURE R603.8.3.2.3 - R604.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ANCHOR BOLT PER 
SECTION R603.8.3.2.6 „ 



"^ Lj. I 



CONTINUOUS 1 .23 IN. 33 MIL STEEL 
STRAP UNDER WOOD SILL ATTACHED 
TO EACH FLANGE OF STUD PER TABLE 
fl603.8.3.2.3(2) 

WOOD FOUNDATION SILL 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R603.8.3.2.3 

WIND UPLIFT CONNECTOR 



M6ffi3.83.2J Header uplift connections. 



1.8.3.2.5.1 Single story or top story of a 
two-story building. Uplift connections shall be 
provided to fasten the rafter or roof trusses to the 
header by connectors capable of resisting the uplift 
loads listed in Table R603.8.3.2.1(l). 

Uplift connections shall be provided to fasten 
the header to the jack studs by connectors capable 
of resisting the uplift loads listed in Table 
R603.8.3.2.1(l), multiplied by the number of 
framing members displaced, divided by two. An 
additional uplift strap shall be provided to fasten 
rafters or roof trusses to king studs that provide 
in-line framing support in accordance with Table 
R603.8.3.2.1(l). 

Uplift connections shall be provided to fasten 
the jack studs to the foundation by connectors ca- 
pable of resisting the uplift loads listed in Table 
R603.8.3.2.1(l), multiplied by the number of 
framing members displaced, divided by two, 

R6©3.8.3.2.5.2 Bottom story of a two-story 
building. Uplift connections shall be provided to 
fasten the exterior wall studs in the upper story 
wall of a two-story building to the header below by 
connections capable of resisting the uplift loads 
listed in Table R603.8.3.2.2(l). 

Uplift connections shall be provided to fasten 
the header to the jack studs by connectors capable 
of resisting the uplift loads listed in Table 
R603.8.3.2.2(l), multiplied by the number of 
framing members displaced, divided by two. An 
additional uplift strap shall be provided to fasten 
exterior wall studs in the upper story to king studs 
that provide in-line framing support in accordance 
with Table R603.8.3.2.2(l). 



Uplift connections shall be provided to fasten 
the jack studs to the foundation by connectors ca- 
pable of resisting the uplift loads listed in Table 
R603. 8.3.2.2(1), multiplied by the number of 
framing members displaced, divided by two. 

R603.8.3.2.6 Wall bottom track to foundation. The 
bottom track of exterior walls shall be connected to a 
wood sill plate as shown in Figure R603.3.1(2). The 
track shall be attached with steel plates spaced at 2 
feet (610 mm) on center and fastened with four No. 8 
screws with four lOd or six 8d common nails. The bot- 
tom track of interior braced walls shall be connected 
to supporting floors or foundations as required by 
Section R603. 8.1.4. 

The bottom track shall be connected to the founda- 
tion with V 2 inch (12.7 mm) anchor bolts extending 15 
inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) 
into concrete. An anchor bolt shall be located not 
more than 12 inches (305 mm) from wall corners or 
the termination of bottom track sections. Anchor bolts 
shall be spaced in accordance with Table 
R603.8.1.4(2), but shall be a maximum of 3 feet (915 
mm) on center. 

Exception: In regions with a wind speed of 120 
miles per hour (193 km/h) or greater, anchor bolts 
located within the 8 feet (2438 mm) end zone shall 
be spaced a maximum of 2 feet (610 mm) on cen- 
ter. 



SECTION R604 
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS 

E604.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panels 
shall conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2. All panels shall be 



160 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R604.2 - R606.5.1 



identified by] a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by 
an approved (agency . 

R604.2 Allocable spans. The maximum allowable spans for 
wood structural panel wall sheathing shall not exceed the val- 
ues set forthiin Table R602.3(3). 

R604.3 Installation. Wood structural panel wall sheathing 
shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). Wood structural panels marked Exposure 1 or Exte- 
rior are considered water-repellent sheathing under the code. 



SECTION R605 
PARTICLEBOARD 

R605.1 Identification and grade. Particleboardjshall conform 
to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or 
certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. 
Particleboard shall comply with the grades specified in Table 
R602.3(4). 



SECTION R606 
GENERAL MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 

R606.1 General. Masonry construction shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or 
in accordance with the provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402. 

R606.L1 Professional registration not required. When 
the empirical design provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402 Chapter 5 or the provisions of this section are used to de- 
sign masonry, project drawings, typical details and specifi- 
cations are not required to bear the seal of the architect or 
engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required 
by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R606.2 Thickness of masonry. The nominal thickness of ma- 
sonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections 
R606.2. 1 through R606.2.4. 

R606.2.1 Minimum thickness. The minimum thickness of 
masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 
inches (203 mm). Solid masonry walls of one-story dwell- 
ings and garages shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) in 
thickness when not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height, 
provided that when gable construction is used, ah additional 
6 feet (1 829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable. Ma- 
sonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizon- 
tal or vertical direction at intervals as required by Section 
R606.8. 

R606.2.2 Rubble stone masonry wall. The minimum 
thickness of rough, random ;or coursed rubble stone ma- 
sonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm). 

R606.2.3 Change in thickness. Where walls of masonry of 
hollow units or masonry bonded hollow walls are decreased 
in thickness, a course of solid masonry shall beiconstructed 
between (he wall below and the thinner wall above, or spe- 
cial units! or construction shall be used to transmit the loads 
from face shells or wythes above to those below. 



R606.2.4 Parapet walls. Unreinforced solid masonry para- 
pet walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) in thick- 
ness and their height shall not exceed four times their 
thickness. Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls 
shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness, and 
their height shall not exceed three times their thickness. Ma- 
sonry parapet walls in areas subject to wind loads of 30 
pounds per square foot (1.44 kN/m 2 ) or located in Seismic 
Design Category D t or D 2 shall be reinforced in accordance 
with Section R606.ll. 

R606.3 Corbeled masonry. Solid masonry units shall be used 
for corbeling. The maximum corbeled projection beyond the 
face of the wall shall not be more than one-half of the wall 
thickness or one-half the wythe thickness for hollow walls; the 
maximum projection of one unit shall not exceed one-half the 
height of the unit or one-third the thickness at right angles to the 
wall. The top course of corbels shall be a header course when 
the corbeled masonry is used to support floor or roof-framing 
members. 

R606.3.1 Support conditions. Cavity wall or masonry ve- 
neer construction may be supported on an 8-inch (203 mm) 
foundation wall, provided the 84nch (203 mm) wall is 
corbeled with solid masonry to the width of the wall system 
; above. The total horizontal proj ection of the corbel shall not 
exceed 2 inches (51 mm) with individual corbels projecting 
not more than one-third the thickness of the unit or one-half 
the height of the unit. The top course of all corbels shall be a 
header course. 

R606.4 Allowable stresses. Allowable compressive stresses in 
masonry shall not exceed the values prescribed in Table 
R606.4. In determining the stresses in masonry, the effects of 
all loads and conditions of loading and the influence of all 
forces affecting the design and strength of the several parts 
shall be taken into account. 

R606.4.1 Combined units. In walls or other structural 
members composed of different kinds or grades of units, 
materials or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed 
the allowable stress for the weakest of the combination of 
units, materials and mortars of which the member is com- 
posed. The net thickness of any facing unit that is used to re- 
sist stress shall not be less than 1.5 inches (38 mm). 

R606.5 Piers. The unsupported height of masonry piers shall 
not exceed ten times their least dimension. When structural 
clay tile or hollow concrete masonry units are used for isolated 
piers to support beams and girders, the cellular spaces shall be 
filled solidly with concrete or Type M or S mortar, except that 
unfilled hollow piers may be used if their unsupported height is 
not more than four times their least dimension. Where hollow 
masonry units are solidly filled with concrete or Type M, S or N 
mortar, the allowable compressive stress shall be permitted to 
be increased as provided in Table R606.4. 

R606.5.1 Pier cap. Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 
inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete or shall have 
cavities of the top course filled with concrete or grout or 
other approved methods. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



161 



TABLE R606.4 - R6Q6.8.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R606.4 
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY 



CONSTRUCTION; COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF UNIT, GROSS AREA 


ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES 3 GROSS 
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA" 


Type M or S mortar 


Type N mortar 


Solid masonry of brick and other solid units of clay or shale; sand-lime or concrete brick: 
8,000+ psi 
4,500 psi 
2,500 psi 
1,500 psi 


350 
225 
160 
115 


300 
200 
140 
100 


Grouted c masonry, of clay or shale; sand-lime or concrete: 
4,500+ psi 
2,500 psi 
1,500 psi 


225 
160 
115 


200 
140 

100 


Solid masonry of solid concrete masonry units: 
3,000+ psi 
2,000 psi 
1,200 psi 


225 
160 
115 


200 
140 
100 


Masonry of hollow load-bearing units: 
2,000+ psi 
1,500 psi 
1,000 psi 
700 psi 


140 
115 
75 
60 


120 
100 
70 

55 


Hollow walls (cavity or masonry bonded d ) solid units: 
2,500+ psi 
1,500 psi 
Hollow units 


160 
115 

75 


140 
100 
70 


Stone ashlar masonry: 
Granite 

Limestone or marble 
Sandstone or cast stone 


720 
450 
360 


640 
400 
320 


Rubble stone masonry: 
Coarse, rough or random 


120 


100 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be used for determining allowable stresses for masonry units having compressive strengths that are intermediate between those given in 
the table. 

b. Gross cross-sectional area shall be calculated on the actual rather than nominal dimensions. 

c. See Section R607. 

d. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the gross cross-sec- 
tional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as cavity walls unless the collar 
joints are filled with mortar or grout. 



5.6 Chases. Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall 
not be deeper than one-third the wall thickness, and the maxi- 
mum length of a horizontal chase or horizontal projection shall 
not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), and shall have at least 8 inches 
(203 mm) of masonry in back of the chases and recesses and be- 
tween adjacent chases or recesses and the jambs of openings. 
Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall be designed and 
constructed so as not to reduce the required strength or required 
fire resistance of the wall and in no case shall a chase or recess 
be permitted within the required area of a pier. Masonry di- 
rectly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) 
shall be supported on noncombustible lintels. 



S.7 Stack toomd. In unreinforced masonry where masonry 
units are laid in stack bond, longitudinal reinforcement consist- 
ing of not less than two continuous wires each with a minimum 



aggregate cross-sectional area of 0.017 square inch (11 mm 2 ) 
shall be provided in horizontal bed joints spaced not more than 
16 inches (406 mm) on center vertically. 

M606.8 Lateral support. Masonry walls shall be laterally sup- 
ported in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. The 
maximum spacing between lateral supports shall not exceed 
the distances in Table R606.8. Lateral support shall be provided 
by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural frame mem- 
bers when the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by 
floors or roofs when the limiting distance is taken vertically. 

R606.8.1 Horizontal lateral support. Lateral support in 
the horizontal direction provided by intersecting masonry 
walls shall be provided by one of the methods in Section 
R606.8.1.1 or Section R606.8.1.2. 



• 



162 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R606.8 - R606.1 1 .2.1 .1 



TABLE R606:8 
SPACING OF LATERAL SUPPORT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



CONSTRUCTION 


MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS OR WALL 
HEIGHT TO THICKNESS 3 '" 


Bearing walls: 

Solid or solid grouted 
Allother 


20 
18 


Nonbearing \yalls: 
Exterior 
Interior j 


18 
36 



For SI: 1 foot= 304.8 mm. 

a. Except for cavity walls and cantilevered walls, the thickness of a wall shall be its nominal thickness measured perpendicular to the face of the wall; For cavity 
walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the nominal thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except for parapets, the ratio of height 
to nominal thickness shall not exceed'6 for solid masonry, or 4 for hollow masonry.; For parapets, see Section R606.2.4. 

b. An additional unsupported height of 6 feet is permitted for gable end walls. 



R606.8.1.1 Bonding pattern. Fifty percent of the units 
at the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry 
bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing of 
not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit below. 



1.1.2 Metal reinforcement. Interior 
nonload-bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersec- 
tions, at vertical intervals of not more than finches (406 
mm) with joint reinforcement of at least 9 gage, or V 4 inch 
(6.4 irim) galvanized mesh hardware cloth. Intersecting 
masonry walls, other than interior nonloadbearing walls, 
shall be anchored at vertical intervals of not more than 8 
inches; (203 mm) with joint reinforcement of at least 9 
gage and shall extend at least 30 inches (762 mm) in each 
direction at the intersection. Other metal ties, joint rein- 
forcement Or anchors, if used, shall be spaced to provide 
equiv41ent area of anchorage to that required by this sec- 
tion. 

R606.8.2I Vertical lateral support Vertical lateral support 
of masoriry walls in Seismic Design Category A, B or C 
shall be provided in accordance with one of the methods in 
Section R606.8.2.1 or Section R606.8.2.2. 

R606.8.2.1 Roof structures. Masonry walls shall be an- 
chored to roof structures with metal strap anchors spaced 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 
Vj-inch (12.7 mm) bolts spaced not more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) on center, or other approved anchors. An- 
chors shall be embedded at least 1 6 inches (406 mm) into 
the masonry, or be hooked or welded to bond beam rein- 
forcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) from 
the top of the wall. 

R606.&2*2. Floor diaphragms. Masonry walls shall be an- 
chored to floor diaphragm framing by metal strap anchors 
spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 
'/j-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) bolts spaced atintervals not to 
exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) and installed as shown in Figure 
R606.10(l), or by other approved methods. 

R606.9 Lintels. Masonry over openings shall be supported by 
steel lintels, jreinforced concrete or masonry lintels or masonry 
arches, designedto support load imposed. 

R606.10 Anchorage. Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor 
and roof systems in accordance with the details shown in Fig- 



ure R606.10(l), R606.10(2) or R606.10(3). Footings may be 
considered as points of lateral support. 

R606.ll Seismic requirements. The seismic requirements of 
this section shall apply to the design of masonry and the con- 
struction of masonry building elements located in Seismic De- 
sign Category C, D, or D 2 . These requirements shall not apply 
to glass unit masonry conforming to Section R610 or masonry 
veneer conforming to Section R703.7. 

R606.11.1 General. Masonry structures and masonry ele- 
ments shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
R606.11.2 through R606.11.4 based on the seismic design 
category established in Table R301.2(l). Masonry struc- 
tures and masonry elements shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section R606.ll and Figures R606.10(l), 
: R606.10(2) and R606.10(3) or shall be designed in accor- 
dance with ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. 

R606.ll. 1.1 Floor and roof diaphragm construction. 

Floor and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of struc- 
tural wood sheathing panels, attached to wood framing in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l) or to cold-formed steel 
floor framing in accordance with Table R505 . 3 . 1 (2) or to 
cold-formed steel roof framing in accordance with Table 
R804.3. Additionally, sheathing panel edges perpendic- 
ular to framing members shall be backed by blocking, 
and sheathing shall be connected to the blocking with 
fasteners at the edge spacing. For Seismic Design Cate- 
gories C, D, and D 2 , where the width-to-thickness di- 
mension of the diaphragm exceeds 2-to-l, edge spacing 
of fasteners shall be 4 inches (102 mm) on center. 

R606.11.2 Seismic Design Category C. Structures located 
in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the re- 
quirements of this section. 

R606.11.2.1 Design of elements not part of the lateral 
force-resisting system. 

R606.1 1.2.1.1 Load-bearing frames or columns. 

Elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting system 
shall be analyzed as to their effect on the response of 
the system. Such frames or columns shall be adequate 
', for vertical load carrying capacity and induced mo- 

ment due to the design story drift. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



163 



FIGURE R606.10(1) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3J1) 



RAFTER 




BLOCKING 



2 IN. NOMINAL 
PLATE 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R6O2.30) 



1 / 2 IN, BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 




I 2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



BOLT EMBEDDED, 
4 IN. 



SEE TABLE FOR BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 




LEDGER BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 



JOIST 



> 



APPROVED METAL CONNECTOR 
3 IN. NOMINAL LEDGER 



JOIST SPAN 


BOLT SIZE AND SPACING 


ROOF 


FLOOR 


10 FT. 


1 / 2 AT2FT. 6 IN. 
7 / 8 AT3FT. 6 IN. 


V 2 AT2FT. OIN. 
7 / 8 AT2FT. SIN. 


10-15 FT. 


V 2 AT1 FT. 9 IN. 
7 / 8 AT2FT 6 IN. 


V 2 AT1 FT. 4 IN. 
7 / a AT2FT. OIN. 


15-20 FT. 


V 2 AT1 FT. 3 IN. 
7 / 8 AT2FT IN. 


V 2 AT1 FT. OIN. ' 
7 / a AT1 FT. 6 IN. 



JOISTS 

PERPENDICULAR 
TO WALL 



SEE TABLE 
ABOVE FOR BOLT 
AND SIZE 
SPACING 




SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



, 3 IN. NOMINAL 
BLOCKING JOIST 



y 



<e 



3-1 6d PER JOIST SPACING 
3 IN. NOMINAL LEDGER 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



3-16dPERJOIST v 
SPACING 



3 IN. NOMINAL 
END JOIST 



V 2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C 
EMBEDDED AT 4 IN. MIN. 




JOISTS 
PARALLEL TO 
WALL 



NOTE: Where bolts are located in hollow masonry, the cells in the courses receiving the bolt shall be grouted solid. 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

FIGURE R606.10(1) 

ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY WALLS LOCATED IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 

A, B OR C AND WHERE WIND LOADS ARE LESS THAN 30 PSF 



164 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R606.10(2) 



ROOF CONNECTORS 
AT 48 IN, MAX, O.C. 



ROOF 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 



#4 BARS WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ENDS OF WALLS AND AT 
CORNERS 




#4 BARS (MIN.) AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT. THRU C.J. 



#4 BARS (MIN.) 
WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ALL C.J.'S 

CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 10 FT. O.C. 



#4 BARS AT 10 FT. O.C. OR W1 .7 
JOINT REINFORCED AT 1 6 IN. O.C. 



2 IN. PLATE WITH V 2 IN. <j> BOLTS 
NOT MORE THAN 4 FT. O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 




MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP 5 IN. OF COLUMN THAT 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS 
AND VERTICAL 
REINFORCEMENT 



BOND BEAM STEEL 
TWO V 2 IN. BARS 



LINTEL STEEL- 
SEE SECTION R606.9 



REINFORCEMENT— SEE 
SECTIONS R606. 11.2.1.3 
AND R606. 11.2.2.3 

NOT HEADER v 
COURSE 




LAP 40 DIA. 



'//AW/// 
///. 



/ 



m 



■ 3 IN. x3IN. x V 4 IN. CLIP 
ANGLE 4 FT. O.C. ONE 
V 2 IN. BOLT 



VERTICAL COLUMN ^\f 
REINFORCEMENT 



REINFORCEMENT SHALL 
HAVE MIN. 1 / 4 IN. 
CLEARANCE ■ 




.MAX 



COLUMN TIES 



^ 



DOWEL 



try/// 




METAL— SEE 
SECTION R6O8. 1.2 



HEADER COURSES 
NOT PERMITTED 



MIN. 3 / 4 IN. GROUT • 



m 



WHERE INTERIOR 
STUD PARTITION 
MEETS WALL BOLT 
END STUD WITH V 2 IN. 

"i BOLTS 3 FT. O.C. 




LAP 40 DIA. 



SECTION 1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R606.1 0(2) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED GROUTED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



165 



FIGURE R606.10(3) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS 
AT 48 IN. MAX. O.C. 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 



#4 BARS WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ENDS OF WALLS AND AT 
CORNERS 




#4 BARS (MIN.) AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT. THRU C.J. 



#4 BARS (MIN.) 
WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ALL CJ.'S 

CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 48 IN. O.C. 



24 IN. OR 
40 d b 



#4 BARS AT 48 IN. O.C. 



MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



3 IN. x 3 1 / 4 IN. CLIP ANGLE 4 FT. O.C, 
ONE V 2 <|>IN. BOLT 




HEIGHT 
8 FT. MAX. 



6 IN. 



' 



~Y~'?m 



wcw, ; 



^ 



6 IN. 

r 



BOND BEAM TWO 1 / 2 d> IN. 

BARS STEEL 



V 2 IN. BOLTS NOT MORE 
THAN 4 FT. O.C. IN CELLS 
WITH VERTICAL ROD 
WHERE POSSIBLE 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP 5 IN. OF COLUMN WHICH 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS 
AND VERTICAL 
REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUMN 

REINFORCEMENT 



5 IN. MAX. 



TIE COURSE 

REINFORCEMENTS- 
SEE SECTIONS R606.1 1.2.1. 3, 
R606.11.3.2ANDR606.11.4 



. LINTEL BAR OR 
BARS— SEE 
SECTION R606.9 




, -DOWEL 2 FT. 6 IN. 
| f LONG 



SECTION C 



3 / a IN. <|> ROD 



i n 



18 IN. MIN 

r , L 



6 IN. MIN. 

//// ', 



6 IN. 

r 



14 IN. 



\\\ v :.' 



k\\\ 



my/Aw/// 



14 IN. 



//// 
\\\ v 




DETAIL "A" 



FOUNDATION 



INSPECTION OPENING 
NOT REQUIRED IF 
INSPECTED AT THE 
COURSE 



FOUNDATION FOR 
WOOD FLOOR 



FOUNDATION FOR 
CONCRETE FLOOR 



NOTE: A full bed joint must be provided. All cells containing vertical bars are to be filled to the top of wall and provide inspection opening as shown on detail "A.' 
Horizontal bars are to be laid as shown on detail "B." Lintel bars are to be laid as shown on Section C. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R606.10(3) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Di OR D 2 



166 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606.1 1 .2.1 .2 - R606.1 1 .3.2.1 



R606.11.2.1.2 Masonry partition walls. Masonry 
partition walls, masonry screen walls and other ma- 
sonry elements that are not designed to resist vertical 
or lateral loads, other than those induced by their own 
weight, shall be isolated from the structure' so that ver- 
tical and lateral forces are not imparted to these ele- 
ments. Isolation joints and connectors betweenthese 
elements and the structure shall be designed to ac- 
commodate the design story drift. 

R606.11.2.1.3 Reinforcement requirements for 
masonry elements. Masonry elements listed in Sec- 
tion R606. 11.2.1.2 shall be reinforced in either the 
horizontal or vertical direction as shown in Figure 
R606.10(2) and in accordance with the following: 

1. Horizontal reinforcement. Horizontal joint re- 
inforcement shall consist of at least two longitu- 
dinal W1.7 wires spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm) for walls greater than 4 inches 
(102 mm) in width and at least one longitudinal 
Wl .7 wire spaced not more than 16 inches (406 
mm) for walls not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm) 
in width; or at least one No. 4 bar spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Where two 
longitudinal wires of joint reinforcement are 
used, the space between these wires! shall be the 
widest that the mortar joint will accommodate. 
Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided 
within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top arid bot- 
tom of these masonry elements. 

2. Vertical reinforcement. Vertical reinforcement 
shall consist of at least one No. 4 bar spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Vertical rein- 
forcement shall be located within 16 inches 
(406 mm) of the ends of masonry walls. 

R606. 11.2.2 Design of elements part of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system. 

R606.11.2.2.1 Connections to masonry shear 

walls. Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces 
between masonry walls and horizontal elements in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.6 of 
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Connectors shall be de- 
signed to transfer horizontal design forces acting ei- 
ther perpendicular or parallel to the walljbut not less 
than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of wall. 
The maximum spacing between connectors shall be 4 
feet (1219 mm). Such anchorage mechanisms shall 
not induce tension stresses perpendicular to grain in 
ledgers or nailers. 

R606.11.2.2.2 Connections to masonry columns. 

Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces be- 
tween masonry columns and horizontal elements in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.6 of 
Aqi 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Where anchor bolts are 
usqd to connect horizontal elements to the tops of col- 
umns, anchor bolts shall be placed within lateral ties. 
Lateral ties shall enclose both the vertical bars in the 
column and the anchor bolts. There shall be a mini- 



mum of two No. 4 lateral ties provided in the top 5 
inches (127 mm) of the column. 

R606.11.2.2.3 Minimum reinforcement require- 
ments for masonry shear walls. Vertical reinforce- 
ment of at least one No. 4 bar shall be provided at 
corners, within 16 inches (406 mm) of each side of 
openings, within 8 inches (203 mm) of each side of 
movement joints, within 8 inches (203 mm) of the 
ends of walls, and at a maximum spacing of 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of at 
least two wires of W1.7 spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm); or bond beam reinforcement shall 
be provided of at least one No. 4 bar spaced not more 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). Horizontal reinforcement 
shall also be provided at the bottom and top of wall 
openings and shall extend not less than 24 inches (610 
mm) nor less than 40 bar diameters past the opening; 
continuously at structurally connected roof and floor 
levels; and within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top of 
walls. 

R606.11.3 Seismic Design Category D,. Structures in 
Seismic Design Category D[ shall comply with the require- 
ments of Seismic Design Category C and to the additional 
requirements of this section. Masonry structures in Seismic 
Design Category D, shall be limited in height to one story 
and 9 feet (2743 mm) between lateral supports. 

R606.1 1.3.1 Design requirements. Masonry elements 
other than those covered by Section R606. 1 1 .2. 1 .2 shall 
be designed in accordance with the requirements of 
Chapter 2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. 

R606.11.3.2 Minimum reinforcement requirements 
for masonry walls. Masonry walls other than those cov- 
ered by Section R606 .11.2.1.3 shall be reinforced in both 
the vertical and horizontal direction. The sum of the 
cross-sectional area of horizontal and vertical reinforce- 
ment shall be at least 0.002 times the gross cross-sec- 
tional area of the wall, and the minimum cross-sectional 
area in each direction shall be not less than 0.0007 times 
the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. Reinforcement 
shall be uniformly distributed. Table R606.1 1.3.2 pro- 
vides the minimum reinforcing bar sizes required for 
varying thicknesses of masonry walls. The maximum 
spacing of reinforcement shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) 
provided that the walls are solid grouted and constructed 
of hollow open-end units, hollow units laid with full head 
j oints or two wy the of solid units . The maximum spacing 
of reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 mm) for all 
other masonry. 

R606.11.3.2.1 Shear wall reinforcement require- 
ments. The maximum spacing of vertical and hori- 
zontal reinforcement shall be the smaller of one-third 
the length of the shear wall, one- third the height of the 
shear wall, or 48 inches (1219 mm). The minimum 
cross-sectional area of vertical reinforcement shall be 
one-third of the required shear reinforcement. Shear 
reinforcement shall be anchored around vertical rein- 
forcing bars with a standard hook. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



167 



TABLE R606.11.3.2- R606.13.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R606.1 1.3.2 

MINIMUM DISTRIBUTED WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR BUILDINGS ASSIGNED TO SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D.i 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(inches o.c.) 


MINIMUM SUM OF THE VERTICAL 

AND HORIZONTAL 

REINFORCEMENT AREAS" 

(inches per square foot) 


MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT AS 

DISTRIBUTED IN BOTH HORIZONTAL 

AND VERTICAL DIRECTIONS" 

(inches per square foot) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE FOR 

REINFORCEMENT SPACED 

AT 48 INCHES 


6 


0.135 


0.047 


#4 


8 


0.183 


0.064 


#5 


10 


0.231 


0.081 


#6 


12 


0.279 


0.098 


#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch per foot = 2.12 mm 2 /mm. 

a. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio of 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 

b. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio each direction of 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 



.11.3.3 Minimum reinforcement for masonry 
columns. Lateral ties in masonry columns shall be 
spaced not more than 8 inches (203 mm) on center and 
shall be at least 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Lateral ties 
shall be embedded in grout. 

R606.11.3.4 Material restrictions. Type N mortar or 
masonry cement shall not be used as part of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system. 



5.11.3.5 Lateral tie anchorage. Standard hooks for 
lateral tie anchorage shall be either a 135-degree (2.4 
rad) standard hook or a 180-degree (3.2 rad) standard 
hook. 

R606.1L4 Seismic Design Category D 2 . Structures in 
Seismic Design Category D 2 shall comply with the require- 
ments of Seismic Design Category D, and to the additional 
requirements of this section. 



1.4.1 Design of elements not part of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system. Stack bond masonry that is 
not part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall have a 
horizontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at 
least 0.0015 times the gross cross-sectional area of ma- 
sonry. Table R606. 1 1 .4. 1 provides minimum reinforcing 
bar sizes for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of 
horizontal reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 mm). 
These elements shall be solidly grouted and shall be con- 
structed of hollow open-end units or two wythes of solid 
units. 

TABLE R606.1 1.4.1 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED MASONRY 

WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D 2 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE SPACED 
AT 24 INCHES 


6 


#4 


8 


#5 


10 


#5 


12 


#6 



.11.4.2 Design of elements part of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system. Stack bond masonry that is 
part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall have a hor- 
izontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 
0.0025 times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. 
Table R606. 11.4.2 provides minimum reinforcing bar 
sizes for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of hori- 
zontal reinforcement shall be 16 inches (406 mm). These 
elements shall be solidly grouted and shall be con- 
structed of hollow open-end units or two wythes of solid 
units. 

TABLE R606.1 1.4.2 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED MASONRY 

WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D 2 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE SPACED 
AT 16 INCHES 


6 


#4 


8 


#5 


10 


. #5 


12 


#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 .4 mm. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

M606.12 Protection for reinforcement. All bars shall be com- 
pletely embedded in mortar or grout. Joint reinforcement em- 
bedded in horizontal mortar joints shall not have less than 
5 / g -inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face. All 
other reinforcement shall have a minimum coverage of one bar 
diameter over all bars, but not less than 3 / 4 inch(19.1 mm), ex- 
cept where exposed to weather or soil, in which case the mini- 
mum coverage shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

R606.13 Beam supports. Beams, girders or other concen- 
trated loads supported by a wall or column shall have a bearing 
of at least 3 inches (76 mm) in length measured parallel to the 
beam upon solid masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
thickness, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design and 
dimensions to distribute the load safely, or upon a continuous 
reinforced masonry member projecting not less than 4 inches 
(102 mm) from the face of the wall. 

R606.13.1 Joist bearing. Joists shall have a bearing of not 
less than 1 V 2 inches (38 mm), except as provided in Section 



m 



168 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606.14-R607.3 



R606. 13, and shall be supported in accordance with Figure 
R606.10(l). 

R606.14 Metal accessories. Joint reinforcement, anchors, ties 
and wire fabric shall conform to the following: ASTM A 82 for 
wire anchors and ties; ASTM A 36 for plate, headed and 
bent-bar anchors; ASTM A 5 1 for corrugated sheet metal an- 
chors and ties; ASTM A 951 for joint reinforcement; ASTM B 
227 for copper-clad steel wire ties; or ASTM A 167 for stain- 
less steel hardware. 

R606.14.1 Corrosion protection. Minimum corrosion pro- 
tection of joint reinforcement, anchor ties and wire fabric for 
use in masonry wall construction shall conform to Table 
R606.14.1. 



SECTION R607 
UNIT MASONRY 

R607.1 Mortar. Mortar for use in masonry construction shall 
comply with ASTM C 270. The type of mortar shall be in ac- 
cordance with Sections R607.1.1, R607.1.2 and R607.1.3 and 
shall meet the proportion specifications of Table R607. 1 or the 
property specifications of ASTM C 270. 

R607.1.1 Foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls 
constructed as set forth in Tables R404. 1.1(1) through 
R404.1.1(4) and mortar shall be Type M or S. 

R607.1.2 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories A, B 

and C. Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force-re- 
sisting system in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C 
shall be Type M, S or N mortar. 

R607.1.3 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories D x and 

D 2 . Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force-resisting 
system in Seismic Design Categories D! and D 2 shall be 
Type M or S portland cement-lime or mortar cement mortar. 

R607.2 Placing mortar and masonry units. 

R607.2.1 Bed and head joints. Unless otherwise required 
or indicated on the project drawings, head and bed joints 
shall be 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) thick, except that the thickness of 
the bed joint of the starting course placed over foundations 



shall not be less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) and not more than 3 / 4 
inch (19.1 mm). 

R607.2.1.1 Mortar joint thickness tolerance. Mortar 
joint thickness shall be within the following tolerances 
from the specified dimensions: 

1. Bed joint: + V 8 inch (3.2 mm). 

2. Head joint: '/ 4 inch (6.4 mm), + 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). 

3. Collarjoints: 7 4 inch (6.4 mm), + 3 / 8 inch(9.5mm). 

Exception: Nonload-bearing masonry ele- 
ments and masonry veneers designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Section R703.7 are 
not required to meet these tolerances. 

R607.2.2 Masonry unit placement. The mortar shall be 
sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient 
pressure to extrude mortar from the joint and produce a tight 
joint. Deep furrowing of bed joints that produces voids shall 
not be permitted. Any units disturbed to the extent that ini- 
tial bond is broken after initial placement shall be removed 
and relaid in fresh mortar. Surfaces to be in contact with 
mortar shall be clean and free of deleterious materials. 

R607.2.2.1 Solid masonry. All solid masonry units shall 
be laid with full head and bed joints and all interior verti- 
cal joints that are designed to receive mortar shall be 
filled. 

R607.2.2.2 Hollow masonry. For hollow masonry units, 
all head and bed joints shall be filled solidly with mortar 
for a distance in from the face of the unit not less than the 
thickness of the face shell. 

R607.3 Installation of wall ties. The installation of wall ties 
shall be as follows: 

1. The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortar joints. 
Wall tie ends shall engage outer face shells of hollow 
units by at least 7 2 inch (12.7 mm). Wire wall ties shall be 
embedded at least 1 7 2 inches (38 mm) into the mortar 
bed of solid masonry units or solid grouted hollow units. 

2. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in grout 
or mortar. 



TABLE R606.1 4.1 
MINIMUM CORROSION PROTECTION 



MASONRY METAL ACCESSORY 


STANDARD 


Joint reinforcement, interior walls 


ASTM A 641, Class 1 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls completely embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 641, Class 3 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls not completely embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Joint reinforcement in exterior walls or interior walls exposed to moist environment 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors exposed to weather 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors completely embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 525, Class G-60 


Stainless steel hardware for any exposure 


ASTM A 167, Type 304 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



169 



TABLE R607.1 - R608.1.2.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R607.1 
MORTAR PROPORTIONS 3 '" 



PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials) 


Mortar 


Type 


Portland cement or 
blended cement 


Mortar cement 


Masonry cement 


Hydrated lime or lime putty 


Aggregate ratio (measured in 
damp, loose conditions) 


M 


S 


N 


M 


S 


N 


Cement-lime 


M 

S 
N 
O 


1 
1 
1 
1 














over 7 4 to V 2 
over V 2 to l'/ 4 
over 17 4 to2V 2 


Not less than 2'/ 4 and 

not more than 

3 times the sum of separate 

volumes of lime, if used, 

and cement 


Mortar cement 


M 

M 
S 

s 

N 



1 

% 


1 


1 


1 

1 

1 
1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Masonry cement 


M 
M 
S 
S 
N 



1 








1 


1 


1 

1 

1 
1 


— 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For the purpose of these specifications, the weight of 1 cubic foot of the respective materials shall be considered to be as follows: 

Portland Cement 94 pounds Masonry Cement Weight printed on bag 

Mortar Cement Weight printed on bag Hydrated Lime 40 pounds 

Lime Putty (Quicklime) 80 pounds Sand, damp and loose 80 pounds of dry sand 

b. Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar. 



SECTION R608 
MULTIPLE WYTHE MASONRY 

8.1 General. The facing and backing of multiple wythe 
masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section 
R608.1.1, R608.1.2 or R608.1.3. In cavity walls, neither the 
facing nor the backing shall be less than 3 inches (76 mm) nom- 
inal in thickness and the cavity shall not be more than 4 inches 
(102 mm) nominal in width. The backing shall be at least as 
thick as the facing. 

Exception: Cavities shall be permitted to exceed the 4-inch 
(102 mm) nominal dimension provided tie size and tie spac- 
ing have been established by calculation. 



.1 Bonding with masonry headers. Bonding with 
solid or hollow masonry headers shall comply with Sections 
R608.1.1.1andR608.1.1.2. 



1.1.1.1 Solid units. Where the facing and backing 
(adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are 
bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than 4 per- 
cent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of 
headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the 
backing. The distance between adjacent full-length 
headers shall not exceed 24 inches (6 1 mm) either verti- 
cally or horizontally. In walls in which a single header 
does not extend through the wall, headers from the oppo- 
site sides shall overlap at least 3 inches (76 mm), or head- 
ers from opposite sides shall be covered with another 
header course overlapping the header below at least 3 
inches (76 mm). 



R608.1.1.2 Hollow units. Where two or more hollow 
units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the 
stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals not 
exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping at least 3 
inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at ver- 
tical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) with 
units that are at least 50 percent greater in thickness than 
the units below. 

R608.L2 Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement. 
Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement shall comply 
with Sections R608. 1.2.1 through R608. 1.2.3. 

R608.1.2.1 Bonding with wall ties. Bonding with wall 
ties, except as required by Section R610, where the fac- 
ing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are 
bonded with 3 / ]6 -inch-diameter (4.8 mm) wall ties em- 
bedded in the horizontal mortar joints, there shall be at 
least one metal tie for each 4.5 square feet (0.418 m 2 ) of 
wall area. Ties in alternate courses shall be staggered. 
The maximum vertical distance between ties shall not ex- 
ceed 24 inches (610 mm), and the maximum horizontal 
distance shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). Rods or 
ties bent to rectangular shape shall be used with hollow 
masonry units laid with the cells vertically. In other 
walls, the ends of ties shall be bent to 90-degree (0.79 
rad) angles to provide hooks no less than 2 inches (5 1 
mm) long. Additional bonding ties shall be provided at 
all openings, spaced not more than 3 feet (914 mm) apart 
around the perimeter and within 12 inches (305 mm) of 
the opening. 



170 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R608.1.2.2-R609.2.1 



R608.1.2.2 Bonding with adjustable wall ties. Where 
the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are 
bonded with adjustable wall ties, there shall be at least 
one tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m 2 ) of wall area. 
Neither the vertical nor horizontal spacing of the adjust- 
able wall ties shall exceed 24 inches (610 mm). The max- 
imum vertical offset of bed joints from one wythe to the 
other shall be 1 .25 inches (32 mm). The maximum clear- 
ance between connecting parts of the ties shall be '/ l6 
inch (1 .6 mm). When pintle legs are used, ties shall have 
at least two 3 / ]S -inch-diameter (4.8 mm) legs. 

R608.1.2.3 Bonding with prefabricated joint rein- 
forcement. Where the facing and backing (adjacent 
wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint 
reinforcement, there shall be at least one cross wire serv- 
ing as a tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m 2 ) of wall 
area. The vertical spacing of the joint reinforcement shall 
not exceed 16 inches (406 mm). Cross wires on prefabri- 
cated joint reinforcement shall not be smaller than No. 9 
gage. The longitudinal wires shall be embedded in the 
mortar. 

R608.1.3 Bonding with natural or cast stone. Bonding 
with natural and cast stone shall conform to Sections 
R608. 1. 3.1 and R608. 1.3.2. 

R608.1.3.1 Ashlar masonry. In ashlar masonry, bonder 
units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided to the ex- 
tent of: not less than 10 percent of the wall area. Such 
bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
into the backing wall. 

R608. 1.3.2 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone ma- 
sonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall have 
bonder units with a maximum spacing of 3 feet (9 1 4 mm) 
vertically and 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally, and if the 
masonry is of greater thickness than 24 inches (610 mm), 
shall have one bonder unit for each 6 square feet (0.557 
m 2 ) of wall surface on both sides. 

R608.2 Masonry bonding pattern. Masonry laid in running 
and stack bond shall conform to Sections R608.2.1 and 
R608.2.2. 

R608.2.1 Masonry laid in running bond. In each wythe of 
masonry laid in running bond, head joints in successive 
courses shall be offset by not 'less than one-fourth the unit 
length, or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudi- 
nally as required in Section R608.2.2. 

R608.2.2 Masonry laid in stack bond. Where unit ma- 
sonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section 
R607.2.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement 
placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced not 
more than48 inches (1219 mm) apart, shall be 0.0007 times 
the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall. 



SECTION R609 
GROUTED MASONRY 

R609.1 General. Grouted multiple- wythe masonry is a form of 
construction in which the space between the wythes is solidly 
filled with grout. It is not necessary for the cores of masonry 



units to be filled with grout. Grouted hollow unit masonry is a 
form of construction in which certain cells of hollow units are 
continuously filled with grout. 

R609.1.1 Grout. Grout shall consist of cementitious mate- 
rial and aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 476 and the 
proportion specifications of Table R609.1.1. Type M or 
Type S mortar to which sufficient water has been added to 
produce pouring consistency can be used as grout. 

R609.1.2 Grouting requirements. Maximum pour heights 
and the minimum dimensions of spaces provided for grout 
placement shall conform to Table R609.1.2. If the work is 
stopped for one hour or longer, the horizontal construction 
joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at the same eleva- 
tion and with the grout 1 inch (25.4 mm) below the top. 

R609.1.3 Grout space (cleaning). Provision shall be made 
for cleaning grout space. Mortar projections that project 
more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) into grout space and any other 
foreign matter shall be removed from grout space prior to in- 
spection and grouting. 

R609.1.4 Grout placement. Grout shall be a plastic mix 
suitable for pumping without segregation of the constitu- 
ents and shall be mixed thoroughly. Grout shall be placed 
by pumping or by an approved alternate method and shall 
be placed before any initial set occurs and in no case more 
than 1 V 2 hours after water has been added. Grouting shall 
be done in a continuous pour, in lifts not exceeding 5 feet 
(1524 mm). It shall be consolidated by puddling or me- 
chanical vibrating during placing and reconsolidated af- 
ter excess moisture has been absorbed but before 
plasticity is lost. 

R609.1.4.1 Grout pumped through aluminum pipes. 

Grout shall not be pumped through aluminum pipes. 

R609.1.5 Cleanouts. Where required by the building offi- 
cial, cleanouts shall be provided as specified in this section. 
The cleanouts shall be sealed before grouting and after in- 
spection. 

R609.1.5.1 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. 

Cleanouts shall be provided at the bottom course of the 
exterior wythe at each pour of grout where such pour ex- 
ceeds 5 feet (1524 mm) in height. 

R609.1.5.2 Grouted hollow unit masonry. Cleanouts 
shall be provided at the bottom course of each cell to be 
grouted at each pour of grout, where such pour exceeds 4 
feet (1219 mm) in height. 

R609.2 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Grouted multi- 
ple-wythe masonry shall conform to all the requirements speci- 
fied in Section R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 

R609.2.1 Bonding of backup wythe. Where all interior 
vertical spaces are filled with grout in multiple-wythe con- 
struction, masonry headers shall not be permitted. Metal 
wall ties shall be used in accordance with Section R608.1.2 
to prevent spreading of the wythes and to maintain the verti- 
cal alignment of the wall. Wall ties shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with Section R608. 1 .2 when the backup wythe in 
multiple-wythe construction is fully grouted. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



171 



TABLE R609.1.1 - R609A1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R609.1.1 
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



TYPE 


PORTLAND CEMENT 

OR BLENDED CEMENT 

SLAG CEMENT 


HYDRATED LIME 
OR LIME PUTTY 


AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION 


Fine 


Coarse 


Fine 


1 


to 1/10 


2'/ 4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


— 


Coarse 


1 


to 1/10 


2'/ 4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


1 to 2 times the sum of the volumes of 
the cementitious materials 



TABLE R609.1 .2 
GROUT SPACE DIMENSIONS AND POUR HEIGHTS 



GROUT TYPE 


GROUT POUR MAXIMUM HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MINIMUM WIDTH OF 

GROUT SPACES 3 " 

(inches) 


MINIMUM GROUT"' SPACE DIMENSIONS FOR 

GROUTING CELLS OF HOLLOW UNITS 

(inches x inches) 


Fine 


1 


0.75 


1.5x2 


5 


2 


2x3 


12 


2.5 


2.5x3 


24 


3 


3x3 


Coarse 


1 


1.5 


1.5x3 


5 


2 


2.5x3 


12 


2.5 


3x3 


24 


3 


3x4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For grouting between masonry wythes. 

b. Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by the horizontal projection of the diameters of the horizon- 
tal bars within the cross section of the grout space. 

c. Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space. 



R6Q9.2.2 Grout spaces. Fine grout shall be used when inte- 
rior vertical space to receive grout does not exceed 2 inches 
(51 mm) in thickness. Interior vertical spaces exceeding 2 
inches (5 1 mm) in thickness shall use coarse or fine grout. 

R6Q9.2.3 Grout barriers. Vertical grout barriers or dams 
shall be built of solid masonry across the grout space the en- 
tire height of the wall to control the flow of the grout hori- 
zontally. Grout barriers shall not be more than 25 feet (7620 
mm) apart. The grouting of any section of a wall between 
control barriers shall be completed in one day with no inter- 
ruptions greater than one hour. 

R609.3 Reinforced grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Rein- 
forced grouted multiple-wythe masonry shall conform to all 
the requirements specified in Sections R609. 1 and R609.2 and 
the requirements of this section. 



'.3.1 Construction. The thickness of grout or mortar 
between masonry units and reinforcement shall not be less 
than V 4 inch (6.4 mm), except that V 4 -inch (6.4 mm) bars 
may be laid in horizontal mortar joints at least 7 2 inch (12.7 
mm) thick, and steel wire reinforcement may be laid in hori- 
zontal mortar joints at least twice the thickness of the wire 
diameter. 



R609.4 Reinforced hollow unit masonry. Reinforced hollow 
unit masonry shall conform to all the requirements of Section 
R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 

R609.4.1 Construction. Requirements for construction 
shall be as follows: 

1. All reinforced hollow-unit masonry shall be built to 
preserve the unobstructed vertical continuity of the 
cells to be filled. Walls and cross webs forming such 
cells to be filled shall be full-bedded in mortar to pre- 
vent leakage of grout. All head and end joints shall be 
solidly filled with mortar for a distance in from the 
face of the wall or unit not less than the thickness of 
the longitudinal face shells. Bond shall be provided by 
lapping units in successive vertical courses. 

2. Cells to be filled shall have vertical alignment suffi- 
cient to maintain a clear, unobstructed continuous ver- 
tical cell of dimensions prescribed in Table R609. 1.2. 

3. Vertical reinforcement shall be held in position at top 
and bottom and at intervals not exceeding 200 diame- 
ters of the reinforcement. 

4. All cells containing reinforcement shall be filled sol- 
idly with grout. Grout shall be poured in lifts of 8-foot 
(2438 mm) maximum height. When total grout pour 



172 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R610.1-R610.5 



• 



exceeds 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, the grout shall be 
placed in lifts not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) and 
special inspection during grouting shall be required. 

5. Horizontal steel shall be fully embedded by grout in 
an uninterrupted pour. 



SECTION R610 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY 

R610.1 General. Panels of glass unit masonry located in 
load-bearing' and nonload-bearing exterior and interior walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with this section. 

R610.2 Materials. Hollow glass units shall be partially evacu- 
ated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3 / 16 
inch (4.8 mm). The surface of units in contact with mortar shall 
be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex -based paint. 
The use of reclaimed units is prohibited. 

R610.3 Units. Hollow or solid glass block units shall be stan- 
dard or thin units. 

R610.3.1ji Standard units. The specified thickness of stan- 
dard units shall be at least 3 7 4 inches (98 mm). 

R610.3.2' Thin units. The specified thickness of thin units 
shall be at least 3V 8 inches (79 mm) for hollow units and at 
least 3 inches (76 mm) for solid units. 

R610.4 Isolated panels. Isolated panels of glass unit masonry 
shall conform to the requirements of this section. 



R6 10.4.1 Exterior standard-unit panels. The maximum 
area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 144 
: square feet (13.4 m 2 ) when the design wind pressure is 20 
'psf (958 Pa) . The maximum area of such panels su bjected to 
j'design wind pressures other than 20 psf (958 Pa) shall be in 
accordance with Figure R6 10.4.1. The maximum panel di- 
mension between structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 
mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R610.4.2 Exterior thin-unit panels. The maximum area of 
each individual thin-unit panel shall be 85 square feet (7.9 
im 2 ).. The maximum dimension between structural supports 
•shall be 1 5 feet (4572 mm) in width or 1 feet (3048 mm) in 
; height. Thin units shall not be used in applications where the 
', design wind pressure as stated in Table R301.2(l) exceeds 
20 psf (958 Pa). 

R610.4.3 Interior panels. The maximum area of each indi- 
vidual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet (23.2 
m 2 ). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall be 150 
square feet (13.9 m 2 ). The maximum dimension between 
structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 
feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R610.4.4 Curved panels. The width of curved panels shall 
conform to the requirements of Sections R610.4.1, 
R610.4.2 and R610.4.3, except additional structural sup- 
ports shall be provided at locations where a curved section 
joins a straight section, and at inflection points in 
multicurved walls. 

R610.5 Panel support. Glass unit masonry panels shall con- 
form to the support requirements of this section. 



Q. - 



D- 

Q 




100 .150 200 

MAXIMUM AREAOF PANEL (SQUARE FEET) 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 



FIGURE R610.4.1 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



173 



R61 0.5.1 -R61 1.6.1 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61®.5.1 Deflection. The maximum total deflection of 
structural members that support glass unit masonry shall not 
exceed V^o. 

R610.5.2 Lateral support. Glass unit masonry panels shall 
be laterally supported along the top and sides of the panel. 
Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be de- 
signed to resist a minimum of 200 pounds per lineal feet 
(2918 N/m) of panel, or the actual applied loads, whichever 
is greater. Except for single unit panels, lateral support shall 
be provided by panel anchors along the top and sides spaced 
a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on center or by chan- 
nel-type restraints. Single unit panels shall be supported by 
channel-type restraints. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Lateral support is not required at the top of panels 
that are one unit wide. 

2. Lateral support is not required at the sides of pan- 
els that are one unit high. 



9.5.2.1 Panel anchor restraints. Panel anchors 
shall be spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center in both jambs and across the head. Panel anchors 
shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) 
and shall be provided with two fasteners so as to resist the 
loads specified in Section R610.5.2. 

R610.5.2.2 Channel-type restraints. Glass unit ma- 
sonry panels shall be recessed at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) 
within channels and chases. Channel-type restraints 
shall be oversized to accommodate expansion material in 
the opening, packing and sealant between the framing re- 
straints, and the glass unit masonry perimeter units. 

(.6 Sills. Before bedding of glass units, the sill area shall be 
covered with a water base asphaltic emulsion coating. The 
coating shall shall be a minimum of V 8 inch (3.2 mm) thick. 

R610.7 Expansion joints. Glass unit masonry panels shall be 
provided with expansion joints along the top and sides at all 
structural supports. Expansion joints shall be a minimum of 3 / 8 
inch (9.5 mm) in thickness and shall have sufficient thickness 
to accommodate displacements of the supporting structure. Ex- 
pansion joints shall be entirely free of mortar and other debris 
and shall be filled with resilient material. 

K610.8 Mortar. Glass unit masonry shall be laid with Type S 
or N mortar. Mortar shall not be retempered after initial set. 
Mortar unused within 1V 2 hours after initial mixing shall be 
discarded. 

R610.9 Reinforcement. Glass unit masonry panels shall have 
horizontal joint reinforcement spaced a maximum of 1 6 inches 
(406 mm) on center located in the mortar bed joint. Horizontal 
joint reinforcement shall extend the entire length of the panel 
but shall not extend across expansion joints. Longitudinal 
wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) at 
splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed in the bed joint im- 
mediately below and above openings in the panel. The rein- 
forcement shall have not less than two parallel longitudinal 
wires of size W 1.7 or greater, and have welded cross wires of 
size W1.7 or greater. 



R610.10 Placement. Glass units shall be placed so head and 
bed joints are filled solidly. Mortar shall not be furrowed. Head 
and bed joints of glass unit masonry shall be V 4 inch (6.4 mm) 
thick, except that vertical joint thickness of radial panels shall 
not be less than V 8 inch (3.2 mm) or greater than 5 / 8 inch (15.9 
mm). The bed joint thickness tolerance shall be minus V, 6 inch 
(1.6 mm) and plus V 8 inch (3.2 mm). The head joint thickness 
tolerance shall be plus or minus V 8 inch (3.2 mm). 



SECTION R611 

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM 

WALL CONSTRUCTION 

R611.1. General. Insulating Concrete Form walls shall be de- 
signed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of 
this section or in accordance with the provisions of ACI 318. 
When ACI 318 or the provisions of this section are used to de- 
sign insulating concrete form walls, project drawings, typical 
details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the 
architect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise 
required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R611.2 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section 
shall apply to the construction of insulating concrete form walls 
for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in plan di- 
mensions, and floors not greater than 32 feet (9754 mm) or 
roofs not greater than 40 feet (12192 mm) in clear span. Build- 
ings shall not exceed two stories in height above-grade with 
each story not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) high. Walls con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall 
be limited to buildings subjected to a maximum design wind 
speed of 130 miles per hour (209 km/h), a maximum ground 
snow load of 70 psf (3.35 kN/m 2 ), and Seismic Design Catego- 
ries A, B and C. 

R611.3 Flat insulating concrete form wall systems. Flat ICF 
wall systems shall comply with Figure R611.3 and shall have 
reinforcement in accordance with Table R611.3 and Section 
R611.7. 

R611.4 Waffle-grid insulating concrete form wall systems. 
Waffle-grid wall systems shall comply with Figure R61 1 .4 and 
shall have reinforcement in accordance with Table R61 1.4(1) 
and Section R6 1 1 .7 . The minimum core dimensions shall com- 
ply with Table R61 1.4(2). 

R611.5 Screen-grid insulating concrete form wall systems. 
Screen-grid ICF wall systems shall comply with Figure R61 1 .5 
and shall have reinforcement in accordance with Table R6 1 1 .5 . 
The minimum core dimensions shall comply with Table 
R61 1.4(2). 

R611.6 Material. Insulating concrete form wall materials shall 
comply with this section. 

R61 1.6. 1 Concrete material. Ready-mixed concrete for in- 
sulating concrete form walls shall be in accordance with 
Section R402.2. Maximum slump shall not be greater than 6 
inches (152 mm) as determined in accordance with ASTM 
C 143. Maximum aggregate size shall not be larger than 3 / 4 
inch (19.1 mm). 

Exception: Concrete mixes conforming to the ICF man- 
ufacturer's recommendations. 



174 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1 .3 - FIGURE R61 1 .3 



', TABLE R61 1.3 

MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT ICF ABOVE-GRADE WALLS abcd 



MAXIMUM 
WIND 
SPEED 
(mph) 


MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT PER 

STORY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 


Supporting light-frame roof only 


Supporting light-frame second 
story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 


Minimum wall thickness (inches) 


3.5 e 


5.5 


3.5° 


5.5 


3.5° 


5.5 


85 


8 


#4@32" 


: N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


9 


#4@32" 


; N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#3@20";#4@24"; 
#5@26" 


N/R 


10 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#3@14";#4@16"; 
#5@18" 


N/R 


100 


8 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


9 


#4@32" 


:' N/R 


#3@24";#4@32"; 
#5@34" 


N/R 


#3@14";#4@18"; 
#5@20" 


N/R 


10 


#3@16";#4@26"; 
#5@34" 


N/R. 


#3@16";#4@20"; 
#5@22" 


N/R 


Design required 


N/R 


110 


8 


• #4@32" 


N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


#4@32" 


N/R 


9 


#3@16";#4@26"; 
#5@34" 


; N/R 


#3@18";#4@20"; 
#5@22" 


N/R 


Design required 


N/R 


10 


Design required 


N/R 

1 ! 


#3@10"i;#4@12"; 
#5 @ 14" 


N/R 


Design required 


N/R 


120 


8 


#3@18";#4@30"; 
#5@40" 


#4@96" 


#3@18";#4@30"; 
#5@30" 


#4@96" 


#4@32" 


#4@96" 


9 


#3@12";#4@22"; 
#5@30" 


#4@96" 


#3@12";#4@16"; 
#5@16" 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


10 


Design required 


:'#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


130 


8 


#3 @ 14"; #4 @ 20"; 
#5@24" 


J#4@96" 


#3@14";#4@18"; 
#5@20" 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


9 


Design required 


■#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


10 


Design required 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4@96" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.6093 km/h, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength'of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 3 1 8. 

a. N/R indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required. 

b. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the wall story in inches. 

c. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

d. See Section R61 1.7. 1.4 for additional reinforcement requirements for dwellings in Seismic Design Category C. 

e. A 3.5-inch wall is not permitted if wood ledgers are to be u'sed to support the second floor or roof loads. See Section R61 1 .8. 



-ACTUAL WALL 
THICKNESS 



.INSULATING FORM 



"VERTICAL 
REINFORCEMENT 
IF REQUIRED 




NSULATING FORM 



IROMFTRICVIFW 



FIGURE R61 1.3 
FLAT ICF WALL SYSTEM 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



175 



FIGURE R61 1. 4 -TABLE R61 1.4(1) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



■.i-ifc 2 IN. MIN, 

fT CONCRETE WEB 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 
IF REQUIRED 



HORIZONTAL CONCRETE CORE 
(HIDDEN) AT 16 IN. O.O. MAX. 



VERTICAL 
CONCRETE CORE 



CONCRETE 
WEBS 




INSULATING FORM 



ISOMETRIC VIEW 
WAFFLE ICF WALL SYSTEM 



FIGURE R61 1.4 
WAFFLE-GRID ICF WALL SYSTEM 





TABLE R61 1.4(1) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR WAFFLE-GRID ICF ABOVE-GRADE WALLS 3 ' b> c ' d ' B 




MAXIMUM 

WIND SPEED 

(mph) 


MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT PER STORY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 


Supporting light-frame roof only 


Supporting light-frame 
second story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 


Minimum wall thickness" (inches) 


6 


8 


6 


8 


6 


8 


85 


8 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


9 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


10 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


100 


8 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


9 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


10 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


110 


8 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4® 96" 


#4® 96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


9 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" . 


#4® 96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


10 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


N/R 


#3® 12"; #4® 24"; 
#5® 24" 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@24" 


N/R 


120 


8 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4® 96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


9 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5® 36" 


#4@96" 


#3® 12"; #4® 24"; 
#5® 36" 


#4@96" 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5® 24" 


#4® 96" 


10 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@24" 


#4@96" 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@24" 


#4@96" 


#3@12";#4@12" 


#4® 96" 


130 


8 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#4@96" 


#3® 12"; #4® 24"; 
#5@36" 


#4@96" 


#3@12";#4 / @24"; 
#5® 24" 


#4@96" 


9 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@24 2 


#4@96" 


#3® 12"; #4® 24"; 
#5® 24" 


#4@96" 


#3® 12"; #4® 12" 


#4@96" 


10 


#3 @ 12"; #4® 12"; 
#5® 24" 


#4@96" 


Design required 


#4® 96" 


Design required 


#4® 96" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 1.6093 km/h. 

NOTE: This tabic is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. N/R indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required. 

b. Deflection criterion is t/240, where L is the height of the wall story in inches. 

c. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

d. Nominal thickness is given; refer to Table R61 1.4(2) for actual concrete wall thickness. 

e. See Section R61 1.7.1.4 for additional reinforcement requirements for dwellings in Seismic Design Category C. 



176 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.4(2)- TABLE R61 1.5 



TABLE R61 1.4(2) 

DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CORES AND WEBS IN 

WAFFLE-GRID AND SCREEN-GRID ICF WALLS ab 



WALL TYPE AND 

NOMINAL SIZE 

(inches) 


MINIMUM WIDTH OF 

CORE 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF VERTICAL CORE 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM SPACING OF 

VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM SPACING OF 

HORIZONTAL CORES 

(inches) 


MINIMUM WEB 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


6" Waffle-Grid 


6.25 


5 


12 


16 


2 


8" Waffle-Grit! 


7 


7 . 


12 


16 


2 


6" Screen-Grid 


5.5 


5.5 


12 


12 


N/A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For width "W," thickness "T"; spacing, and web thickness, refer to Figures R61 1.4 and R61 1.5. 

b. N/A indicates not applicable. 





TABLE R611.5 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR SCREEN-GRID ICF ABOVE-GRADE WALLS abcde 


MAXIMUM 

WIND SPEED 

(mph) 


MAXIMUM WALL 

HEIGHT PER STORY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 


Supporting light-frame roof only 


Supporting light-frame second 
story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 


Minimum wall thickness 11 (inches) 


6 


6 


6 


85 


8 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


9 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


10 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


100 


8 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


9 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


10 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


110 


8 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


9 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


10 


#3@12";#4@24";#5@36" 


#3@12";#4@24";#5@36" 


N/R 


120 


8 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


#4@96" 


9 


#3@24"; #4@36" 


#3@24"; #4@36"; #5@36" 


#4@96" 


10 


#3@12";#4@24";#5@36" 


#4@24";#5@24" 


#3@12"; #4@24"; #5@24" 


130 


8 


#3@24"; #4@36"; #5@48" 


#3@24"; #4@36"; #5@48" 


#4@96" 


9 


#3@12";#4@24";#5@36" 


#3@12";#4@24";#5@24" 


#3@12"; #4@24"; #5@24" 


10 


#3@12";#4@12" 


#4@24";#5@24" 


#3 @ 12"; #4@ 12"; #5 @24" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 1 .6093 km/h. 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength 1 of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. N/R indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required. 

b. Deflection criterion is Z7240, where L is the height of the wall story in inches. 

c. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

d. Nominal thickness is given; refer to Table R61 1 .4(2) for actual concrete wall thickness. 

e. See Section R61 1 .7. 1 .4 for additional requirements for dwellings in Seismic Design Category C. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



177 



FIGURE R611.5 - RB1 1.7.2 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 
IF REQUIRED 



il _ — HORIZONTAL CONCRETE CORE 
|H (HIDDEN) AT 12 IN. O.C. MAX. 



-VERTICAL 
CONCRETE CORE 



VOIDS 




NSULATING FORM 



PLAN VIEW 



ISOMETRIC VIEW 
SCREEN— GRID IFC WALL SYSTEM 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R61 1.5 
SCREEN-GRID IFC WALL SYSTEM 



R61 1.6.2 Reinforcing steel. Reinforcing steel shall meet 
the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 616, A 617 or A 706. 
The minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 
40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). 

M611.6.3 Insulation materials. Insulating concrete forms 
material shall meet the surface burning characteristics of 
Section R3 1 8. 1 . 1 . A thermal barrier shall be provided on the 
building interior in accordance with Section R318.1.2 or 
Section R702.3.4. 

R611.7 Wall construction. Insulating concrete form walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 
section and Figure R61 1.7(1). 

M61 1.7.1 Reinforcement. 

R611.7.1.1 Location. Vertical and horizontal wall rein- 
forcements shall be placed within the middle third of the 
wall. Steel reinforcement, shall have a minimum concrete 
cover in accordance with ACI 318. 

Exception: Where insulated concrete forms are used 
and the form remains in place as cover for the con- 
crete, the minimum concrete cover for the reinforcing 
steel is permitted to be reduced to 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) . 

R611.7.1.2 Vertical steel. Above-grade concrete walls 
shall have reinforcement in accordance with Sections 
R61 1 .3, R61 1.4, or R61 1 .5 and R61 1 .7.2. All vertical re- 
inforcement in the top-most ICF story shall terminate with 
a bend or a standard hook and be provided with a mini- 
mum lap splice of 24 inches (610 mm) with the top hori- 
zontal reinforcement. 

E611.7.1.3 Horizontal steel. Concrete walls with mini- 
mum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) shall have a mini- 
mum of one continuous No. 4 horizontal reinforcing bar 
placed at 32 inches (812 mm) on center with one bar 
within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall story. 
Concrete walls 5.5 inches (140 mm) thick or greater shall 
have a minimum of one continuous No. 4 horizontal re- 
inforcing bar placed at 48 inches (1219 mm) on center 
with one bar located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the 
top of the wall story. 



Horizontal reinforcement shall be continuous around 
building corners using corner bars or by bending the bars. 
In either case, the minimum lap splice shall be 24 inches 
(610 mm). 

R611.7.1.4 Dwellings in Seismic Design Category C. 
Dwellings in Seismic Design Category C shall have hori- 
zontal and vertical reinforcement in accordance with the 
following: 

1 . Vertical reinforcement consisting of at least one No. 
4 reinforcing bar, extending continuously from sup- 
port to support, shall be provided at each corner, at 
each side of each opening, and at the ends of walls. 

2. Horizontal reinforcement consisting of at least one 
No. 4 reinforcing bar, continuously at structurally 
connected roof and floor levels and at the top of the 
wall, at the bottom of load-bearing walls or in the 
top of foundations where doweled to the wall and 
at a maximum spacing of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

Vertical reinforcement provided in accordance with 
Sections R611.7.1.2 and R611.7.2, and horizontal rein- 
forcement provided in accordance with Sections 
R6 1 1 .7. 1 .3 and R6 1 1 .7.3 , shall be permitted to be used to 
meet the requirements of this section. 

R611.7.1.5 Lap splices. Where lap splicing of reinforc- 
ing steel is necessary, the lap splice shall be a minimum 
of 40d(„ where d b is the diameter of the smaller bar. The 
maximum distance between noncontact bars at a lap 
splice shall not exceed 8d 6 . 

R61 1.7.2 Wall openings. Wall openings shall have a mini- 
mum of 8 inches (203 mm) of depth of concrete for flat and 
waffle-grid ICF walls and 12 inches (305 mm) for 
screen-grid walls over the length of the opening. Reinforce- 
ment around openings shall be provided in accordance with 
Table R61 1.7(1) and Figure R61 1.7(2). All reinforcement 
placed horizontally above or below an opening shall extend 
a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) beyond the limits of the 
opening. Wall opening reinforcement shall 'be provided in 
addition to the reinforcement required by Sections R61 1.3, 



178 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61 1. 7.3 -R61 1.7.4 



TABLE R61 1:7(1) 
MINIMUM WALL OPENING REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS IN ICF WALLS 



WALL TYPE AND OPENING WIDTH 
(L)(feet) 


MINIMUM HORIZONTAL 
OPENING REINFORCEMENT 


MINIMUM VERTICAL 
OPENING REINFORCEMENT 


Flat, Waffle-, and 
Screen-Grid: 
L<2(0.61) 


None required 


None required 


Screen-Grid: 
2(0.61) <L< 4 (1.2) 


One No. 4 bar a minimum of 1 .5 inches and a maximum of 
2.5 inches above the top of the opening. One No. 4 bar within 
12 inches below the bottom of the opening. Each No. 4 bar 
shall extend a minimum of 24 inches beyond the limits of the 
opening. 


None required 


Flat and Waffle-Grid: 
2(0.61) <L<4 (1.2) 


One No. 4 bar within 12 inches above the top of the opening. 
One No. 4 bar within 12 inches below the bottom of the 
opening. Each No. 4 bar shall extend a minimum of 24 inches 
beyond the limits of the opening. 


None required 


Flat, Waffle-, and Screen-Grid: 

L>4(1.2) 


Provide lintels in accordance with Section R61 1.7.3. Top and 
bottom lintel reinforcement shall extend a minimum of 24 
inches beyond the limits of the opening. 


110 mph or less - One No. 4 bar. 

Greater than 1 10 mph - Two No. 4 bars. 

Bars shall extend for the full height of each wall story 

and be within 12 inches of each side of the opening. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h. 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an assumed equival 
ent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of IGF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 3 1 8. 



R611.4, R611.5 and R611.7.1. The perimeter of all wall 
openings shall be framed with a minimum 2-by-4 plate, an- 
chored to the wall with 7 2 -inch (12.7 mm) diameter anchor 
bolts spaced a maximum of 24 inches (610 mm) on center. 
The bolts shall be embedded into the concrete a minimum of 
4 inches (102 mm) and have a minimum of l'/ 2 (38 mm) 
inches of concrete cover to the face of the wall. 

Exception: The 2-by-4 plate is not required where the 
wall is formed to provide solid concrete around the per- 
imeter of the opening with a minimum depth of 4 inches 
(102 mm) for the full thickness of the wall. 

R611.7.3 Lintels. 

R611.7.3.1 General requirements. Lintels shall be pro- 
vided over all openings greater than or equal to 4 feet 
(1219 mm) in width for flat or waffle-grid ICF walls, and 
greater than 2 feet (610 mm) for screen-grid ICF walls. 
Lintels for flat ICF walls and screen-grid ICF walls shall 
be constructed in accordance with Figure R61 1 .7(3). Lin- 
tels for waffle-grid ICF walls shall be constructed in ac- 
cordance with Figure R6 11.7(4) or Figure R6 11.7(5). 
Lintel depths are permitted to be increased by the height of 
ICF wall located directly above the lintels, provided that 
the lintel depth spans the entire length of the opening. 

R611.7.3.2 Stirrups. A minimum of No. 3 stirrups shall 
be installed for all flat and screen-grid wall lintels at a 
maximum spacing of d/2 where d equals the depth of the 
lintel (D) minus the bottom cover of concrete as shown in 
Figure R6 11.7(3), R61 1.7(4) or R61 1.7(5). A minimum 
of two No. 3 stirrups shall be placed in each vertical core 
of waffle-grid lintels. 

R61L7.3.3 Horizontal reinforcement. One No. 4 hori- 
zontal bar shall be provided in the top of the lintel. Hori- 
zontal reinforcement placed within 12 inches (305 mm) 
of the top of the wall in accordance with Section 
R6 1117. 1.3 shall be permitted to serve as the top or bot- 



tom reinforcement in the lintel provided the reinforce- 
ment meets the location requirements in Figure 
R61 1.7(2), R61 1.7(3), R61 1.7(4) or R61 1.7(5), and the 
size requirements in Table R61 1.7(2), R61 1.7(3), 
R61 1.7(4), R61 1.7(5), R61 1.7(6) or R61 1.7(7). 

R611.7.3.4 Load-bearing walls. Lintels for flat and 
screen-grid ICF walls supporting roof or floor loads shall 
comply with Table R61 1.7(2) or Table R61 1.7(3). Lin- 
tels for waffle-grid ICF walls supporting roof or floor 
loads shall comply with Table R61 1.7(4) or Table 
R61 1.7(5). 

Exception: Where spans larger than those permitted 
in Table R611.7(2), R611.7(3), R611.7(4) or 
R61 1.7(5) are required, the lintels shall comply with 
Table R61 1.7(6). 

R611.7.3.5 Nonload-bearing walls. Lintels for 
nonload-bearing flat, waffle-grid and screen-grid ICF 
walls shall comply with Table R61 1 .7(7). 

R61 1.7.4 Minimum length of wall without openings. 

Exterior ICF walls shall have a minimum of solid wall 
length to total wall length in accordance with Table 
R61 1.7(8), but not less than 15 percent for ICF walls sup- 
porting a light framed roof or 20 percent for ICF walls sup- 
porting an ICF or light framed second story and light 
framed roof. For attached dwellings in Seismic Design 
Category C, the minimum percentage of solid wall length 
shall be greater than or equal to the requirements in Table 
R61 1 .7(9). The minimum percentage of solid wall length 
shall include only those solid wall segments that are a min- 
imum of 24 inches (610 mm) in length. The maximum dis- 
tance between wall segments included in determining 
solid wall length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). A 
minimum length of 24 inches (610 mm) of solid wall seg- 
ment, extending the full height of each wall story, shall oc- 
cur at all corners of exterior walls. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



179 



TABLE R61 1.7(2) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS FOR FLAT AND SCREEN-GRID LOAD-BEARING WALLS a ' bcd 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS (7) 

(Inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH 

(0) 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting light-framed roof 


Supporting light framed 
second story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 


Maximum ground snow load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


4 


8 


4-9 


4-2 


3-10 


3-4 


3-5 


3-1 


12 


6-8 


5-5 


5-0 


4-5 


4-6 


4-0 


16 


7-11 


6-5 


6-0 


5-3 


5-4 


4-10 


20 


8-11 


7-4 


6-9 


6-0 


6-1 


5-6 


24 


9-10 


8-1 


7-6 


6-7 


6-9 


6-1 


6 


8 


5-2 


4-2 


3-10 


3-5 


3-5 


3-1 


12 


6-8 


5-5 


5-0 


4-5 


4-6 


4-1 


16 


7-10 


6-5 


6-0 


5-3 


5-4 


4-10 


20 


8-10 


7-3 


6-9 


6-0 


6-1 


5-6 


24 


9-8 


8-0 


7-5 


6-7 


6-8 


6-0 


8 


8 


5-2 


4-2 


3-11 


3-5 


3-6 


3-2 


12 


6-7 


5-5 


5-0 


4-5 


4-6 


4-1 


16 


7-9 


6-5 


5-11 


5-3 


5-4 


4-10 


20 


8-8 


7-2 


6-8 


5-11 


6-0 


5-5 


24 


9-6 


7-11 


7-4 


6-6 


6-7 


6-0 


10 


8 


5-2 


4-2 


3-11 


3-5 


3-6 


3-2 


12 


6-7 


5-5 


5-0 


4-5 


4-6 


4-1 


16 


7-8 


6-4 


5-11 


5-3 


5-4 


4-10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 69 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

c. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing. 

d. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 



180 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(3) 



TABLE R61 1.7(3) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS FOR FLAT AND SCREEN-GRID LOAD-BEARING WALLS abcd 

NO. 5 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS (7) 

(inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH 

(0) 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting light-framed roof 


Supporting light framed second 
story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 


Maximum ground snow load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


4 


8 


4-9 


4-2 


3-11 


3-7 


3-7 


3-5 


12 


7-2 


6-3 


5-11 


5-5 


5-5 


5-0 


16 


9-6 


8-0 


7-4 


6-6 


6-7 


5-11 


20 


11-1 


9-1 


8-4 


7-5 


7-6 


6-9 


24 


12-2 


10-0 


9-3 


8-2 


8-4 


7-6 


5.5 


8 


5-6 


4-10 


4-7 


4-2 


4-2 


3-10 


12 


8-3 


6-9 


6-3 


5-6 


5-7 


5-0 


16 


9-9 


8-0 


7-5 


6-6 


6-7 


6-0 


20 


10-11 


9-0 


8-4 


7-5 


7-6 


6-9 


24 


12-0 


9-11 


; 9-3 


8-2 


8-3 


7-6 


7.5 


8 


6-1 


5-2 


4-9 


4-3 


4-3 


3-10 


12 


8-2 


6-9 


6-3 


5-6 


5-7 


5-0 


16 


9-7 


7-11 


7-4 


6-6 


6-7 


6-0 


20 


10-10 


8-11 


8-4 


7-4 


7-6 


6-9 


24 


11-10 


9-10 


9-2 


8-1 


8-3 


7-5 


9.5 


8 


6-4 


5-2 


4-10 


4-3 


4-4 


3-11 


12 


8-2 


6-8 


6-2 


5-6 


5-7 


5-0 


16 


9-6 


7-11 


7-4 


6-6 


6-7 


5-11 


20 


10-8 


8-10 


8-3 


7-4 


7-5 


6-9 


24 


11-7 


9-9 


9-0 


8-1 


8-2 


7-5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 69 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

c. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing. 

d. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



181 



TABLE R61 1.7(4) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(4) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR WAFFLE-GRID ICF WALL LINTELS ab ' cd 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS (7) c ' f 

(inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH 

(D) 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting light-framed roof 


Supporting light framed second 
story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 9 


Maximum ground snow load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


6 


8 


5-2 


4-2 


3-10 


3-5 


3-6 


3-2 


12 


6-8 


5-5 


5-0 


4-5 


4-7 


4-2 


16 


7-11 


6-6 


6-0 


5-3 


5-6 


4-11 


20 


8-11 


7-4 


6-9 


6-0 


6-3 


5-7 


24 


9-10 


8-1 


7-6 


6-7 


6-10 


6-2 


8 


8 


5-2 


4-3 


3-11 


3-5 


3-7 


3-2 


12 


6-8 


5-5 


5-1 


4-5 


4-8 


4-2 


16 


7-10 


6-5 


6-0 


5-3 


5-6 


4-11 


20 


8-10 


7-3 


6-9 


6-0 


6-2 


5-7 


24 


9-8 


8-0 


7-5 


6-7 


6-10 


6-2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 1 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 69 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

c. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing. 

d. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 

e. For actual wall lintel width, refer to Table R61 1.4(2). 

f. Lintel width corresponds to the nominal waffle-grid ICF wall thickness with a minimum web thickness of 2 inches. 

g. ICF wall dead load used is 55 psf. 



182 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(5) 



TABLE R61 1.7(5) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR WAFFLE-GRID ICF WALL LINTELS ab ' c ' d 

NO. 5 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS (7) e1 

(inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH (D) 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting light-framed roof 


Supporting light framed second 
story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof 9 


Maximum ground snow load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


6 


8 


5-4 


4-8 


4-5 


4-1 


4-5 


3-10 


12 


8-0 


6-9 


6-3 


5-6 


6-3 


5-1 


16 


9-9 


8-0 


7-5 


6-6 


7-5 


6-1 


20 


11-0 


9-1 


8-5 


7-5 


8-5 


6-11 


24 


12-2 


10-0 


9-3 


8-2 


9-3 


7-8 


8 


8 


6-0 


5-2 


4-9 


4-3 


4-9 


3-11 


12 


8-3 


6-9 


6-3 


5-6 


6-3 


5-2 


16 


9-9 


8-0 


7-5 


6-6 


7-5 


6-1 


20 


10-11 


9-0 


8-4 


7-5 


8-4 


6-11 


24 


12-0 


9-11 


9-2 


8-2 


9-2 


7-8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead 'load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 69 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

c. Two #3 stirrups are required. 

d. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 

e. For actual wall lintel width, refer to Table R61 1 .4(2). 

f. Lintel width corresponds to the nominal waffle-grid ICF wall thickness with a minimum web thickness of 2 inches. 

g. ICF wall dead load used is 55 psf. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



183 



TABLE R61 1.7(6) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(6) 
MINIMUM BOTTOM BAR ICF LINTEL REINFORCEMENT FOR LARGE CLEAR SPANS IN LOAD-BEARING WALLS ab ' cd 


MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS (7) e 

(inches) 


MINIMUM LINTEL 

DEPTH (D) 

(inches) 


MINIMUM BOTTOM LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 


Supporting light-frame roof only 


Supporting light-frame second 
story and roof 


Supporting ICF second story 
and light-frame roof' 


Maximum ground snow load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


Flat ICF lintel, 12 feet maximum clear span 


3.5 


24 


l-#5 


l-#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


5.5 


20 


l-#6 


l-#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


l-#5 


l-#7 


l-#7 


l-#8 


l-#8 


D/R 


7.5 


16 


l-#7; 2-#5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


20 


l-#6; 2-#4 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


l-#6; 2-#4 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8;2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 


9.5 


16 


l-#7; 2-#5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


20 


l-#6; 2-#4 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#9; 2-#6 


24 


l-#6; 2-#4 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#9; 2-#6 


Flat ICF lintel, 16 feet maximum clear span 


5.5 


24 


l-#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


7.5 


24 


l-#7; 2-#5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


9.5 


24 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#9; 2-#6 


l-#9; 2-#6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


Waffle-Grid ICF lintel, 12 feet maximum clear span 


6 


20 


l-#6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


l-#5 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 


D/R 


8 


16 


l-#7; 2-#5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


20 


l-#6; 2-#4 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


l-#5 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#7; 2-#5 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 


l-#8; 2-#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. D/R indicates design is required. 

b. Deflection criterion is Z7240, where L is the clear span of the lintel in inches. 

c. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 

d. No. 3 stirrups are required at maximum dl2 spacing for spans greater than 4 feet. 

e. Actual thickness is shown for flat lintels while nominal thickness is given for waffle-grid lintels. Lintel thickness corresponds to the nominal waffle-grid ICF wall 
thickness with a minimum web thickness of 2 inches. Refer to Section R61 1.4 for actual wall lintel width. 

f. ICF wall dead load is maximum 55 psf. 



184 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(7) 



j TABLE R61 117(7) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS IN NONLOAD-BEARING WALLS abc 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL DEPTH 

(D) 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN 


Supporting light-frame nonload-bearing 

gable end wall 

(feet) 


Supporting ICF second story 

nonload-bearing wall d 

(feet) 


8 


12 


6 


12 


16 


8 


16 


16 


10 


20 


16 


12 


24 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross-section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with I ACI 318. 

a. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the clear span of the lintel in inches. 

b. Linear interpolation is permitted between lintel depths. 

c. No. 3 stirrups are required at maximum d/2 spacing for spans greater than 4 feet. 

d. ICF wall dead load is maximum 69 psf. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



185 



TABLE R61 1.7(8) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(8) 
MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF SOLID WALL LENGTH ALONG EXTERIOR WALL LINES abc 



ICF WALL TYPE 

AND MINIMUM 

WALL THICKNESS 

(inches) d 


MAXIMUM 
ROOF 
SLOPE 


MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent) 


Wall supporting light-frame roof and ceiling 


Wall supporting one ICF story and 
light-frame roof and ceiling 


Maximum wind speed (mph) 


85 


100 


110 


120 


130 


85 


100 


110 


120 


130 


Flat 

3.5 


3:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


30 


35 


40 


50 


55 


6:12 


15 


15 


20 


20 


25 


30 


40 


50 


55 


60 


9:12 


20 


25 


30 


40 


45 


45 


60 


70 


85 


95 


12:12 


25 


35 


40 


50 


60 


50 


65 


80 


95 


100 


Flat 

5.5 


3:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


25 


30 


40 


40 


6:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


20 


30 


35 


40 


45 


9:12 


15 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


45 


50 


60 


70 


12:12 


20 


20 


25 


35 


40 


35 


50 


55 


70 


75 


Flat 

7.5 


3:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


20 


25 


30 


30 


6:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


20 


25 


30 


35 


9:12 


15 


15 


15 


20 


25 


25 


30 


40 


45 


50 


12:12 


15 


20 


20 


25 


30 


30 


35 


40 


50 


55 


Waffle-Grid 
6 


3:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


45 


50 


6:12 


15 


15 


20 


20 


25 


25 


35 


45 


50 


55 . 


9:12 


20 


20 


25 


35 


40 


40 


55 


60 


75 


85 


12:12 


25 


30 


35 


45 


50 


45 


60 


70 


85 


90 


Waffle-Grid 
8 


3:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


35 


6:12 


15 


15 


15 


15 


20 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


9:12 


15 


15 


20 


25 


30 


30 


40 


45 


55 


60 


12:12 


20 


20 


25 


30 


35 


35 


40 


50 


60 


65 


Screen-Grid 
6 


3:12 


15 


15 


20 


20 


25 


30 


40 


45 


55 


60 


6:12 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


9:12 


25 


30 


45 


50 


65 


50 


65 


80 


90 


100 


12:12 


35 


40 


55 


65 


80 


55 


70 


85 


100 


100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 1.6093 km/h. 

NOTE: This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi 
and an assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in ac- 
cordance with ACI 318. 

a. Linear interpolation between roof slopes shall be permitted. 

b. Minimum percentages are applicable for maximum 10-foot wall story heights. 

c. N/A indicates not applicable. 

d. Actual thickness is shown for flat walls while nominal thickness is given for waffle- and screen-grid walls. Refer to Table R61 1.4(2) for actual waffle- and 
screen-grid thickness and dimensions. 

e. The minimum solid wall length requirements are based on a 2: 1 building aspect ratio, L/W, where L is the length parallel to the ridge of the roof and W is the length 
perpendicular to the ridge of the roof. For a different ration the tabular values may be adjusted by the following multipliers provided the minimum wall lengths in 
Section R61 1 .7.4 are met. Interpolation is permitted. 



LAV 


Endwall W 


Sidewall, L 


2.0 


1.00 


0.25 


1.8 


0.90 


0.30 


1.6 


0.80 


0.35 


1.4 


0.70 


0.40 


1.2 


0.60 


0.45 


1.0 


0.50 


0.50 



• 



186 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1 .7(9) - FIGURE R61 1 .7(1 ) 



TABLE R61 1.7(9) 
MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF SOLID WALL LENGTH FOR SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C a 



ICF WALL TYPE AND MINIMUM WALL 

THICKNESS 

(Inches)" 


MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent) 


Wall supporting light-frame roof and ceiling 


Wall supporting one ICF story and 
light-frame roof and celling 


Flat, 3.5 


20 


35 


Flat, 5,5 


15 


30 


Flat 7.5 


15 


25 


Waffle-grid, 6 


20 


35 


Waffle-grid, 8 


20 


30 


Screen-grid 


25 


45 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. Minimum percentages are for maximum 10-foot wall story height. 

b. Actual thickness is shown for flat walls while nominal thickness is given for waffle-grid and screen-grid walls. Refer to Table R61 1 .4(2) for actual waffle-grid and 
screen-grid thickness and dimension. 

c. The minimum solid wall length requirements are based on a 2: 1 building aspect ratio, LAV, where L is the length parallel to the ridge of the roof and W is the length 
perpendicular to the ridge of the roof. For a different ratio, the tabular values may be adjusted by the following multipliers provided the minimum wall lengths in 
Section R61 1 .7.4 are met. Interpolation is permitted. 

LAV EndwallW Sidewall.L 



2.0 


1.00 


0.25 


1.8 


0.90 


0.30 


1.6 


0.80 


0.35 


1.4 


0.70 


0.40 


1.2 


0.60 


0.45 


1.0 


0.50 


0.50 



SEE FIGURE 
R611.9 



SEE FIGURES 
R61 1.8(1) 
THROUGH 
R61 1.8(5) 



ICF OR LIGHT-FRAME 
WALL 



SEE FIGURES 
R611.8(1) 
THROUGH 
R611.8(5) 




LIGHT-FRAME ROOF 



LIGHT-FRAME FLOOR 



/ LIGHT-FRAME FLOOR 
y^ (OR CONCRETE SLAB-ON-GRADE) 



BASEMENT, CRAWL SPACE, OR 
SLAB-ON-GRADE FOUNDATION 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

Note: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R611.7(1) 
ICF WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



187 



FIGURE R61 1 .7(2) - FIGURE R61 1 .7(3) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



NO. 4 BAR, TYP. IN ADDITION 
TO VERTICAL 

REINFORCEMENT PER TABLE 
R611.7(1) 



LINTEL REINFORCEMENT AS 
REQUIRED IN SECTION R611 .7.3 




NO. 4 CONTINUOUS BAR 
AS REQUIRED IN 
SECTION R61 1.7.1 



-eA ko-24IN. -tt| h-- 



S NO. 4 BAR 

24 IN. 



2 FT. </<4FT. 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R61 1.7(2) 
REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS 



SEE TABLE R611.7(2), 
R611.7(3),R611.7(6) OR 
R611.7(7). 




NO. 4 BAR LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED 



MINIMUM NO. 3 STIRRUP 
AS REQUIRED 



INSULATING FORM 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NOTE: Section cut through flat wall. 



FIGURE R61 1.7(3) 

ICF LINTELS FOR FLAT AND SCREEN-GRID WALLS 



188 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODES 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R61 1.7(4)- FIGURE R61 1.7(5) 



SEE TABLE R61 1.7(4): 
0611.7(5), R611.7(6) OR 
RS11.7(7). 




1.5 IN. MIN. 
2.5 IN. MAX. 



MINIMUM NO. 3 STIRRUP AS 
REQUIRED 



NO. 4 BAR LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED 



CONCRETE WEB (HIDDEN) 



VERTICAL CONCRETE 
CORE 



NSULATING FORM 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through vertical core of a waffle-grid lintel . 



FIGURE R61 1.7(4) 
SINGLE FORM HEIGHT WAFFLE-GRID LINTEL 



1.5 IN. MIN. 
2.5 IN. MAX. 



SEETABLER611.7(4), 
R611.7(5), R611.7f(6)OR 
R611.7(7). 




NO. 4 BAR LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 
REQUIRED 



CONCRETE WEB (HIDDEN) 



MINIMUM NO. 3 STIRRUP AS 
REQUIRED 



VERTICAL CONCRETE 
CORE 



INSULATING FORM 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE; Section cut through vertical core of a waffle-grid lintel. 



FIGURE R61 1.7(5) 
DOUBLE FORM HEIGHT WAFFLE-GRID LINTEL 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



189 



R611.8-R611.8.3 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R611.8 ICF wall-to-floor connections. 



•A Top bearing. Floors bearing on the top of ICF 
foundation walls in accordance with Figure R611.8(l) shall 
have the wood sill plate anchored to the ICF wall with mini- 
mum V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) diameter bolts embedded a mini- 
mum of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at a maximum spacing 
of 6 feet (1 829 mm) on center and not more than 12 inches 
(305 mm) from corners. Anchor bolts for waffle-grid and 
screen-grid walls shall be located in the cores. In conditions 
where wind speeds are in excess of 90 miles per hour (144 
km/h), the V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) diameter anchor bolts shall be 
placed at a maximum spacing of 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. 
Bolts shall extend a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) into con- 
crete. Sill plates shall be protected against decay where re- 
quired by Section R323. Cold-formed steel framing systems 
shall be anchored to the concrete in accordance with Section 
R505.3.1 or Section R603.3.1. 

R611.8.2 Ledger bearing. Wood ledger boards supporting 
bearing ends of joists or trusses shall be anchored to flat ICF 
walls with minimum thickness of 5.5 inches (140 mm) and 
to waffle-or screen-grid ICF walls with minimum nominal 
thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) in accordance with Figure 
R61 1.8(2), R611.8(3), R61 1.8(4) or R611.8(5) and Table 
R61 1 .8. The ledger shall be a minimum 2 by 8, No. 2 South- 
ern Pine or No. 2 Douglas Fir. Ledgers anchored to 
nonload-bearing walls to support floor or roof sheathing 



shall be attached with V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) diameter or headed 
anchor bolts spaced a maximum of 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) on cen- 
ter. Anchor bolts shall be embedded a minimum of 4 inches 
(102 mm) into the concrete. 

R61L8.2.1 Seismic Design Category C. In Seismic De- 
sign Category C, additional anchorage mechanisms shall 
be installed at a maximum spacing of 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) on 
center. Such anchorage mechanisms shall not induce ten- 
sion stresses perpendicular to grain in ledgers or nailers. 
The capacity of such anchors shall result in connections 
capable of resisting 200 pounds per linear foot (2.9 kN/m). 
Such anchorage mechanisms shall not induce tension 
stresses perpendicular to grain in ledgers or nailers. 

R61 1.8.3 Floor and roof diaphragm construction. Floor 
and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of structural Wood 
sheathing panels, attached to wood framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) or to cold-formed steel floor framing 
in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2) or to cold-formed 
steel roof framing in accordance with Table R804.3. Addi- 
tionally, sheathing panel edges perpendicular to framing 
members shall be backed by blocking and sheathing shall be 
connected to the blocking with fasteners at the edge spacing. 
For Seismic Design Category C, where the widfh-tb-thick- 
ness dimension of the diaphragm exceeds 2-to- 1 , edge spac- 
ing of fasteners shall be 4 inches (102 mm) on center. 



TABLE R61 1.8 

FLOOR LEDGER-ICF WALL CONNECTION (SIDE-BEARING CONNECTION) REQUiREMENTS a ' b,c 


MAXIMUM FLOOR CLEAR SPAN d 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM ANCHOR BOLT SPACING (inches) 


Staggered 

1 / 2 -inch-diameter 

anchor bolts 


Staggered 

%-inch-diameter 
anchor bolts 


Two 

Vj-inch-diameter 

anchor bolts' 


Two 

5 / e -inch-diameter 

anchor bolts' 


8 


18 


20 


36 


40 


10 


16 


18 


32 


36 


12 


14 


18 


28 


36 


14 


12 


16 


24 


32 


16 


10 


14 


20 


28 


18 


9 


13 


18 


26 


20 


8 


11 


16 


,22 


22 


7 


10 


14 


20 


24 


7 


9 


14 


18 


26 


6 


9 


12 


18 


28 


6 


8 


12 


16 


30 


5 


8 


10 


16 


32 


5 


7 


10 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Minimum ledger board nominal depth shall be 8 inches. The thickness of the ledger board shall be a minimum of 2 inches. Thickness of ledger board is in nominal 
lumber dimensions. Ledger board shall be minimum No. 2 Grade. 

b. Minimum edge distance shall be 2 inches for '/^inch-diameter anchor bolts and 2.5 inches for V 5 -inch-diameter anchor bolts. 

c. Interpolation is permitted between floor spans. 

d. Floor span corresponds to the clear span of the floor structure (i.e., joists or trusses) spanning between load-bearing walls or beams. 

e. Anchor bolts shall extend through the ledger to the center of the flat ICF wall thickness or the center of the horizontal or vertical core thickness of the waffle-grid or 
screen-grid ICF wall system. 

f. Minimum vertical distance between bolts shall be 1.5 inches for '/ 2 -inch-diameter anchor bolts and 2 inches for Vg-inch-diameter anchor bolts. 



190 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R61 1 .8(1 ) - FIGURE R611 .8(2) 



SILL PLATE 



ICF WALL 




LIGHT-FRAME 
CONSTRUCTION ABOVE 



ANCHOR BOLT 



MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



FIGURE R61 1.8(1) 
SECTION CUT THROUGH FLAT WALL OR VERTICAL CORE OF WAFFLE-OR SCREEN-GRID WALL 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT (L OR HEADED) 
AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 




MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



• VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



For SI: ] inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of a waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R61 1:8(2) 
FLOOR LEDGER— ICF WALL CONNECTION (SIDE-BEARING CONNECTION) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



191 



FIGURE R61 11 .8(3) - FIGURE R61 1 .8(4) 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT (LOR HEADED) 
AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 




MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of a waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R61 1.8(3) 
FLOOR LEDGER— ICF WALL CONNECTION (SIDE-BEARING CONNECTION) 



INSULATING FORM 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



MIN. 4 IN. x 4 IN. x 1 / 4 IN. 
STEEL PLATE FOR 
EACH BOLT 




MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



• VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NOTE: Section cut through flat wall. 



FIGURE R61 1.8(4) 
WOOD FLOOR LEDGER—ICF WALL SYSTEM CONNECTION (THROUGH-BOLT CONNECTION) 



192 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R61 1. 8(5) -R61 3.5 



.MINI. 3.5 IN 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



MIN. 4 IN, x4IN. x 1 / 4 IN. 
STEEL PLATE FOR 
EACH BOLT 



MIN. NO. 4 B, 
(CONTINUOUS) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NOTE: Section cut through flat wall. 



NSULATING FORM 

LEDGER BOARD 




JOIST ■ 



< 3.5 IN. 
ICF WALL 



VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



FIGURE R61 1.8(5) 
WOOD FLOOR LEDGER TO ICF WALL SYSTEM CONNECTION DETAIL 



R611.9 ICF wall to top sill plate (roof) connections. Wood 
sill plates attaching roof framing to ICF walls shall be anchored 
with minimum V 2 inch (12.7 mm) diameter anchor bolt embed- 
ded a minimum of 7 inches ( 1 78 mm) and placed at 6 feet (1 829 
mm) on center in accordance with Figure R61 1 .9. Anchor bolts 
shall be located in the cores of waffle-grid and screen-grid ICF 
walls. Roof assemblies subject to wind uplift pressure of 20 
pounds per square foot ( 1 .44 kN/m 2 ) or greater as established in 
Table R301 .2(2) shall have rafter or truss ties provided in accor- 
dance with Table R802. 11. 



SECTION R612 

CONVENTIONALLY FORMED CONCRETE WALL 

CONSTRUCTION 

R612.1 General. Conventionally formed concrete walls with 
flat surfaces shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with the provisions of Section R6 1 1 for Flat ICF walls or in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of ACI 318. 



SECTION R613 
EXTERIOR WINDOWS AND GLASS DOORS 

R613.1 General. This section prescribes performance and 
construction requirements for exterior window systems in- 
stalled in wall systems. Waterproofing, sealing and flashing 
systems are not included in the scope of this section. 

R613.2 Performance. Exterior windows and doors shall be de- 
signed to resist the design wind loads specified in Table 
R301.2(2) (adjusted for height and exposure per Table 
R301.2(3). 



R613.3 Testing and labeling. Exterior windows and glass 
doors shall be tested by an approved independent laboratory, 
and bear a label identifying manufacturer, performance charac- 
teristics and approved inspection agency to indicate compli- 
ance with the requirements of the following specification: 

Exceptions: 

1. Decorative glazed openings. 

2. Exterior window and door assemblies not included 
within the scope of AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S.2 shall 
be tested in accordance with ASTM E 330. Assem- 
blies covered by this exception containing glass shall 
comply with Section R308.5. 

3. Structural wind load design pressures for window 
units smaller than the size tested in accordance with 
this section shall be permitted to be higher than the de- 
sign value of the tested unit provided such higher 
pressures are determined by accepted engineering 
analysis. All components of the small unit shall be the 
same as the tested unit. Where such calculated design 
pressures are used they shall be validated by an addi- 
tional test of the window unit having the highest al- 
lowable design pressure. 

R613.4 Windborne debris protection. Protection of exterior 
windows and glass doors in buildings located in hurri- 
cane-prone regions from windborne debris shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R301.2.1.2. 

R613.5 Anchorage methods. The methods cited in this sec- 
tion apply only to anchorage of window and glass door assem- 
blies to the main force-resisting system. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



193 



FIGURE R61 1. 9 - R613.6.' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF TRUSS 




ANCHOR BOLT 



MINIMUM NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



Note: Section cut through flat wall or vertical cove of waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R611 9 

iCF WALL TO TOP SILL PLATE (ROOF) CONNECTION 



.1 Anchoring requirements. Window and glass 
door assemblies shall be anchored in accordance with the 
published manufacturer's recommendations to achieve the 
design pressure specified. Substitute anchoring systems 
used for substrates not specified by the fenestration manu- 
facturer shall provide equal or greater anchoring perfor- 
mance as demonstrated by accepted engineering practice. 

R613.S.2 Anchorage details. Products shall be anchored in 
accordance with the minimum requirements illustrated in 
Figures R613.5(l), R613.5(2), R613.5(3), R613.5(4), 
R613.5(5), R613.5(6), R613.5(7) and R613.5(8). 

R613.5.2.1 Masonry, concrete or other structural 
substrate. Where the wood shim or buck thickness is 
less than 1 7 2 inches (38 mm), window and glass door as- 
semblies shall be anchored through the jamb, or by jamb 
clip and anchors shall be embedded directly into the ma- 
sonry, concrete or other substantial substrate material. 
Anchors shall adequately transfer load from the window 
or door frame into the rough opening substrate [see Fig- 
ures R613.5(l) and R613.5(2).] 

Where the wood shim or buck thickness is 1 .5 inches 
(38 mm) or greater, the buck is securely fastened to the 
masonry, concrete or other substantial substrate and the 
buck extends beyond the interior face of the window or 
door frame, window and glass door assemblies shall be 
anchored through the jamb, or by jamb clip, or through 
the flange to the secured wood buck. Anchors shall be 
embedded into the secured wood buck to adequately 
transfer load from the window or door frame assembly 
[Figures R613.5(3), R613.5(4) and R613.5(5)]. 



R613.5.2.2 Wood or other approved framing mate- 
rial. Where the framing material is wood or other ap- 
proved framing material, window and glass door 
assemblies shall be anchored through the frame, or by 
frame clip, or through the flange. Anchors shall be em- 
bedded into the frame construction to adequately transfer 
load [Figures R613.5(6), R613.5(7) and R613.5(8)]. 

R613.6 Mullions occurring between individual window and 
glass door assemblies. 

R613.6.1 Mullions. Mullions shall be tested by an approved 
testing laboratory or be engineered in accordance with ac- 
cepted engineering practice. Both methods shall use perfor- 
mance criteria cited in Sections R613.6.2, R613.6.3 and 
R613.6.4. 

R613.6.2 Load transfer. Mullions shall be designed to 
transfer the design pressure loads applied by the window 
and door assemblies to the rough opening substrate. 

R613.6.3 Deflection. Mullions shall be capable of resisting 
the design pressure loads applied by the window and door 
assemblies to be supported without deflecting more than 
L/175, where L = the span of mullion in inches. 

R613.6.4 Structural safety factor. Mullions shall be capable 
of resisting a load of 1 .5 times the design pressure loads ap- 
plied by the window and door assemblies to be supported 
without exceeding the appropriate material stress levels. If 
tested by an approved laboratory, the 1.5 times the design 
pressure load shall be sustained for 10 seconds, and the per- 
manent deformation shall not exceed 0.4 percent of the mul- 
lion span after the 1 .5 times design pressure load is removed. 



194 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R613.5(1) - FIGURE R61 3.5(8) 




SHIM OR WOOD BUCK 
THICKNESS 




FRAME CLIP 
INSTALLATION 



FIGURE R613.5(1) 
THROUGH THE FRAME 



APPLY FRAME CLIP TO WINDOW OR DOOR IN ACCORDANCE WITH 
PUBLISHED MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS. 

FIGURE R61 3.5(2) 
FRAME CLIP 




TAPERED 
BUCKS ARE 
NOT ALLOWED 




FRAME CLIP 
INSTALLATION 



THROUGH THE FRAME ANCHORING METHOD. 

ANCHORS SHALL BE PROVIDED TO TRANSFER 

LOAD FROM', THE WINDOW OR DOOR FRAME 

INTO THE ROUGH OPENING SUBSTRATE. 

FIGURE R613.5(3) 
THROUGH THE FRAME 



APPLY FRAME CLIP TO WINDOW OR DOOR 

FRAME IN ACCORDANCE WITH PUBLISHED 

MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS. 

ANCHORS SHALL BE PROVIDED TO TRANSFER 

LOAD FROM THE FRAME CLIP INTO THE 

ROUGH OPENING SUBSTRATE 

FIGURE R613£(4) 
FRAME CLIP 




APPLY ANCHORS THROUGH FLANGE IN 

ACCORDANCE WITH PUBLISHED 
MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS. 

FIGURE R613.S(5) 
THROUGH THE FLANGE 



f 



I I I I I I 












1 
















1 






1 


1 











FIGURE R613.5(6) 
THROUGH THE FRAME 



FIGURE R61 3.5(7) 
FRAME CLIP 



FIGURE R61 3.5(8) 
THROUGH THE FLANGE 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



195 



196 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

WALL COVERING 



SECTION R701 
GENERAL 

R701.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the interior and exterior wall 
covering for all buildings. 

R701.2 Installation. Products sensitive to adverse weather 
shall not be installed until adequate weather protection for the 
installation is provided. Exterior sheathing shall be dry before 
applying exterior cover. 



SECTION R702 
INTERIOR COVERING 

R702.1 General. Interior coverings shall be installed in accor- 
dance with this chapter and Tables R702.1(l), R702.1(2), 
R702.1(3) and R702.3.5. Interior finishes and materials shall 
conform to the flame spread and smoke-density requirements 
of Section R3 19. 

R702.2 Interior plaster. Gypsum plaster or portland cement 
plastering materials shall conform to ASTM C 5, C 28, C 35, 
C 37, C 59, C 61, C 587, C 588, C 631, C 847, C 897, C 933, 
C 1032 and C 1047, and shall be installed or applied in con- 
formance with ASTM C 843, C 844 and C 1063. Plaster shall 
not be less than three coats when applied over metal lath and not 
less than two coats when applied over other bases permitted by 
this section, except that veneer plaster may be applied in one 



coat not to exceed 3 / 16 inch (4.76 mm) thickness, provided the 
total thickness is as set forth in Table R702.1(l). 

R702.2.1 Support. Support spacing for gypsum or metal 
lath on walls or ceilings shall not exceed 16 inches (406 
mm) for 3 / 8 inch thick (9.5 mm) or 24 inches (610 mm) for 
'/ 2 -inch-thick (12.7 mm) plain gypsum lath. Gypsum lath 
shall be installed at right angles to support framing with end 
joints in adjacent courses staggered by at least one framing 
space. 

R702.3 Gypsum board. 

R702.3.1 Materials. All gypsum board materials and ac- 
cessories shall conform to ASTM C 36, C 79, C 475, C 5 14, 
C 630, C 960, C 1002, C 1047, C 1 177, CI 178, C1278 and 
C 1395 and shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section. Adhesives for the installation of gyp- 
sum board shall conform to ASTM C 557. 

R702.3.2 Wood framing. Wood framing supporting gyp- 
sum board shall not be less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal 
thickness in the least dimension except that wood furring 
strips not less than l-inch-by-2 inch (25.4 mm by 51 mm) 
nominal dimension may be used over solid backing or fram- 
ing spaced not more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center. 

R702.3.3 Steel framing. Steel framing supporting gypsum 
board shall not be less than 1 .25 inches (32 mm) wide in the 
least dimension. Light-gage nonload-bearing steel framing 



TABLE R702.1(1) 
THICKNESS OF PLASTER 



PLASTER BASE 


FINISHED THICKNESS OF PLASTER FROM FACE OF LATH, MASONRY, CONCRETE (inches) 


Gypsum plaster 


Portland cement mortar 


Expanded metal lath 


5 / 8 , minimum" 


5 / 8 , minimum 3 


Wire lath 


5 / 8 , minimum" 


3 / 4 , minimum (interior) b 
7 / 8 , minimum (exterior) b 


Gypsum lath g 


V 2 , minimum 


3 / 4 , minimum (interior) 13 


Masonry walls 


V 2 , minimum 


V 2 , minimum 


Monolithic concrete walls cd 


5 / 8 , maximum 


7 / 8 , maximum 


Monolithic concrete ceilings cd 


3 / 8 , maximum e 


V 2 , maximum 


Gypsum veneer base f,g 


V 16 , minimum 


3 / 4 , minimum (interior) b 


Gypsum sheathing* 


— 


3 / 4 , minimum (interior) b 
7 / 8 , minimum (exterior) 13 



For SI: 1 inch i= 25.4 mm. 

a. When measured from back plane of expanded metal lath, exclusive of ribs, or self-furring lath, plaster thickness shall be 3 / 4 inch minimum. 

b. When measured from face of support or backing. 

c. Because masonry and concrete surfaces may vary in plane, thickness of plaster need not be uniform. 

d. When applied over a liquid bonding agent, finish coat may Be applied directly to concrete surface. 

e. Approved acoustical plaster may be applied directly to concrete or over base coat plaster, beyond the maximum plaster thickness shown. 

f. Attachment shall be in accordance with Table R702.3.5. 

g. Where gypsum board is used as a base for portland cement plaster, weather-resistant sheathing paper complying with Section R703.2 shall be provided. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



197 



TABLE R702.1(2) - R702.3.6 



WALL COVERING 



TABLE R702.1(2) 
GYPSUM PLASTER PROPORTIONS 3 



NUMBER 


COAT 


PLASTER BASE OR LATH 


MAXIMUM VOLUME AGGREGATE PER 100 POUNDS 
NEAT PLASTER" (cubic feet) 


Damp loose sand 3 


Perlite or vermiculite 


Two-coat work 


Base coat 


Gypsum lath 


2.5 


2 


Base coat 


Masonry 


3 


3 


Three-coat work 


First coat 


Lath 


2 d 


2 


Second coat 


Lath 


3 d 


2 e 


First and second coats 


Masonry 


3 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. Wood-fibered gypsum plaster may be mixed in the proportions of 100 pounds of gypsum to not more than 1 cubic foot of sand where applied on masonry or con- 
crete. 

b. When determining the amount of aggregate in set plaster, a tolerance of 10 percent shall be allowed. 

c. Combinations of sand and lightweight aggregate may be used, provided the volume and weight relationship of the combined aggregate to gypsum plaster is main- 
tained. 

d. If used for both first and second coats, the volume of aggregate may be 2.5 cubic feet. 

e. Where plaster is 1 inch or more in total thickness, the proportions for the second coat may be increased to 3 cubic feet. 

TABLE R702.1(3) 
PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER 



MAXIMUM VOLUME AGGREGATE PER VOLUME CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL" 


MINIMUM PERIOD 
MOIST COATS 


MINIMUM INTERVAL 
BETWEEN 


Coat 


Portland cement 

plaster 11 maximum 

volume aggregate per 

volume cement 


Portland cement-lime plaster 


Maximum volume 

lime per volume 

cement 


Maximum volume 
sand per volume 
cement and lime 


Approximate 

minimum thickness d 

curing (inches) 


First 


4 


% 


4 


3/ e 
'8 


48 Hours f 


48 Hourss 


Second 


5 


% 


5 


First and second 

coats 


48 Hours 


7 Days' 1 


Finished 


3 1 


— 


3 1 


X 


— 


Note h 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. When determining the amount of aggregate in set plaster, a tolerance of 10 percent may be allowed. 

b. From 10 to 20 pounds of dry hy drated lime (or an equivalent amount of lime putty ) may be added as a plasticizing agent to each sack of Type I and Type II standard 
Portland cement in base coat plaster. 

c. No additions of plasticizing agents shall be made. 

d. See Table R702.1(l). 

e. Measured from face of support or backing to crest of scored plaster. 

f. Twenty-four-hour minimum period for moist curing of interior portland cement plaster. 

g. Twenty-four hour minimum interval between coats of interior portland cement plaster. 

h. Finish coat plaster may be applied to interior portland cement base coats after a 48-hour period. 

i. For finish coat, plaster up to an equal part of dry hydrated lime by weight (or an equivalent volume of lime putty) may be added to Type I, Type II and Type in stan- 
dard portland cement. 



shall comply with ASTM C 645. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing and steel framing from 0.033 inch to 0.1 12 inch (0.838 
mm to 2.84 mm) thick shall comply with ASTMC 955. 

R702.3.4 Insulating concrete form walls. Foam plastics 
for insulating concrete form walls constructed in accor- 
dance with Sections R404 .4 and R6 1 1 on the interior of hab- 
itable spaces shall be covered in accordance with Section 
R3 18. 1 .2. Adhesives are permitted to be used in conjunction 
with mechanical fasteners. Adhesives used for interior and 
exterior finishes shall be compatible with the insulating 
form materials. 

R702.3.5 Application. Maximum spacing of supports and 
the size and spacing of fasteners used to attach gypsum 
board shall comply with Table R702.3.5. Gypsum sheathing 
shall be attached to exterior walls in accordance with Table 



R602.3( 1 ). Gypsum board shall be applied at right angles or 
parallel to framing members. All edges and ends of gypsum 
board shall occur on the framing members, except those 
edges and ends that are perpendicular to the framing mem- 
bers. Interior gypsum board shall not be installed where it is 
exposed to the weather. 

R702.3.6 Fastening. Screws for attaching gypsum board to 
wood framing shall be Type W or Type S in accordance with 
ASTM C 1002 and shall penetrate the wood not less than 5 / 8 
inch (15.9 mm). Screws for attaching gypsum board to light- 
gage steel framing shall be Type S in accordance with 
ASTM C 1002 and shall penetrate the steel not less than 3 / 8 
inch (9.5 mm). Screws for attaching gypsum board to steel 
framing 0.033 inch to 0.1 12 inch (0.838 mm to 2.84 mm) 
thick shall comply with ASTM C 954. 



198 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL COVERING 



TABLE R702.3.5 - R702.6.1 







TABLE R702.3.5 
MINIMUM THICKNESS AND APPLICATION OF GYPSUM BOARD 


THICKNESS 

OF GYPSUM 

BOARD 

(inches) 


APPLICATION 


ORIENTATION OF 

GYPSUM BOARD 

TO FRAMING 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

FRAMING 

MEMBERS 

(ihches o.c.) 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

FASTENERS 

(inches) 


SIZE OF NAILS FOR APPLICATION 
TO WOOD FRAMING 


Nails" 


Screws b 


Application without adhesive 


X 


Ceiling d 


Perpendicular 


16 


7 


12 


13 gage, 1 V 4 " long, l9 / M " head; 0.098" diameter, 1 V 4 " 
long, annular-ringed; or 4d cooler nail, 0.080" 
diameter, l 3 / s "long, 7 / 19 "head. 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


8 


16 


% 


Ceiling^ 


Either direction 


16 


7 


12 


13 gage, l 3 / g " long, 'V head; 0.098" diameter, 1V 4 " 
long, annular-ringed; 5d cooler nail, 0.086" 
diameter, l 5 / g " long, 15 / 64 " head; or gypsum board 
nail, 0.086" diameter, l 5 / 8 " long, 9 / 32 " head. 


Ceiling d 


Perpendicular 


24 


7 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


8 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


8 


16 


% 


Ceiling 


Either direction 


16 


7 


12 


13 gage, l 5 / 8 " long, l9 / M " head; 0.098" diameter, l 3 / 8 " 
long, annular-ringed; 6d cooler nail, 0.092" 
diameter, l 7 / 8 " long, V 4 " head; or gypsum board 
nail, 0.0915" diameter, l 7 / 8 " long, 19 / M " head. 


Ceiling 


Perpendicular 


24 


7 


■ 12 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


8 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


8 


16 


Application with adhesive 


X 


Ceiling d 


Perpendicular 


16 


16 


16 


Same as above for 3 / 8 gypsum board 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


16 


24 


V 2 or 5 / 8 


Ceiling 


Either direction 


16 


16 


16 


Same as above for V 2 " and \" gypsum board, 
respectively 


Ceiling d 


Perpendicular 


24 


12 


16 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


16 


24 


Two 
3 / 8 layers 


Ceiling 


Perpendicular 


16 


16 


16 


Base ply nailed as above for V 2 " gypsum board; face 
ply installed with adhesive 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


24 


24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For application without adhesive, a pair of nails spaced not less than 2 inches apart or more than 2'/ 2 inches apart may be used with the pair of nails spacedl2 inches 
on center. 

b. Screws shall be Type S or W per ASTM C 1002 and shall be sufficiently long to penetrate wood framing not less than 5 / 8 inch and metal framing not less than 3 / 8 
inch. 

c. Where metal framing is used with a clinching design to receive nails by two edges of metal, the nails shall be not less than 5 / 8 inch longer than the gypsum board 
thickness and shall have ringed shanks. Where the metal framing has a nailing groove formed to receive the nails, the nails shall have barbed shanks or be 5d, 1 3 '/ 2 
gage, l 5 / 8 inches long, l'/^-inch head for V 2 -inch gypsum board; and 6d, 13 gage, l 7 / 8 inches long, ''/^-inch head for 5 / 8 -inch gypsum board. 

d. Three-eighths-inch-thick single-ply gypsum board shall not be used on a ceiling where a water-based textured finish is to be applied, or where it will be required to 
support insulation above a ceiling. On ceiling applications to receive a water-based texture material, either hand or spray applied, the gypsum board shall be ap- 
plied perpendicular to framing. When applying a water-based texture material, the minimum gypsum board thickness shall be increased from 3 / 8 inch to '/ 2 inch 
for 16-inch on center framing, and from V 2 inch to 5 / 8 inch for 24-inch on center framing or V 2 -inch sag-resistant gypsum ceiling board shall be used. 



R702.4 Ceramic tile. 

R7Q2A1 General. Ceramic tile surfaces shall be installed 
in accordance with ANSI A108.1,A108.4,A108.5, A108.6, 
A108.ll, A118.1, A118.3, A136.1 and A137.1. 

R702.4.2 Gypsum backer. Gypsum board utilized as the 
base or backer board for adhesive application of ceramic tile 
or other nonabsorbent finish material shall conform with 
ASTM C 630 or C 1178. Water-resistant gypsum backing 
board shall be permitted to be used on ceilings where fram- 
ing spacing does not exceed 12 inches (305 mm) on center 
for V 2 inch thick (12.7 mm) or 16 inches (406 mm) for 7 8 - 
inch-thick (15.9 mm) gypsum board. All cut or exposed 
edges, including those at wall intersections, shall be sealed 
as recommended by the manufacturer. 



R702.5 Other finishes. Wood veneer paneling and hardboard 
paneling shall be placed on wood or cold-formed steel framing 
spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Wood ve- 
neer and hard board paneling less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) nomi- 
nal thickness shall not have less than a 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) 
gypsum board backer. Wood veneer paneling not less than V 4 - 
inch (6.4 mm) nominal thickness shall conform to 
ANSI/HPVA HP-1. Hardboard paneling shall conform to 
ANSI/ AHA A135.5. 

R702.6 Wood shakes and shingles. Wood shakes and shingles 
shall conform to CSSB Grading Rules for Wood Shakes and 
Shingles and shall be permitted to be installed directly to the 
studs with maximum 24 inches (610 mm) on center spacing. 

R702.6.1 Attachment. Nails, staples or glue are permitted 
for use in attaching shakes or shingles to the wall, and the 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



199 



R702.6.2 - R703.6.1 



WALL COVERING 



shakes or shingles shall be permitted to be attached directly 
to the surface provided the fasteners are appropriate for the 
type of wall surface material. When nails or staples are used, 
two fasteners shall be provided and shall be placed so that 
they are covered by the course above. 

R702.6.2 Furring strips. Where furring strips are used, 
they shall be 1 inch by 2 inches or 1 inch by 3 inches (25.4 
mm by 5 1 mm or 25.4 mm by 76 mm), spaced a distance on 
center equal to the desired exposure, and shall be attached to 
the wall by nailing through other wall material into the 
studs. 



SECTION R703 

EXTERIOR COVERING 

R703.1 General. Exterior walls shall provide the building with 
a weather-resistant exterior wall envelope. The exterior wall 
envelope shall include flashing as described in Section R703.8. 
The exterior wall envelope shall be designed and constructed in 
such a manner as to prevent the accumulation of water within 
the wall assembly by providing a water-resistive barrier behind 
the exterior veneer as required by Section R703.2. 

R703.2 Weather-resistant sheathing paper. Asphalt-satu- 
rated felt free from holes and breaks, weighing not less than 14 
pounds per 100 square feet (0.683 kg/m 2 ) and complying with 
ASTM D 226 or other approved weather-resistant material 
shall be applied over studs or sheathing of all exterior walls as 
required by Table R703 .4 . Such felt or material shall be applied 
horizontally, with the upper layer lapped over the lower layer 
not less than 2 inches (51 mm). Where joints occur, felt shall be 
lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm). 

Exception: Such felt or material is permitted to be omitted 
in the following situations: 

1 . In detached accessory buildings. 

2. Under panel siding with shiplap joints or battens. 

3. Under exterior wall finish materials as permitted in 
TableR703.4. 

4. Under paperbacked stucco lath. 

R7©3.3 Wood, hardboard and wood structural panel sid- 
ing. 

R7Q3.3.1 Panel siding. Joints in wood, hardboard or wood 
structural panel siding shall be made as follows unless oth- 
erwise approved. Vertical joints in panel siding shall occur 
over framing members, unless wood or wood structural 
panel sheathing is used, and shall be shiplapped or covered 
with a batten. Horizontal joints in panel siding shall be 
lapped a minimum of 1 inch (25.4 mm) or shall be 
shiplapped or shall be flashed with Z-flashing and occur 
over solid blocking, wood or wood structural panel sheath- 
ing. 

M703.3.2 Horizontal siding. Horizontal lap siding shall be 
lapped a minimum of 1 inch (25.4 mm), or 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) if rabbeted, and shall have the ends caulked, covered 
with a batten, or sealed and installed over a strip of flashing. 

R703.4 Attachments. Unless specified otherwise, all wall 
coverings shall be securely fastened in accordance with Table 



R703.4 or with other approved aluminum, stainless steel, zinc- 
coated or other approved corrosion-resistive fasteners. 

R703.5 Wood shakes and shingles. Wood shakes and shingles 
shall conform to CSSB "Grading Rules for Wood Shakes and 
Shingles." 

R703.5.1 Application. Wood shakes or shingles shall be ap- 
plied either single-course or double-course over nominal 72- 
inch (12.7 mm) wood-based sheathing or to furring strips 
over V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) nominal nonwood sheathing. A 
weather-resistant permeable membrane shall be provided 
over all sheathing, with horizontal overlaps in the mem- 
brane of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) and vertical overlaps 
of not less than 6 inches (152 mm) . Where furring strips are 
used, they shall be 1 inch by 3 inches or 1 inch by 4 inches 
(25.4 mm by 76 mm or 25.4 mm by 102 mm) and shall be 
fastened horizontally to the studs with 7d or 8d box nails and 
shall be spaced a distance on center equal to the actual 
weather exposure of the shakes or shingles, not to exceed the 
maximum exposure specified in Table R703.5.2. The spac- 
ing between adjacent shingles to allow for expansion shall 
not exceed 7 4 inch (6.4 mm), and between adjacent shakes, 
it shall not exceed V 2 inch (12.7 mm). The offset spacing be- 
tween joints in adjacent courses shall be a minimum of 1 V 2 
inches (38 mm). 

R703.5.2 Weather exposure. The maximum weather expo- 
sure for shakes and shingles shall not exceed that specified 
in Table R703.5.2. 

R703.S.3 Attachment. Each shake or shingle shall be held 
in place by two hot-dipped zinc-coated, stainless steel, or 
aluminum nails or staples. The fasteners shall be long 
enough to penetrate the sheathing or furring strips by a mini- 
mum of V 2 inch (12.7 mm) and shall not be overdriven. 

R703.5.3.1 Staple attachment. Staples shall not be less 
than 16 gage and shall have a crown width of not less than 
7 / 16 inch (11.1 mm), and the crown of the staples shall be 
parallel with the butt of the shake or shingle. In single- 
course application, the fasteners shall be concealed by 
the course above and shall be driven approximately 1 inch 
(25.4 mm) above the butt line of the succeeding course 
and 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) from the edge. In double-course 
applications, the exposed shake or shingle shall be face- 
nailed with two casing nails, driven approximately 2 
inches (5 1 mm) above the butt line and 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
from each edge. In all applications, staples shall be con- 
cealed by the course above. With shingles wider than 8 
inches (203 mm) two additional nails shall be required 
and shall be nailed approximately 1 inch (25.4 mm) apart 
near the center of the shingle. 

R703.5.4 Bottom courses. The bottom courses shall be 
doubled. 

R703.6 Exterior piaster. 

R703.6.1 Lath. All lath and lath attachments shall be of cor- 
rosion-resistant materials. Expanded metal or woven wire 
lath shall be attached with 1 V 2 -inch-long (38 mm), 1 1 gage 
nails having a 7 / 16 -inch (11.1 mm) head, or 7 / 8 -inch-long 
(22.2 mm), 16 gage staples, spaced at no more than 6 inches 
(152 mm), or as otherwise approved. 



200 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL COVERING 



TABLE R703.4 



TABLE R703.4 
WEATHER-RESISTANT SIDING ATTACHMENT AND MINIMUM THICKNESS 







NOMINAL 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 1 


JOINT 
TREATMENT 


SHEATHING 

PAPER 
REQUIRED 


TYPE OF SUPPORTS FOR THE SIDING MATERIAL AND FASTENERS"' '" 


SIDING MATERIAL 


Wood or wood 

structural panel 

sheathing 


Fiberboard 
sheathing 
into stud 


Gypsum 
sheathing 
into stud 


Direct 

to 
studs 


Number or spacing 
of fasteners 


Horizontal 
aluminum' 


Without 
insulation 


0.019 f 


Lap 


No 


0.1 20 nail 
l7 2 "long 


0.120 nail 
2" long 


0.120 nail 
2" long 


Not allowed 


Same as stud 
spacing 


0.024 


Lap 


No 


0.120 nail 
l7 2 "long 


0.120 nail 
2" long 


0.120 nail 

2" long 


Not allowed 


With 
insulation 


0.019 


Lap 


No 


0.120 nail 
l7 2 "long 


0.120 nail 
27 2 " long 


0.120 nail 
27 2 "long 


0.120 nail 
l7 2 "long 


Brick veneer 

Concrete masonry veneer 


2 
2 


Section R703 


Yes 
Note m 


See Section R703 and Figure R703.7 h 


Hardboard 

Panel siding-vertical 


7 /, 6 


Noteg 


Note g 


Note o , 


Noteo 


Noteo 


Noteo 


6" panel edges 
12" inter. sup. p 


Siding vertical 

Hardboard' 

Lap-siding-horizontal 


7 /,6 
7 A6 


Noteg 
Noter 


;Note g 
Noter 


Noteq 


Note q 


Noteq 


Noteq 


Same as stud 

spacing 
2 per bearing 


Steel 1 


29 ga. . 


Lap 


No 


0.113 nail l 3 / 4 " 
Staple-l 3 / 4 " 


0.113nail2 3 / 4 " 
Staple-27 2 " 


0.113 nail 27 2 " 
Staple-27/' 


Not allowed 


Same as stud 
spacing 


Stone veneer 


2 


Section R703 


Yes 


See Section R703 and Figure R703.7 


Particleboard panels 


V'/ 2 


Noteg 


;Note g 


6d box nail 


6d box nail 


6d box nail 


6d box nail, 
3 /„ not 
allowed 


6" panel edges 12" 
inter, sup. 


5 / s 


Note g 


.Note g 


6d box nail 


8d box nail 


8d box nail 


6d box nail 


Plywood panel' 
(exterior grade) 


3 / 8 


Noteg 


Noteg 


0.099 
nail-2" 


0.113 nail-2 7 2 " 


0.099 
nail-2" 


0.099 
nail-2" 


6" on edges 


Vinyl siding" 


0.035 


Lap 


No 


0.120 nail 1;7 2 " 
Staple-l 3 / 4 " 


0.120 nail 2" 
Staple-27 2 " 


0.120 nail 2" 
Staple-27 2 " 


Not allowed 


Same as stud 
spacing 


Wood k Rustic, drop 


V 8 Min 


Lap 


No 


Fastener penetration into stud-1" 


0.113 nail- 

27 2 " 
Staple-2" 


Face nailing up to 6" 
widths, 1 nail per 
bearing; 8" widths and 
over, 2 nails per bearing 


Shiplap 


"/ 32 Average 


Lap 


No 


Bevel 


7 /,6 


Butt tip 


3 /, 6 


Lap 


No 


(l 







For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Based on stud spacing of 16 inches on center where studs are spaced 24 inches, siding shall be applied to sheathing approved for that spacing. 

b. Nail is a general description and shall be T-head, modified round head, or round head with smooth or deformed shanks. 

c. Staples shall have a minimum crown; width of 7 / ]6 -inch outside diameter and be manufactured of minimum No. 16 gage wire. 

d. Nails or staples shall be aluminum, galvanized, or rust-preventive coated and shall be driven into the studs for fiberboard or gypsum backing. 

e. Aluminum nails shall be used to attach aluminum siding. ' 

f. Aluminum (0.019'inch) shall be unbacked only when the maximum panel width is 10 inches and the maximum flat area is 8 inches. The tolerance for aluminum 
siding shall be +0:002 inch of the nominal dimension. 

g. If boards or panels are applied over sheathing or a weather-resistant membrane, joints 1 need not be treated. Otherwise, vertical joints shall occur at studs and be cov- 
ered with battens or be lapped. 

h. All attachments shall be coated with a corrosion-resistive coating. 

i. Shall be of approved type. 

j. Three-eighths-inch plywood shall not be applied directly to studs spaced greater than 1 6 inches on center when long dimension is parallel to studs. One-half-inch 
plywood shall not may be applied directly to studs spaced greater than 24 inches on center. The stud spacing shall not exceed the panel span rating provided by the 
manufacturer unless the panels are installed with the face grain perpendicular to studs or over sheathing approved for that stud spacing. 

k. Woodboardi sidings applied vertically shall be nailed to horizontal nailing strips or blocking set 24 inches on center. Nails shall penetrate 1.5 inches into studs, 
studs and wood sheathing combined, or blocking. A weather-resistant membrane shall be installed weatherboard fashion under the vertical siding unless the sid- 
ing boards are lapped or battens are Used. 

1. Hardboard siding shall comply with AHA Al 35.6. 

m. For masonry veneer, a weather-resistant membrane or building paper is not required over water-repellent sheathing materials when a 1-inch air space is provided 
between the veneer and the sheathing. When the 1 -inch space is filled with mortar, a w,eather-resistant membrane or building paper is required over studs or sheath- 
ing. 

n. Vinyl siding shall comply with ASTM D 3679. 

o. Minimum sliank diameter of 0.092 inch, minimum head diameter of 0.225 inch, and nail length must accommodate sheathing and penetrate framing 1.5 inches. 

p. When used to resist shear forces, theispacing must be 4 inches at panel edges and 8 inches on interior supports. 

q. Minimum shank diameter of 0.099 inch, minimum head diameter of 0.240 inch, and nail length must accommodate sheathing and penetrate framing 1 .5 inches. 

r. Vertical end joints shall occur at studs and shall be covered with a joint cover or shall be caulked. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



201 



TABLE R703.5.2 - R703.7.2.2 



WALL COVERING 



TABLE R703.5.2 
/iAXIMUWi WEATHER EXPOSURE FOR WOOD SHAKES AND SHINGLES ON EXTERIOR WALLS a ' b ' c 

(Dimensions are in inches) 



LENGTH 


EXPOSURE FOR SINGLE COURSE 


EXPOSURE FOR DOUBLE COURSE 


Shingles" 
16 
18 

24 


8V 2 
117 2 


12 b 

14 c 
16 


Shakes 3 
18 
24 


8V 2 
11 V 2 


14 
18 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Dimensions given are for No. 1 grade. 

b. A maximum 10-inch exposure is permitted for No. 2 grade. 

c. A maximum 1 1-inch exposure is permitted for No. 2 grade. 



R703.6.2 Plaster. Plastering with portland cement plaster 
shall be not less than three coats when applied over metal 
lath or wire lath and shall be not less than two coats when ap- 
plied over masonry, concrete or gypsum backing . If the plas- 
ter surface is completely covered by veneer or other facing 
material or is completely concealed, plaster application 
need be only two coats, provided the total thickness is as set 
forth in Table R702.1(l). 

On wood-frame construction with an on-grade floor slab 
system, exterior plaster shall be applied in such a manner as 
to cover, but not extend below, lath, paper and screed. 

The proportion of aggregate to cementitious materials 
shall be as set forth in Table R702.1(3). 



>.7 Stone andl masonry veneer, general. All stone and 
masonry veneer shall be installed in accordance with this chap- 
ter, Table R703.4 and Figure R703.7. Such veneers installed 
over a backing of wood or cold-formed steel shall be limited to 
the first story above grade and shall not exceed 5 inches (127 
mm) in thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, exterior ma- 
sonry veneer with a backing of wood or cold-formed 
steel framing shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in 
height above the noncombustible foundation, with an 
additional 8 feet (2348 mm) permitted for ends. 

2. In Seismic Design Category C, exterior masonry ve- 
neer with a backing of wood or cold-formed steel 
framing shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height 
above the noncombustible foundation, with an addi- 
tional 8 feet (2348 mm) permitted for gabled ends. In 
other than the topmost story, the length of bracing 
shall be 1.5 times the length otherwise required in 
Chapter 6. 

R703.7.1 Interior veneer support. Veneers used as interior 
wall finishes shall be permitted to be supported on wood or 
cold-formed steel floors that are designed to support the 
loads imposed. 

R703.7.2 Exterior veneer support. Except in Seismic De- 
sign Categories Dj and D 2 , exterior masonry veneers having 
an installed weight of 40 pounds per square foot (195 kg/m 2 ) 
or less shall be permitted to be supported on wood or cold- 



formed steel construction. When masonry veneer supported 
by wood or cold-formed steel construction adjoins masonry 
veneer supported by the foundation, there shall be a move- 
ment joint between the veneer supported by the wood or 
cold-formed steel construction and the veneer supported by 
the foundation. The wood or cold-formed steel construction 
supporting the masonry veneer shall be designed to limit the 
deflection to Veoo of the span for the supporting members. 
The design of the wood or cold-formed steel construction 
shall consider the weight of the veneer and any other loads. 
The method of support for the masonry veneer on wood con- 
struction shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 
R703.7.1 or as approved by the building official. 

R703.7.2.1 Support by steel angle. A minimum 6 inches 
by 4 inches by 5 / ]6 inch (152 mm by 102 mm by 8 mm) 
steel angle, with the long leg placed vertically, shall be an- 
chored to double 2 inches by 4 inches (5 1 mm by 102 mm) 
wood studs at a maximum on center spacing of 16 inches 
(406 mm). Anchorage of the steel angle at every double 
stud spacing shall be a minimum of two 7 /, 6 inch (11.1 
mm) diameter by 4 inches (102 mm) lag screws. The steel 
angle shall have a minimum clearance to underlying con- 
struction of 7 ]6 inch (1.6 mm). A minimum of two- thirds 
the width of the masonry veneer thickness shall bear on the 
steel angle. Flashing and weep holes shall be located in the 
masonry veneer wythe in accordance with Figure R 
703.7.1. The maximum height of masonry veneer above 
the steel angle support shall be 12 feet, 8 inches (3861 
mm). The maximum slope of the roof construction shall 
be not more than 7:12. The air space separating the ma- 
sonry veneer from the wood backing shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections R703.7.4 and R703.7.4.2. 

R703.7.2.2 Support by roof construction. A steel angle 
shall be placed directly on top of the roof construction. 
The roof supporting construction for the steel angle shall 
consist of a minimum of three 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm 
by 152 mm) wood members. The wood member abutting 
the vertical wall stud construction shall be anchored with 
a minimum of three 5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) diameter by 5- 
inch (127 mm) lag screws to every wood stud spacing. 
Each additional roof member shall be anchored by the 
use of two lOd nails at every wood stud spacing. A mini- 



202 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL COVERING 



R703.7.3 - R703.7.6 



mum of two-thirds the width of the masonry veneer 
thickness shall bear on the steel angle. Flashing and weep 
holes shall be located in the masonry veneer wythe in ac- 
cordance with Figure R703.7. 1 . The maximum height of 
the masonry veneer above the steel angle support shall be 
12 feet, 8 inches (3861 mm). The maximum slope of the 
roof construction shall be not more than 7:12. The air 
space separating the masonry veneer from the wood 
backing shall be in accordance with Sections R703.7.4 
and R703.7.4.2. 

R703.7.3 Lintels. Masonry veneer shall not support any ver- 
tical load other than the dead load of the veneer above. Veneer 
above openings shall be supported on lintels of non-combus- 
tible materials and the allowable span shall not exceed the 
values set forth in Table R703.7.3. The lintels shall have a 
length of bearing of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

M703.7.4 Anchorage. Masonry veneer shall be anchored to 
the supporting wall with corrosion-resistant metal ties. 
Where veneer is anchored to wood backings through the use 
of corrugated sheet metal ties, the distance separating the 
veneer from the sheathing material shall be a maximum of 1 
inch (25.4 mm). Where the veneer is anchored to wood 
backings through the use of metal strand wire ties, the dis- 
tance separating the veneer from the sheathing material 
shall be a maximum of 4'/ 2 inches (1 14 mm). Where the ve- 
neer is anchored to cold-formed steel backings, adjustable 
metal strand wire ties shall be used. Where veneer is an- 
chored to cold-formed steel backings, the distance separat- 
ing the veneer from the sheathing material shall be a 
maximum of 4.5 inches (1 14 mm). 



.7.4.1 Size and spacing. Veneer ties, if strand wire, 
shall not be less in thickness than No. 9 U.S. gage wire 
and shall have a hood embedded in the mortar joint, or if 
sheet metal, shall be not less than No. 22 U.S. gage by 7 / g 
inch (22.3 mm) corrugated. Each tie shall be spaced not 
more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center horizontally and 
shall support not more than 3'/ 4 square feet (0.302 m 2 ) of 
wall area. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Category Di or D 2 and 
in wind areas of more than 30 pounds pen square foot 
(1.44 kN/m 2 ), each tie shall support not more than 2 
square feet (0.186 m 2 ) of wall area. 



R703.7.4.1.1 Veneer ties around wall openings. Ad- 
ditional metal ties shall be provided around all wall 
openings greater than 1 6 inches (406 mm) in either di- 
mension. Metal ties around the perimeter of openings 
shall be spaced not more than 3 feet (9144 mm) on 
center and placed within 12 inches (305 mm) of the 
wall opening. 

R703.7.4.1.2 Seismic Design Categories Dj and D 2 . 

In Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 , veneer ties 
shall be mechanically attached to horizontal joint re- 
inforcement wire a minimum of No. 9 gage. The hori- 
zontal joint reinforcement shall be continuous in the 
veneer bed joint, with lap splices permitted between 
the veneer tie spacing. 

R703.7.4.2 Air space. The veneer shall be separated 
from the sheathing by an air space of a minimum of 1 
inch (25.4 mm) but not more than 4.5 inches (114 mm). 
The weather-resistant membrane or asphalt-saturated 
felt required by Section R703.2 is not required over wa- 
ter-repellent sheathing materials. 

R703.7.4.3 Mortar or grout fill. As an alternate to the 
air space required by Section R703.7.4.2, mortar or grout 
shall be permitted to fill the air space. When the 1-inch 
(25.4 mm) space is filled with mortar, a weather-resistant 
membrane or building paper is required over studs or 
sheathing. When filling the air space, it is permitted to re- 
place the sheathing and weather-resistant membrane or 
asphalt-saturated felt paper with a wire mesh and ap- 
proved paper or an approved paper-backed reinforce- 
ment attached directly to the studs. 

R703.7.5 Flashing. Flashing shall be located beneath the 
first course of masonry above finished ground level above 
the foundation wall or slab and at other points of support, in- 
cluding structural floors, shelf angles and lintels when ma- 
sonry veneers are designed in accordance with Section 
R703.7. See Section R703.8 for additional requirements. 

R703.7.6 Weepholes. Weepholes shall be provided in the 
outside wythe of masonry walls at amaximum spacing of 33 
inches (838 mm) on center. Weepholes shall not be less than 
3 / 16 inch (4.8 mm) in diameter. Weepholes shall be located 
immediately above the flashing. 





TABLE R703.7.3 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR LINTELS SUPPORTING MASONRY VENEER abc 




SIZE OF STEEL ANGLE '" 
(inches) 


NO STORY ABOVE 


ONE STORY ABOVE 


TWO STORIES ABOVE 


NO. OF 1 / 2 " OR EQUIVALENT 
REINFORCING BARS" 


3 x 3 x 7 4 


6'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


1 


4 x 3 x V 4 


8'-0" 


5'-0" 


3'-0" 


1 


6x3!/ 2 xV 4 


14'-0" 


8'-0" 


3'-6" 


2 


2-6 x 3V 2 x V 4 


20'-0" 


ll'-O" 


5'-0" 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot =304.8 mm. 

a. Long leg of the angle shall be placed in a vertical position. 

b. Depth of reinforced lintels shall not be less than 8 inches and all cells of hollow masonry lintels shall be grouted solid. Reinforcing bars shall extend not less than 
8 inches into the support. 

c. Steel members indicated are adequate typical examples; other steel members meeting structural design requirements may be used. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



203 



R703.8 - R703.9.2 



WALL COVERING 



K7©3.8 Flashing. Approved corrosion-resistive flashing shall 
be provided in the exterior wall envelope in such a manner as to 
prevent entry of water into the wall cavity or penetration of wa- 
ter to the building structural framing components. The flashing 
shall extend to the surface of the exterior wall finish and shall 
be installed to prevent water from reentering the exterior wall 
envelope. Approved corrosion-resistant flashings shall be in- 
stalled at all of the following locations: 

1 . At top of all exterior window and door openings in such a 
manner as to be leakproof, except that self-flashing win- 
dows having a continuous lap of not less thanl V 8 inches 
(28 mm) over the sheathing material around the perime- 
ter of the opening, including corners, do not require addi- 
tional flashing; jamb flashing may also be omitted when 
specifically approved by the building official. 

2. At the intersection of chimneys or other masonry con- 
struction with frame or stucco walls, with projecting lips 
on both sides under stucco copings. 

3 . Under and at the ends of masonry, wood or metal copings 
and sills. 

4. Continuously above all projecting wood trim. 

5 . Where exterior porches, decks or stairs attach to a wall or 
floor assembly of wood-frame construction. 

6. At wall and roof intersections. 

7. At built-in gutters. 

R7©3.9 Exterior insulation finish systems, general. All Ex- 
terior Insulation Finish Systems (EIFS) shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and 
the requirements of this section. Decorative trim shall not be 
face nailed through the EIFS. The EIFS shall terminate not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm) above the finished ground level. 

R703.9.1 Weather-resistive barrier. All EIFS shall have a 
weather-resistive barrier applied between the underlying 
water-sensitive building components and the exterior insu- 
lation, and a means of draining water to the exterior of the 
veneer. A weather-resistive barrier shall be compliant with 
ASTM D 226 Type I asphalt saturated felt or equivalent, 
shall be applied horizontally with the upper layer lapped 
over the lower layer not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm), and shall 
have all vertical joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 
mm). 

M703.9.2 Flashing, general. Flashing of EIFS shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the requirements of Section 
R703.8. 



204 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL COVERING 



FIGURE R703.7 



FLASHING AND WEEPHOLES 3 




VENEER^J^ 



BUILDING PAPER OR APPROVED 
WATER-REPELLENT SHEATHING b 



tsx 



E 



1 IN.-AIR SPACE OR 

1 IN.-MORTARED SPACE C 



^ 



BUILDING PAPER OR APPROVED-^J=^ 
WATER-REPELLENT SHEATHING b g^^*. 



METAL TIE b 



^ 






FLASHING 3 



WEERHOLE 3 



«\W/\\\v///;v: 

////AW///WV:--.- 
v\\\'/// \\V 



^ 



JA/ALLBOARD 




<* 



ANCHOR BOLT 
GROUTED FULL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R703.7 
MASONRY VENEER WALL DETAILS 

(continued) 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



205 



FIGURE R703.7 



WALL COVERING 



ROOFIN 



CLEARANCE OF %4N, 
WIN. AIR SPACE 



BUILDING PAPER OR APPROVED 
WATER-REPELLENT SHEATHING* 



VENEER 



METAL TIE 1 




1 IN.-AIR SPACE OR 

1 IN.-MORTARED SPACE 



BUILDING PAPER OR APPROVED. 
WATER-REPELLENT SHEATHING b 

.METAL TIE". 



FLASHING 8 
STEEL LINTEL* 1 

WEEPHOLE a 
SEALANT 




WALLBOARD 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Sections R703.7.5 and R703.7.6. 

b. See Sections R703.2 and R703.7.4. 

c. See Section R703.7.4.2 and R703.7.4.3. 

d. See Section R703. 7.2.1. 



FIGURE R703.7— continued 
iSONRY VENEER WALL DETAILS 



206 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL COVERING 



FIGURE R703.7.1 



SHEATHING. 



STUD- 



STEEL ANGLE. 



FASTENERS. 



w 



mr 



^ZA 




•BRICK VENEER 
-VENEER TIE 



^COUNTER FLASHING 



.BASE FLASHING 



TRIPLE 
RAFTERS 



SUPPORT BY ROOF MEMBERS 



SHEATHING . 
STUD- 



STEEL ANGLE- 



FASTENERS- 







BRICK VENEER 

IE 



.COUNTER FLASHING 



.BASE FLASHING 



ROOF 
SHEATHING 



ROOF FRAMING 



SUPPORT BY STEEL ANGLE 



FIGURE R703.7.1 
EXTERIOR MASONRY VENEER SUPPORT BY WOOD CONSTRUCTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



207 



208 2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R801 
GENERAL 

R801.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the roof-ceiling system for 
all buildings. 

R801.2 Requirements. Roof and ceiling construction shall be 
capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Sec- 
tion R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the support- 
ing structural elements. 

R801.3 Roof drainage. In areas where expansive or collaps- 
ible soils are known to exist, all dwellings shail have a con- 
trolled method of water disposal from roofs that will collect and 
discharge all roof drainage to the ground surface at least 5 feet 
(1524 mm) from foundation walls or to an approved drainage 
system. 



SECTION R802 
WOOD ROOF FRAMING 

R802.1 Identification and grade. Load-bearing dimension 
lumber for rafters, trusses and ceiling joists shall be identified 
by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that 
has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with 
DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection 
issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the 
requirements of this section shall be accepted. 

R802.1.1 Blocking. Blocking shall be a minimum of utility 
grade lumber. 

R802.1.2 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R802. 1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R802.1.3 Fire-retardant-treated lumber. The allowable 
unit stresses for fire-retardant-treated lumber, including fas- 
tener values, shall be developed from an approved method 
of investigation that considers the effects of anticipated tem- 
perature and humidity to which the fire-retardant lumber 
will be subjected, the type of treatment and redrying pro- 
cess. 

R802.1.3.1 Labeling and grade marking. Fire-retar- 
dant-treated lumber and wood structural panels shall 
bear the identification mark of an approved agency. Such 
identification marks shall indicate conformance with ap- 
propriate standards. Additionally, fire-retardant-treated 
lumber and wood structural panels shall be identified in 
accordance with Section R802.1 and Section R803.2.1 
respectively. 

R802.1.3.2 Moisture content. Fire-retardant-treated 
wood shall be dried in accordance with AWPA C20 to a 
moisture content of 19 percent or less for lumber and 15 
percent or less in accordance with AWPA C27 for wood 
structural panels before use. 



R802.2 Design and construction. Roof-ceilings shall be de- 
signed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of 
this chapter and Figures R606.10(l), R606.10(2) and 
R606.10(3) or in accordance with AFPA/NDS. Components of 
roof-ceilings shall be fastened in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). 

R802.3 Framing details. Rafters shall be framed to ridge 
board or to each other with a gusset plate as a, tie. Ridge board 
shall be at least 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal thickness and not 
less in depth than the cut end of the rafter. At all valleys and hips 
there shall be a valley or hip rafter not less than 2-inch (5 1 mm) 
nominal thickness and not less in depth than the cut end of the 
rafter. Hip and valley rafters shall be supported at the ridge by a 
brace to a bearing partition or be designed to carry and distrib- 
ute the specific load at that point. Where the roof pitch is less 
than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent 
slope), structural members that support rafters and ceiling 
joists, such as ridge beams, hips and valleys, shall be designed 
as beams. 

R802.3.1 Ceiling joist and rafter connections. Ceiling 
joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other in accordance 
with Tables R602.3(l) and R802.5.1(9), and the assembly 
shall be nailed to the top wall plate in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). Ceiling joists shall be continuous or securely 
joined where they meet over interior partitions and nailed to 
adjacent rafters to provide a continuous tie across the build- 
ing when such joists are parallel to the rafters. 

Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters, 
subflooring or metal straps attached to the ends of the rafters 
shall be installed in a manner to provide a continuous tie 
across the building, or rafters shall be tied to 1-inch by 4- 
inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) (nominal) minimum-size 
crossties. The connections shall be in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l) or connections of equivalent capacities shall be 
provided. Where ceilingjoists or rafter ties are not provided 
at the top plate, the ridge formed by these rafters shall also 
be supported by a girder designed in accordance with ac- 
cepted engineering practice. 

Rafter ties shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) 
on center. 

R802.3.2 Ceilingjoists lapped. Ends of ceiling joists shall 
be lapped a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) or butted over 
bearing partitions or beams and toenailed to the bearing 
member. When ceiling joists are used to provide resistance 
to rafter thrust, lapped joists shall be nailed together in ac- 
cordance with Table R602.3(l) and butted joists shall be 
tied together in a manner to resist such thrust. 

R802.4 Allowable ceiling joist spans. Spans for ceilingjoists 
shall be in accordance with Tables R802.4(l) and R802.4(2). 
For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, 
refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



209 



TABLE R802.4(1) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(1) 

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Uninhabitable attics without storage, live load = 10 psf, L/A = 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 

(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 5 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum ceiling joist spans 


(feet - Inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


13-2 


20-8 


Note a 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


12-8 


19-11 


Note a 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


12-5 


19-6 


25-8 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


10-10 


15-10 


20-1 


24-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


12-5 


19-6 


25-8 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#1 


12-2 


19-1 


25-2 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#2 


11-7 


18-2 


24-0 


Note a 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


10-10 


15-10 


20-1 


24-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


12-11 


20-3 


Note a 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#1 


12-8 


19-11 


Note a 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#2 


12-5 


19-6 


25-8 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#3 


11-6 


17-0 


21-8 


25-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


12-2 


19-1 


25-2 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


11-10 


18-8 


24-7 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


11-10 


18-8 


24-7 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


10-10 


15-10 


20-1 


24-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-11 


18-9 


24-8 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


11-6 


18-1 


23-10 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


11-3 


17-8 


23-0 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


9-5 


13-9 


17-5 


21-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


11-3 


17-8 


23-4 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#1 


11-0 


17-4 


22-10 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#2 


10-6 


16-6 


21-9 


Note a 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


9-5 


13-9 


17-5 


21-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-9 


18-5 


24-3 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#1 


11-6 


18-1 


23-1 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#2 


11-3 


17-8 


23-4 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#3 


10-0 


14-9 


18-9 


22-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


11-0 


17-4 


22-10 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-9 


16-11 


22-4 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-9 


16-11 


22-4 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


9-5 


13-9 


17-5 


21-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-3 


17-8 


23-3 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-7 


16-7 


21-0 


25-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10-7 


16-8 


21-11 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#1 


10-4 


16-4 


21-6 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-11 


15-7 


20-6 


25-3 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


Southern -pine 


SS 


11-0 


17-4 


22-10 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-7 


16-8 


21-11 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#3 


9-1 


13-6 


17-2 


20-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-4 


16-4 


21-6 


Note a 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-2 


15-11 


21-0 


25-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-2 


15-11 


21-0 


25-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 



(continued) 



210 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(1) - R802.8 



TABLE R802.4(1)— continued 

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Uninhabitable attics without storage, live load = 10 psf, L/A = 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 5 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum ceiling Joist spans 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-5 


16-4 


21-7 


Note a 




Douglas Fir-larch 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-1 


24-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-10 


14-10 


18-9 


22-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 




Hern-fir 


SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-8 


15-2 


19-7 


23-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-2 


14-5 


18-6 


22-7 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


•7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-10 


15-6 


20-1 


23-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


8-2 


12-0 


15-4 


18-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-5 


14-9 


18-9 


22-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-5 


14-9 


18-9 


22-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



R802.5 Allowable rafter spans. Spans for rafters shall be in 
accordance with Tables R802.5.1Q) through R802.5.1(8). For 
other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer 
to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. The span of 
each rafter shall be measured along the horizontal projection of 
the rafter. 

R802.5.1 Purlins. Purlins are permitted to be installed to re- 
duce the span of rafters as shown in Figure R802.'5. 1 . Purlins 
shall be sized no less than the required size of fhe| rafters that 
they support. Purlins shall be continuous and shall be sup- 
ported by 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) braces in- 
stalled to bearing walls at a slope not less than 1 45 degrees 
from the horizontal. The braces shall be spaced not more 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center and the unbraced length of 
braces shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

R802.6 Bearing. The ends of each rafter or ceiling joist shall 
have not less than 1V 2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or 
metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or con- 
crete. 

R802.6.1 Finished ceiling material. If the finished ceiling 
material is installed on the ceiling prior to the attachment of 
the ceiling to the walls, such as in construction at a factory, a 
compression strip of the same thickness as the finish ceiling 
material shall be installed directly above the top plate of 
bearing walls if the compressive strength of the finish ceil- 
ing material is less than the loads it will be required to with- 
stand. The compression strip shall cover the entire length of 
such top plate and shall be at least one-half the width of the 
top plate. It shall be of material capable of transmitting the 
loads transferred through it. 



R802.7 Cutting and notching. Structural roof members shall 
not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations speci- 
fied in this section. 

R802.7.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumber joists, raf- 
ters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the 
member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of 
the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third 
of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not ex- 
ceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side 
of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thick- 
ness shall not be notched except at the ends of the members. 
The diameter of the holes bored or cut into members shall 
not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall 
not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bottom of 
the member, or to any other hole located in the member. 
Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be 
closer than 2 inches (5 1 mm) to the notch. 

Exception: Notches on cantilevered portions of rafters 
are permitted provided the dimension of the remaining 
portion of the rafter is not less than 4-inch nominal (102 
mm) and the length of the cantilever does not exceed 24 
inches (610 mm). 

R802.7.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and 
holes bored in laminated veneer lumber, glue-laminated 
members or I-joists are not permitted unless the effect of 
such penetrations are specifically considered in the design 
of the member. 

R802.8 Lateral support. Rafters and ceiling joists having a 
depth-to-thickness ratio exceeding 5 to 1 based on nominal di- 
mensions shall be provided with lateral support at points of 
bearing to prevent rotation. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



211 



TABLE R802.4(2) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(2) 





CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 




(Uninhabitable attics with limited storage 


live load = 20 psf, L/A = 240) 




CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 




DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum ceiling joist spans 










(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


10-5 


16-4 


21-7 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-1 


24-6 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


9-10 


14-10 


18-9 


22-11 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 




Hem-fir SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Note a 




Hem-fir #1 


9-8 


15-2 


19-7 


23-11 




Hem-fir #2 


9-2 


14-5 


18-6 


22-7 


12 


Hem-fir #3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 


Southern pine SS 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Note a 




Southern pine #1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


Note a 




Southern pine #2 


9-10 


15-6 


20-1 


23-11 




Southern pine #3 


8-2 


12-0 


15-4 


18-1 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


9-5 


14-9 


18-9 


22-11 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


9-5 


14-9 


18-9 


22-11 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


9-6 


14-11 


19-7 


25-0 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-3 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


8-9 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


6-8 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 




Hem-fir SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 




Hem-fir #1 


8-9 


13-5 


16-10 


20-8 




Hem-fir #2 


8-4 


12-8 


16-0 


19-7 


16 


Hem-fir #3 


6-8 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


Southern pine SS 


9-4 


14-7 


19-3 


24-7 




Southern pine #1 


9-1 


14-4 


18-11 


23-1 




Southern pine #2 


8-11 


13-6 


17-5 


20-9 




Southern pine #3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-3 


15-8 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23-1 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


8-7 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


8-7 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


6-8 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 




Douglas fir-larch SS 


8-11 


14-0 


18-5 


23-4 




Douglas fir-larch #1 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 




Douglas fir-larch #2 


8-0 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 




Douglas fir-larch #3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 




Hem-fir SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 




Hem-fir #1 


8-3 


12-3 


15-6 


18-11 




Hem-fir #2 


7-10 


11-7 


14-8 


17-10 


19.2 


Hem-fir #3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


Southern pine SS 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23-1 




Southern pine #1 


8-7 


13-6 


17-9 


21-1 




Southern pine #2 


8-5 


12-3 


15-10 


18-11 




Southern pine #3 


6-5 


9-6 


12-1 


14-4 




Spruce-pine-fir SS 


8-3 


12-11 


17-1 


21-8 




Spruce-pine-fir #1 


8-0 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 




Spruce-pine-fir #2 


8-0 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 




Spruce-pine-fir #3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 



(continued) 



212 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(2) - R802.10.1 



TABLE R802.4(2)— continued 

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Uninhabitable attics with limited storage, live load = 20 psf, L/A = 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum Ceiling Joist Spans 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet ■ inches) 


(feet - inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-3 


13-0 


17-1 


20-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-2 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-5 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-6 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-6 


10-11 


13-10 


16-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-1 


10-4 


13-1 


16-0 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-5 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


15-10 


18-10 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-8 


11-0 


14-2 


16-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-9 


8-6 


10-10 


12-10 




Spruce-pine- fir 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


19-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-2 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-2 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-5 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 
a. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



0.0479 kN/m 2 - 



R802.8.1 Bridging. Rafters and ceiling joists having a depth- 
to-thickness ratio exceeding 6 to 1 based on nominal dimen- 
sions shah be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal 
bridging (wood or metal) or a continuous 1-inch by 3-inch 
(25.4 mm by 76 mm) wood strip nailed across the rafters or 
ceiling joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). 

R802.9 Framing of openings. Openings in roof and ceiling 
framing shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. When 
the header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the 
header joist may be a single member the same size as the ceiling 
joist or rafter. Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a sin- 
gle header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the 
trimmer joist bearing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 
feet (1219 mm), the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be 
doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the ceiling 
joists or rafter framing into the header. Approved hangers shall 
be used for the header joist to trimmer joist connections when 
the header joist span exceeds 6 feet (1829 mm). Tail joists over 
12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header, by 
framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 
inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R802.10 Wood trusses. 

R802.10.1 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, 
prepared in conformance with Section R802.10.1, shall be 
provided to the building official and approved prior to instal- 
lation. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, 
the information specified below. Truss design drawing shall 
be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the 
jobsite. 

1. Slope or depth, span and spacing. 

2. Location of all joints. 

3. Required bearing widths. 



4. Design loads as applicable. 

4.1. Top chord live load (including snow loads). 

4.2. Top chord dead load. 

4.3. Bottom chord live load. 

4.4. Bottom chord dead load. 

4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of 
application. 

4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads. 

5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design 
values for conditions of use. 

6. Each reaction force and direction. 

7. Joint connector type and description (e.g., size, 
thickness or gauge) and the dimensioned location of 
each joint connector except where symmetrically lo- 
cated relative to the joint interface. 

8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member. 

9. Connection requirements for: 

9.1. Truss to truss girder. 

9.2. Truss ply to ply. 

9.3. Field splices. 

10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum de- 
scription for live and total load. 

11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss 
members to enable the building designer to design 
the size, connections and anchorage of the perma- 
nent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be 
shown on the truss design drawing or on supplemen- 
tal documents. 

12. Required permanent truss member bracing location. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



213 



TABLE R802.5.1(1) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(1) 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 



180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 

Inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 

inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


SS 
#1 


11-6 
11-1 


18-0 
17-4 


23-9 

22-5 


Noteb 

Noteb 


Noteb 
Noteb 


11-6 
10-6 


18-0 
15-4 


23-5 
19-5 


Noteb 
23-9 


Noteb 
Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-10 


16-7 


21-0 


25-8 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


10-7 


16-8 


21-10 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-3 


14-11 


18-11 


23-2 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#2 


10-1 


15-11 


20-8 


25-3 


Noteb 


9-8 


14-2 


17-11 


21-11 


25-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-3 


17-8 


23-4 


Noteb 


Noteb 


11-3 


17-8 


23-4 


Noteb 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


11-1 


17-4 


22-11 


Noteb 


Noteb 


11-1 


17-3 


21-9 


25-10 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-6 


15-1 


19-5 


23-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 
SS 


9-1 

10-7 


13-6 
16-8 


17-2 
21-11 


20-3 

Noteb 


24-1 
Noteb 


7-11 

10-7 


11-8 
16-8 


14-10 

21-9 


17-6 
Noteb 


20-11 
Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 
#2 
#3 


10-4 
10-4 
8-7 


16-3 
16-3 
12-6 


21-0 
21-0 
15-10 


25-8 
25-8 
19-5 


Noteb 

Noteb 

22-6 


9-10 
9-10 

7-5 


14-4 
14-4 
10-10 


18-2 
18-2 
13-9 


22-3 
22-3 
16-9 


25-9 
25-9 
19-6 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


SS 
#1 
#2 


10-5 
10-0 
9-10 


16-4 

15-4 
14-4 


21-7 
19-5 
18-2 


Noteb 
23-9 
22-3 


Noteb 

Noteb 

25-9 


10-5 
9-1 
8-6 


16-0 
13-3 
12-5 


20-3 

16-10 

15-9 


24-9 
20-7 
19-3 


Noteb 
23-10 
22-4 




Douglas fir-larch 
Hem-fir 


#3 
SS 


7-5 
9-10 


10-10 
15-6 


13-9 
20-5 


16-9 

Noteb 


19-6 

Noteb 


6-5 
9-10 


9-5 
15-6 


11-11 
19-11 


14-6 
24-4 


16-10 
Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-8 


14-11 


18-11 


23-2 


Noteb 


8-10 


12-11 


16-5 


20-0 


23-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-2 


14-2 


17-11 


21-11 


25-5 


8-5 


12-3 


15-6 


18-11 


22-0 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 


Southern pine 
Southern pine 
Southern pine 


SS 

#1 

#2 


10-3 
10-0 
9-10 


16-1 
15-9 
15-1 


21-2 

20-10 

19-5 


Noteb 
25-10 
23-2 


Noteb 
Noteb 
Noteb 


10-3 
10-0 
9-1 


16-1 
15-0 
13-0 


21-2 
18-10 
16-10 


Noteb 
22-4 
20-1 


Noteb 
Noteb 

23-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-11 


11-8 


14-10 


17-6 


20-11 


6-10 


10-1 


12-10 


15-2 


18-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 
#1 

#2 


9-8 
9-5 
9-5 


15-2 
14-4 
14-4 


19-11 
18-2 
18-2 


25-5 
22-3 
22-3 


Noteb 
25-9 
25-9 


9-8 
8-6 
8-6 


14-10 
12-5 
12-5 


18-10 
15-9 
15-9 


23-0 
19-3 
19-3 


Noteb 

22-4 
22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-10 


15-5 


20-4 


25-11 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-7 


18-6 


22-7 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Hem-fir 


#1 

#2 
#3 
SS 


9-5 
8-11 
6-9 

9-3 


14-0 
13-1 
9-11 

14-7 


17-9 
16-7 
12-7 
19-2 


21-8 
20-3 
15-4 
24-6 


25-2 

23-6 

17-9 

Noteb 


8-4 
7-9 
5-10 
9-3 


12-2 
11-4 
8-7 
14-4 


15-4 
14-4 
10-10 
18-2 


18-9 
17-7 
13-3 

22-3 


21-9 
20-4 
15-5 
25-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-1 


13-8 


17-4 


21-1 


24-6 


8-1 


11-10 


15-0 


18-4 


21-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-8 


12-11 


16-4 


20-0 


23-2 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 




Southern pine 
Southern pine 


#1 
#2 


9-5 
9-3 


14-10 
13-9 


19-7 
17-9 


23-7 
21-2 


Noteb 
24-10 


9-3 
8-4 


13-8 
11-11 


17-2 
15-4 


20-5 
18-4 


24-4 
21-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-3 


10-8 


13-7 


16-0 


19-1 


6-3 


9-3 


11-9 


13-10 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 
#1 


9-1 
8-10 


14-3 
13-1 


18-9 
16-7 


23-11 
20-3 


Noteb 
23-6 


9-1 
7-9 


13-7 
11-4 


17-2 
14-4 


21-0 
17-7 


24-4 
20-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 
#3 


8-10 
6-9 


13-1 
9-11 


16-7 
12-7 


20-3 
15-4 


23-6 
17-9 


7-9 
5-10 


11-4 
8-7 


14-4 
10-10 


17-7 
13-3 


20-4 
15-5 



(continued) 



214 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(1) 



TABLE R802.5.1(1)— continued 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 



180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 

(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum rafter spans 8 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 

inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


24 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir- larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


9-1 
8-7 
8-0 
6-1 
8-7 
8-4 

7-11 
6-1 

8-11 
8-9 
8-7 
6-5 
8-5 
8-0 
8-0 
6-1 


14-4 
12-6 
11-9 
8-10 
13-6 
12-3 
11-7 
8-10 
14-1 
13-9 
12-3 
9-6 
13-3 
11-9 
11-9 
8-10 


18-10 
15-10 
14-10 
11-3 
17-10 
15-6 
14-8 
11-3 
18-6 
17-9 
15-10 
12-1 
17-5 
14-10 
14-10 
11-3 


23-4 

19-5 

18-2 

13-8 

22-9 

18-11 

17-10 

13-8 

23-8 

21-1 

18-11 

14-4 

21-8 

18-2 

18-2 

13-8 


23-4 
19-5 
18-2 
13-8 
22-9 
18-11 
17-10 
13-8 
23-8 
21-1 
18-11 
14-4 
21-8 
18-2 
18-2 
13-8 


8-11 
7-5 

6-11 
5-3 
8-7 
7-3 

6-10 
5-3 

8-11 
8-3 
7-5 
5-7 
8-4 

6-11 

6-11 
5-3 


13-1 
10-10 
10-2 
7-8 
12-10 
10-7 
10-0 
7-8 
14-1 
12-3 
10-8 
8-3 
12-2 
10-2 
10-2 
7-8 


16-7 
13-9 
12-10 
9-9 
16-3 
13-5 
12-8 
9-9 
18-6 
15-4 
13-9 
10-6 
15-4 
12-10 
12-10 
9-9 


20-3 
16-9 
15-8 
11-10 
19-10 
16-4 
15-6 
11-10 
22-11 
18-3 
16-5 
12-5 
18-9 
15-8 
15-8 
11-10 


23-5 
19-6 
18-3 
13-9 
23-0 
19-0 
17-11 
13-9 
Noteb 
21-9 
19-3 
14-9 
21-9 
18-3 
18-3 
13-9 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch ',== 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulated 1 rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



»d»R 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 and less 


1.00 



where: 



Hp 



i c = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
H R = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls, 
b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



215 



TABLE R802.5.1(2) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1{2) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum rafter spans 3 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


12 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


10-5 
10-0 
9-10 
8-7 
9-10 
9-8 
9-2 
8-7 
10-3 
10-0 
9-10 
9-1 
9-8 
9-5 
9-5 
8-7 


16-4 
15-9 
15-6 
12-6 
15-6 
15-2 
14-5 
12-6 
16-1 
15-9 
15-6 
13-6 
15-2 
14-9 
14-9 
12-6 


21-7 
20-10 
20-5 
15-10 
20-5 
19-11 
19-0 
15-10 
21-2 
20-10 
20-5 
17-2 
19-11 
19-6 
19-6 
15-10 


Noteb 

Noteb 

25-8 

19-5 

Noteb 

25-5 

24-3 

19-5 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

20-3 

25-5 

24-10 

24-10 

19-5 


Noteb 
Noteb 
Noteb 

22-6 
Noteb 
Noteb 
Noteb 

22-6 
Noteb 
Noteb 
Noteb 

24-1 
Noteb 
Noteb 
Noteb 

22-6 


10-5 
10-0 
9-10 
7-5 
9-10 
9-8 
9-2 
7-5 
10-3 
10-0 
9-10 
7-11 
9-8 
9-5 
9-5 
7-5 


16-4 
15-4 
14-4 , 
10-10 
15-6 
14-11 
14-2 
10-10 
16-1 
15-9 
15-1 
11-8 
15-2 
14-4 
14-4 
10-10 


21-7 
19-5 
18-2 
13-9 
20-5 
18-11 
17-11 
13-9 
21-2 
20-10 
19-5 
14-10 
19-11 
18-2 
18-2 
13-9 


Noteb 
23-9 
22-3 
16-9 

Noteb 
23-2 

21-11 
16-9 

Noteb 

25-10 

23-2 

17-6 

25-5 

22-3 

22-3 

16-9 


Noteb 

Noteb 

25-9 

19-6 

Noteb 

Noteb 

25-5 

19-6 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

20-11 

Noteb 

25-9 

25-9 

19-6 


16 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


9-6 
9-1 
8-11 
7-5 
8-11 
8-9 
8-4 
7-5 
9-4 
9-1 
8-11 
7-11 
8-9 
8-7 
8-7 
7-5 


14-11 
14-4 
14-1 
10-10 
14-1 
13-9 
13-1 
10-10 
14-7 
14-4 
14-1 
11-8 
13-9 
13-5 
13-5 
10-10 


19-7 
18-11 
18-2 
13-9 
18-6 
18-1 
17-3 
13-9 
19-3 
18-11 
18-6 
14-10 
18-1 
17-9 
17-9 
13-9 


25-0 
23-9 
22-3 
16-9 
23-8 
23-1 
21-11 
16-9 
24-7 
24-1 
23-2 
17-6 
23-1 
22-3 
22-3 
16-9 


Noteb 

Noteb 

25-9 

19-6 

Noteb 

Noteb 

25-5 

19-6 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

20-11 

Noteb 

25-9 

25-9 

19-6 


9-6 
9-1 
8-6 
6-5 

8-11 
8-9 
8-4 
6-5 
9-4 
9-1 
8-11 
6-10 
8-9 
8-6 
8-6 
6-5 


14-11 
13-3 
12-5 
9-5 
14-1 
12-11 
12-3 
9-5 
14-7 
14-4 
13-0 
10-1 
13-9 
12-5 
12-5 
9-5 


19-7 
16-10 
15-9 
11-11 
18-6 
16-5 
15-6 
11-11 
19-3 
18-10 
16-10 
12-10 
18-1 
15-9 
15-9 
11-11 


24-9 
20-7 
19-3 
14-6 
23-8 
20-0 
18-11 
14-6 
24-7 
22-4 
20-1 
15-2 
23-0 
19-3 
19-3 
14-6 


Noteb 

23-10 

22-4 

16-10 

Noteb 

23-3 

22-0 

16-10 

Noteb 

Noteb 

23-7 

18-1 

Noteb 

22-4 

22-4 

16-10 


19.2 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


8-11 
8-7 
8-5 
6-9 
8-5 
8-3 
7-10 
6-9 
8-9 
8-7 
8-5 
7-3 
8-3 
8-1 
8-1 
6-9 


14-0 
13-6 
13-1 
9-11 
13-3 
12-11 
12-4 
9-11 
13-9 
13-6 
13-3 
10-8 
12-11 
12-8 
12-8 
9-11 


18-5 
17-9 
16-7 
12-7 
17-5 
17-1 
16-3 
12-7 
18-1 
17-9 
17-5 
13-7 
17-1 
16-7 
16-7 
12-7 


23-7 
21-8 
20-3 
15-4 
22-3 
21-1 
20-0 
15-4 
23-1 
22-8 
21-2 
16-0 
21-9 
20-3 
20-3 
15-4 


Noteb 

25-2 

23-6 

17-9 

Noteb 

24-6 

23-2 

17-9 

Noteb 

Noteb 

24-10 

19-1 

Noteb 

23-6 

23-6 

17-9 


8-11 
8-4 
7-9 
5-10 
8-5 
8-1 
7-8 
5-10 
8-9 
8-7 
8-4 
6-3 
8-3 
7-9 
7-9 
5-10 


14-0 
12-2 
11-4 
8-7 
13-3 
11-10 
11-2 
8-7 
13-9 
13-6 
11-11 
9-3 
12-11 
11-4 
11-4 
8-7 


18-5 
15-4 
14-4 
10-10 
17-5 
15-0 
14-2 
10-10 
18-1 
17-2 
15-4 
11-9 
17-1 
14-4 
14-4 
10-10 


22-7 

18-9 

17-7 

13-3 

22-3 

18-4 

17-4 

13-3 

23-1 

20-5 

18-4 

13-10 

21-0 

17-7 

17-7 

13-3 


Noteb 
21-9 
20-4 
15-5 
25-9 
21-3 
20-1 
15-5 

Noteb 
24-4 
21-6 
16-6 
24-4 
20-4 
20-4 
15-5 



(continued) 



216 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(2) 



TABLE R802.5.1 (2)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 



SPECIES AND GRADE 



2x4 



DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 



2x6 



2x8 



2x10 



2x12 



DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 



2x4 



2x6 



2x8 



2x10 



(feet- 
Inches) 



(feet- 
inches) 



(feet - 
inches) 



Maximum rafter spans 3 



(feet - 
inches) 



(feet- 

inches) 



(feet- 
inches) 



(feet - 
inches) 



(feet- 
inches) 



(feet - 
inches) 



2x12 



(feet - 
inches) 



24 



Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Hem-fir 
Hem-fir 
Hem-fir 
Hem-fir 
Southern pine 
Southern pine 
Southern pine 
Southern pine 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 



SS 

#1 
#2 
#3 
SS 
#1 
#2 
#3 
SS 
#1 
#2 
#3 
SS 
#1 
#2 
#3 



8-3 
8-0 
7-10 
6-1 
7-10 
7-8 
7-3 
6-1 
8-1 
8-0 
7-10 
6-5 
7-8 
7-6 
7-6 
6-1 



13-0 
12-6 
11-9 
8-10 
12-3 
12-0 
11-5 
8-10 
12-9 
12-6 
12-3 
9-6 
12-0 
11-9 
11-9 
8-10 



17-2 
15-10 
14-10 
11-3 
16-2 
15-6 
14-8 
11-3 
16-10 
16-6 
15-10 
12-1 
15-10 
14-10 
14-10 
11-3 



21-10 
19-5 
18-2 
13-8 
20-8 
18-11 
17-10 
13-8 
21-6 
21-1 
18-11 
14-4 
20-2 
18-2 
18-2 
13-8 



Noteb 
22-6 
21-0 
15-11 
25-1 
21-11 
20-9 
15-11 
Noteb 
25-2 
22-2 
17-1 
24-7 
21-0 
21-0 
15-11 



8-3 
7-5 
6-11 
5-3 
7-10 
7-3 
6-10 
5-3 
8-1 
8-0 
7-5 
5-7 
7-8 
6-11 
6-11 
5-3 



13-0 
10-10 
10-2 
7-8 
12-3 
10-7 
10-0 
7-8 
12-9 
12-3 
10-8 
8-3 
12-0 
10-2 
10-2 
7-8 



16-7 

13-9 

12-10 

9-9 

16-2 

13-5 

12-8 

9-9 

16-10 

15-4 

13-9 

10-6 

15-4 

12-10 

12-10 

9-9 



20-3 
16-9 
15-8 
11-10 
19-10 
16-4 
15-6 
11-10 
21-6 
18-3 
16-5 
12-5 
18-9 
15-8 
15-8 
11-10 



23-5 
19-6 
18-3 
13-9 
23-0 
19-0 
17-11 
13-9 
Noteb 
21-9 
19-3 
14-9 
21-9 
18-3 
18-3 
13-9 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater thari 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attie space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



H cfln 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 and less 


1.00 



where: 



H r 



i c = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
H R = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls, 
b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



217 



TABLE R802.5.1(3) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(3) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-0 


15-9 


20-9 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-0 


15-9 


20-1 


24-6 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-8 


14-9 


18-8 


22-9 


Noteb 


9-0 


13-2 


16-8 


20-4 


23-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-5 


13-9 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-6 


14-10 


19-7 


25-0 


Noteb 


9-6 


14-10 


19-7 


24-1 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-3 


14-4 


18-2 


22-2 


25-9 


8-9 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 


23-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-10 


13-7 


17-2 


21-0 


24-4 


8-4 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-8 


15-2 


20-0 


24-9 


Noteb 


9-8 


14-10 


18-8 


22-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-6 


14-5 


18-8 


22-3 


Noteb 


9-0 


12-11 


16-8 


19-11 


23-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-7 


11-2 


14-3 


16-10 


20-0 


6-9 


10-0 


12-9 


15-1 


17-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-3 


14-7 


19-2 


24-6 


Noteb 


9-3 


14-7 


18-8 


22-9 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


23-9 


Noteb 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-3 


24-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-9 


12-9 


16-2 


19-9 


22-10 


7-10 


11-5 


14-5 


17-8 


20-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-2 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-7 


13-6 


17-1 


20-10 


24-2 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-5 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-3 


7-7 


11-1 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-0 


11-9 


14-11 


18-2 


21-1 


7-2 


10-6 


13-4 


16-3 


18-10 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


21-5 


25-7 


8-8 


12-10 


16-2 


19-2 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-7 


12-6 


16-2 


19-3 


22-7 


7-10 


11-2 


14-5 


17-3 


20-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


9-8 


12-4 


14-7 


17-4 


5-10 


8-8 


11-0 


13-0 


15-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-1 


25-7 


8-5 


12-9 


16-2 


19-9 


22-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-2 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-2 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-9 


21-8 


25-2 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-11 


11-8 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-5 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-9 


21-4 


24-8 


8-1 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-4 


10-9 


13-7 


16-7 


19-3 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-0 


25-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-3 


13-0 


16-6 


19-7 


23-4 


7-11 


11-9 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-11 


11-5 


14-9 


17-7 


20-7 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-0 


8-10 


11-3 


13-4 


15-10 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-11 


12-5 


16-5 


20-2 


23-4 


7-11 


11-8 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-5 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-5 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 



(continued) 



218 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER802.5.1(3) 



TABLE R802.5.1(3>— continued 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A : 



180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 

inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-11 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-8 


11-3 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 


24 


Hem-fir 


SS 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 


7-6 


11-0 


13-11 


17-0 


19-9 


Hera-fir 


#1 


6-11 


; 10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-0 


16-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 




Southern pine 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


19-8 


23-0 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-8 


11-9 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 


7-1 


10-6 


13-2 


15-8 


18-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-4 


9-2 


11-9 


14-1 


16-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-9 


7-1 


9-0 


10-8 


12-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-4 


11-7 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulatedirafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



of resisting the outward push of the rafters 
in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 



"c/Hr 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 and less 


1.00 



where: 



H c 



Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



b. Span exceeds) 26 feet in length. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



219 



TABLE R802.5.1(4) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(4) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 

inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-6 


22-4 


26-0 


8-5 


13-3 


17-0 


20-9 


24-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-2 


12-0 


15-3 


18-7 


21-7 


7-7 


11-2 


14-1 


17-3 


20-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-8 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Hern-fir 


SS 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


21-1 


25-6 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


20-4 


23-7 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-10 


11-9 


14-10 


18-1 


21-0 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-5 


11-1 


14-0 


17-2 


19-11 


7-0 


10-3 


13-0 


15-10 


18-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-4 


13-0 


17-2 


21-11 


Noteb 


8-4 


13-0 


17-2 


21-11 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-2 


12-10 


16-10 


20-3 


24-1 


8-2 


12-6 


15-9 


18-9 


22-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-0 


11-9 


15-3 


18-2 


21-3 


7-7 


10-11 


14-1 


16-10 


19-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


13-9 


16-4 


5-9 


8-5 


10-9 


12-9 


15-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


24-1 


7-10 


12-3 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-8 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-8 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


15-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


20-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-8 


12-1 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-8 


11-7 


14-8 


17-11 


20-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-7 


9-8 


12-2 


14-11 


17-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


19-1 


22-1 


7-3 


11-5 


14-5 


17-8 


20-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


24-3 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


23-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-5 


11-7 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 


7-4 


10-10 


13-8 


16-2 


19-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-7 


9-5 


12-2 


14-7 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-11 


7-4 


9-4 


11-0 


13-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-9 


13-8 


15-11 


19-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-3 


11-4 


14-6 


17-8 


20-6 


7-3 


10-7 


13-5 


16-5 


19-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-6 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-2 


17-5 


20-2 


6-10 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-4 


9-3 


11-9 


14-4 


16-7 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-0 


8-9 


11-1 


13-7 


15-9 


5-7 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18 7 


21-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-0 


10-8 


13-5 


16-0 


19-1 


6-8 


9-11 


12-5 


14-10 


17-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-6 


9-4 


12-0 


14-4 


16-10 


6-0 


8-8 


11-2 


13-4 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


10-10 


12-11 


4-6 


6-8 


8-6 


10-1 


12-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-8 


10-6 


13-5 


16-5 


19-1 


6-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-3 


17-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 



(continued) 



220 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE™ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(4) 



TABLE R802.5.1 (4)— continued 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 



180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 




DEAD LOAD = 


20 psf 




2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum rafter spans 8 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-8 


10- 


13-0 


15-10 


18-4 


6-6 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-4 


9-11 


12-9 


15-7 


18-0 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


17-5 


21-0 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


16-7 


19-5 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-5 


9-7 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-3 


15-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-10 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 


5-5 


7-9 


10-0 


11-11 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


11-7 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-0 


10-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-2 


: 9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulatedrafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



Hr/Hn 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 and less 


1.00 



where: 



Hr 



= Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
= Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



221 



TABLE R802.5.1(5) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(5) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 

inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


24-1 


Noteb 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


24-1 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-2 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-9 


13-2 


16-8 


20-4 


23-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-7 


13-6 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-2 


25-9 


8-5 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 


23-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-0 


12-7 


16-7 


21-0 


24-4 


8-0 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-2 


23-2 


Noteb 


8-9 


13-9 


18-2 


22-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-7 


12-11 


16-8 


19-11 


23-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-7 


11-2 


14-3 


16-10 


20-0 


6-9 


10-0 


12-9 


15-1 


17-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-3 


12-11 


17-0 


21-4 


24-8 


8-3 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-3 


12-11 


17-0 


21-4 


24-8 


8-3 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-3 


13-0 


17-2 


21-10 


Noteb 


8-3 


13-0 


17-2 


21-3 


24-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


16-2 


19-9 


22-10 


7-10 


11-5 


14-5 


17-8 


20-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-10 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


24-2 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-8 


12-0 


15-9 


19-3 


22-3 


7-7 


11-1 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-3 


11-5 


14-11 


18-2 


21-1 


7-2 


10-6 


13-4 


16-3 


18-10 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 


Noteb 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


21-1 


25-7 


8-0 


12-6 


16-2 


19-2 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


19-3 


22-7 


7-10 


11-2 


14-5 


17-3 


20-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


9-8 


12-4 


14-7 


17-4 


5-10 


8-8 


11-0 


13-0 


15-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


19-9 


22-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-6 


11-9 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-6 


11-9 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-9 


12-3 


16-1 


20-7 


25-0 


7-9 


12-3 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-6 


11-8 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-4 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-4 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


7-4 


11-7 


15-3 


19-1 


22-1 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-2 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-10 


10-9 


13-7 


16-7 


19-3 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-6 


11-9 


15-6 


19-7 


23-4 


7-6 


11-9 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-4 


11-5 


14-9 


17-7 


20-7 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-0 


8-10 


11-3 


13-4 


15-10 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-2 


11-4 


14-11 


19-0 


23-1 


7-2 


11-4 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-0 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-0 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 



(continued) 



222 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(5) 



TABLE R802.5.1 (5)— continued 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A : 



240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 

(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


12x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 




1 




Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


j(feet- 
linches) 


(feet- 
: inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 

inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 

inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-3 


:; 11-4; 


: 15-0 


19-1 


22-6 


7-3 


11-3 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-0 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


■ 7-4 : 


■ 9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


6-10 


10-9 


13-11 


17-0 


19-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-8 


10-2 


. 12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-0 


16-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-4 


i 9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


, 7-4 ; 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 


Southern; pine 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern: pine 


#1 


7-0 


; 10-11 


14-5 


17-6 


20-11 


7-0 


10-6 


13-2 


15-8 


18-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-10 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-4 


9-2 


11-9 


14-1 


16-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-9 


7-1 


9-0 


10-8 


12-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-8 


i 10-6' 


13-10 


17-8 


20-11 


6-8 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-6 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-6 


9-9 


, 12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


; 7-4 


9-4 


ill-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that someother method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



»d»R 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 arid less 


1.00 



where: H c = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



H„ 



Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



223 



TABLER802.5.1(6) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER802.5.1(6) 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A : 



240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
i riches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feel - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-8 


12-1 


15-11 


20-3 


24-8 


7-8 


12-1 


15-11 


20-3 


24-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-5 


11-7 


15-3 


18-7 


21-7 


7-5 


11-2 


14-1 


17-3 


20-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-3 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


.12-2 


14-1 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


19-2 


23-4 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


19-2 


23-4 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-1 


21-0 


7-1 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-9 


10-8 


14-0 


17-2 


19-11 


6-9 


10-3 


13-0 


15-10 


18-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


■ 12-2 


14-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


24-3 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


24-3 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-5 


11-7 


15-4 


19-7 


23-9 


7-5 


11-7 


15-4 


18-9 


22-4 




Southern pine 
Southern pine 


#2 
#3 


7-3 
6-2 


11-5 
9-2 


15-0 
11-8 


18-2 
13-9 


21-3 
16-4 


7-3 
5-9 


10-11 
8-5 


14-1 
10-9 


16-10 
12-9 


19-9 
15-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 
#2 
#3 


6-11 
6-11 
5-10 


10-11 

10-11 

8-6 


14-3 
14-3 
10-9 


17-5 
17-5 

13-2 


20-2 
20-2 
15-3 


6-11 
6-11 

5-5 


10-5 
10-5 
7-10 


13-2 
13-2 
10-0 


16-1 
16-1 

12-2 


18-8 
18-8 
14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-0 


11-0 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


7-0 


11-0 


14-5 


17-11 


20-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-9 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-7 


9-8 


12-2 


14-11 


17-3 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


#2 
#3 


6-7 
5-0 


9-9 

7-4 


12-4 
9-4 


15-1 
11-5 


17-6 
13-2 


6-2 
4-8 


9-0 
6-10 


11-5 
8-8 


13-11 
10-6 


16-2 
12-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


17-5 


21-2 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


17-5 


20-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-5 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-2 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 


Southern pine 
Southern pine 


SS 
#1 


6-10 
6-9 


10-9 

10-7 


14-2 
13-11 


18-1 
17-6 


22-0 
20-11 


6-10 
6-9 


10-9 
10-7 


14-2 
13-8 


18-1 

16-2 


22-0 
19-4 




Southern pine 
Southern pine 


#2 

#3 


6-7 
5-4 


10-2 
7-11 


13-2 
10-1 


15-9 

11-11 


18-5 
14-2 


6-7 
4-11 


9-5 

7-4 


12-2 
9-4 


14-7 
11-0 


17-1 
13-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 

#1 
#2 
#3 


6-5 

6-4 
6-4 
5-0 


10-2 
9-9 
9-9 

7-4 


13-4 
12-4 
12-4 
9-4 


17-0 

15-1 
15-1 
11-5 


20-9 
17-6 
17-6 

13-2 


6-5 

6-2 
6-2 

4-8 


10-2 
9-0 
9-0 
6-10 


13-4 
11-5 
11-5 
8-8 


16-8 
13-11 
13-11 
10-6 


19-4 
16-2 
16-2 
12-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-7 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


20-6 


6-7 


10-4 


13-5 


16-5 


19-0 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


#1 
#2 


6-4 
6-1 


9-6 
8-11 


12-0 
11-3 


14-8 
13-9 


17-1 
15-11 


6-0 

5-7 


8-10 
8-3 


11-2 
10-5 


13-7 
12-9 


15-9 
14-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


6-2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-1 


18-8 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-1 


9-3 


11-9 


14-4 


16-7 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-9 


8-9 


11-1 


13-7 


15-9 


5-7 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 


Southern pine 
Southern pine 


SS 
#1 


6-5 
6-4 


10-2 
9-11 


13-4 
13-1 


17-0 
16-0 


20-9 
19-1 


6-5 
6-4 


10-2 
9-11 


13-4 
12-5 


17-0 
14-10 


20-9 
17-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-2 


9-4 


12-0 


14-4 


16-10 


6-0 


8-8 


11-2 


13-4 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


10-10 


12-11 


4-6 


6-8 


8-6 


10-1 


12-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 

Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 
#1 
#2 
#3 


6-1 

5-11 
5-11 

4-7 


9-6 
8-11 
8-11 
6-9 


12-7 

11-3 

11-3 

8-6 


16-0 
13-9 
13-9 
10-5 


19-1 
15-11 
15-11 

12-1 


6-1 

5-7 
5-7 
4-3 


9-6 
8-3 
8-3 
6-3 


12-5 
10-5 
10-5 
7-11 


15-3 
12-9 
12-9 
9-7 


17-8 
14-9 
14-9 
11-2 



(continued) 



224 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(6) 



TABLE R802.5.1 (6)— continued 
RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A : 



240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2;x 10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


!: 


j ; 




Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
Inches) 


(feet - :■ 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 

inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 

inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-1 


, 1 9-7 


12-7 


15-10 


18-4 


6-1 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


#1 
#2 


5-10 
5-5 


i 8-6 
7-11 


10-9 
10-1 


13-2 

12-4 


15-3 
14-3 


5-5 
5-0 


7-10 

7-4 


10-0 

9-4 


.12-2 
11-5 


14-1 
13-2 




Douglas fir-larch 
Herri-fir 


#3 
SS 


4-1 
5-9 


6-0 
, 9-1 


7-7 
11-11 


9-4 
15-2 


10-9 
18-0 


3-10 
5-9 


5-7 
9-1 


7-1 
11-9 


8-7 
.14-5 


10-0 
15-11 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 


Southern pine 
Southern pine 


SS 

#1 


6-0 
5-10 


9-5 
9-3 


12-5 
12-0 


15-10 
14-4 


19-3 
17-1 


6-0 
5-10 


9-5 
8-10 


12-5 
11-2 


15-10 
13-3 


19-3 
15-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-9 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 


5-5 


7-9 


10-0 


11-11 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


11-7 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-0 


10-8 




Spnice-pine-fir 
Spnice-pine-fir 


SS 

#1 


5-8 
5-5 


8-10 

•7-11 


11-8 
10-1 


14-8 

12-4 


17-1 
14-3 


5-8 
5-0 


8-10 
7-4 


11-2 
9-4 


•13-7 
11-5 


15-9 
13-2 




Spnice-pine-fir 
Spnice-pine-fir 


#2 
#3 


5-5 
4-1 


7-11 
6-0 


10-1 

7-7 


12-4 
9-4 


14-3 
10-9 


5-0 
3-10 


7-4 

5-7 


9-4 
7-1 


11-5 
8-7 


13-2 
10-0 



m 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than; 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25 .4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/rn 2 . 

a. The tabulatedjrafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties; is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



the outward push of the rafters 
space, the rafter spans shall be 



HoM R 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 and less 


1.00 



where: 



H c - Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
H R = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE™ 



225 



TABLE R802.5.1(7) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(7) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD 

(Ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(Inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2 x 10 


2x12 


Maximum Rafter Spans 9 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 

inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


SS 

#1 


7-7 

7-1 


11-10 
10-5 


15-8 
13-2 


19-5 
16-1 


22-6 
18-8 


7-7 
6-8 


11-10 
9-10 


15-0 
12-5 


18-3 

15-2 


21-2 
17-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-2 


11-3 


14-9 


18-10 


22-1 


7-2 


11-3 


14-8 


18-0 


20-10 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-6 


9-7 


12-1 


14-10 


17-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-2 


9-1 


11-5 


14-0 


16-3 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 


Southern pine 
Southern pine 


SS 

#1 


7-5 
7-3 


11-8 
11-5 


15-4 
14-9 


19-7 
17-6 


23-10 
20-11 


7-5 
7-3 


11-8 
11-1 


15-4 
13-11 


19-7 
16-6 


23-10 
19-8 




Southern pine 
Southern pine 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 
#3 
SS 
#1 


7-1 
5-4 
7-0 
6-8 


10-2 
7-11 
11-0 
9-9 


13-2 
10-1 
14-6 
12-4 


15-9 
11-11 
18-0 
15-1 


18-5 

14-2 

20-11 

17-6 


6-8 
5-1 
7-0 
6-3 


9-7 
7-5 
11-0 
9-2 


12-5 

9-6 

13-11 

11-8 


14-10 
11-3 
17-0 

14-2 


17-5 
13-4 
19-8 
16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


SS 

#1 
#2 


6-10 
6-2 
5-9 


10-9 

9-0 
8-5 


13-9 
11-5 
10-8 


16-10 

13-11 
13-1 


19-6 
16-2 
15-2 


6-10 

5-10 

5-5 


10-3 
8-6 
7-11 


13-0 
10-9 
10-1 


15-10 
13-2 

12-4 


. 18-4 
15-3 
14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-6 


10-2 


13-5 


16-6 


19-2 


6-6 


10-1 


12-9 


15-7 


18-0 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-0 


8-9 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-8 


8-4 


10-6 


12-10 


14-11 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-8 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-0 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-7 


10-2 


12-9 


15-2 


18-1 


6-5 


9-7 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-2 


8-10 


11-5 


13-7 


16-0 


5-10 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 




Southern pine 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 
SS 


4-8 
6-4 


6-10 
10-0 


8-9 
12-9 


10-4 

15-7 


12-3 
18-1 


4-4 
6-4 


6-5 
9-6 


8-3 
12-0 


9-9 

14-8 


11-7 
17-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-9 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 
#3 


5-9 

4-4 


8-5 
6-4 


10-8 
8-1 


13-1 
9-10 


15-2 
11-5 


5-5 
4-1 


7-11 
6-0 


10-1 

7-7 


12-4 
9-4 


14-3 
10-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-5 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


6-5 


9-4 


11-10 


14-5 


16-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-4 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


13-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11.-3 


13-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-1 


9-7 


12-4 


15-1 


17-4 


6-1 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-6 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-5 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-8 


13-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-9 


13-7 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


'll-l 


12-10 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


' 8-6 


9-10 


Southern pine 
Southern pine 


SS 

#1 


6-4 
6-3 


10-0 
9-3 


13-2 
11-8 


16-9 
13-10 


20-4 
16-6 


6-4 
5-11 


10-0 
8-9 


13-2 
11-0 


16-5 
13-1 


19-2 
15-7 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-7 


8-1 


10-5 


12-5 


14-7 


5-4 


7-7 


9-10 


11-9 


13-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-3 


6-3 


8-0 


9-5 


11-2 


4-0 


5-11 


7-6 


8-10 


10-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 
#1 

#2 
#3 


6-0 
5-3 
5-3 
4-0 


9-2 
7-8 
7-8 
5-10 


11-8 
9-9 
9-9 

7-4 


14-3 

11-11 

11-11 

9-0 


16-6 
13-10 
13-10 
10-5 


5-11 
5-0 
5-0 
3-9 


8-8 
7-3 

7-3 
5-6 


11-0 
9-2 
9-2 
6-11 


13-5 
11-3 
11-3 
8-6 . 


15-7 
13-0 
13-0 
9-10 



(continued) 



226 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(7) 



TABLE R802.5.1(7)-4continued 
RAFTER SfANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD 









(Ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 












RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


i 2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


• 


Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) . 


i (feet- 
{ inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-0 


.. 8-10 


: 11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-9 


8-4 


10-7 


12-11 


15-0 




Dojuglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-0 


; 7-4: 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 ■ 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


3-7 


, 5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-8 


8-8 


. 11-0 


13-6 


13-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-4 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


#1 


4-11 


' ' 7-2': 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


4-7 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


4-8 . 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 . 


4-4 


6-5 


8-1 


9-11 


11-6 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


5-11 


, 9-3 


12-2 


15-7 


18-2 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-5 


14-9 


5-3 


7-10 


9-10 


11-8 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-0 


7-3' 


9-4 


11-1 


13-0 


4-9 


6-10 


8-9 


10-6 


12-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


3-9 


5-7 


7-1 


< 8-5 


10-0 


3-7 


5-3 


6-9 


7-11 


9-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 

#1 

#2 
#3 


5-6 . 
4-8 
4-8 
3-7 


8-3 
6-11 
6-11 

5-2 


10-5 
8-9 
8-9 
6-7 


12-9 
10-8 

il0-8 
: 8-1 


14-9 
12-4 
12-4 
9-4 


5-4 
4-5 
4-5 
3-4 . 


7-9 
6-6 
6-6 

4-11 


9-10 

8-3 
8-3 
6-3 


12-0 
10-0 
10-0 
7-7 ; 


12-11 
11-8 
11-8 
8-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that'cei ling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



; the outward push of the rafters 
space, the rafter spans shall be 



HaM„ 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 arid less 


1.00 



where: 



H r 



Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



• 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



227 



TABLER802.5.1(8) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER802.5.1(8) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD 

(Ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-3 


18-2 


22-1 


6-10 


10-9 


14-3 


18-2 


21-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-7 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-7 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-6 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-6 


10-2 


13-5 


17-2 


20-10 


6-6 


10-2 


13-5 


17-2 


20-10 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-4 


10-0 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-4 


9-7 


12-1 


14-10 


17-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-1 


9-6 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-1 


9-1 


11-5 


14-0 


16-3 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-8 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-8 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-7 


10-5 


13-8 


17-6 


20-11 


6-7 


10-5 


13-8 


16-6 


19-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-6 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-6 


9-7 


12-5 


14-10 


17-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


5-1 


7-5 


9-6 


11-3 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-4 


10-0 


13-2 


16-9 


20-5 


6-4 


10-0 


13-2 


16-9 


19-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-2 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-2 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 , 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-3 


9-10 


12-11 


16-6 


19-6 


6-3 


9-10 


12-11 


15-10 


18-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-0 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-9 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


15-7 


18-11 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


15-7 


18-0 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-9 


8-9 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-6 


8-4 


10-6 


12-10 


14-11 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-1 


9-7 


12-8 


16-2 


19-8 


6-1 


9-7 


12-8 


16-2 


19-8 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-0 


9-5 


12-5 


15-2 


18-1 


6-0 


9-5 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-11 


8-10 


11-5 


13-7 


16-0 


5-10 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-8 


6-10 


8-9 


10-4 


12-3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


U-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-3 


18-1 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


14-8 


17-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-8 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-8 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


5-10 


9-3 


12-2 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


9-3 


11-10 


14-5 


16-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-4 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


13-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-6 


8-8 


11-6 


14-8 


17-4 


5-6 


8-8 


11-6 


14-2 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-5 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-5 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-8 


13-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-9 


13-7 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-3 


18-6 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-3 


18-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-8 


8-11 


11-8 


13-10 


16-6 


5-8 


8-9 


11-0 


13-1 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-5 


12-5 


14-7 


5-4 


7-7 


9-10 


11-9 


13-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-3 


6-3 


8-0 


9-5 


11-2 


4-0 


5-11 


7-6 


8-10 


10-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-5 


8-6 


11-3 


14-3 


16-6 


5-5 


8-6 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 



(continued) 



228 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(8) 



TABLE R802.5.1 (8)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD a 

(Ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 

(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


5-5 


8-7 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-5 


8-4 


10-7 


12-11 


15-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-2 


8-1 


10-8 


13-6 


13-11 


5-2 


8-1 


10-5 


12-4 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


#1 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


4-7 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


4-8 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 


4-4 


6-5 


8-1 


9-11 


11-6 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


5-4 


8-5 


11-1 


14-2 


17-2 


5-4 


8-5 


11-1 


14-2 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-3 


8-3 


10-5 


12-5 


14-9 


5-3 


7-10 


9-10 


11-8 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-0 


7-3 


9-4 


11-1 


13-0 


4-9 


6-10 


8-9 


10-6 


12-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


3-9 


5-7 


7-1 


8-5 


10-0 


3-7 


5-3 


6-9 


7-11 


9-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-0 


7-11 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


12-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



«rvWfl 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


2/3 or greater 


0.50 


1/2 


0.58 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 and less 


1.00 



where: 






Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



229 



TABLER8Q2.5.1(9) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R802.S.1(9) 
RAFTER/CEILING JOIST HEEL JOINT CONNECTIONS a,bctW 








RAFTER 
SLOPE 


RAFTER 
SPACING 

(inches) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) 


30 


50 


70 


Roof span (feet) 


12 


20 


28 


36 


12 


20 


28 


36 


12 


20 


28 


36 


Required number of 16d common nails a ' b per heel joint splices c ' d ' e,f 


3:12 


12 
16 

24 


4 

5 

7 


6 

8 
11 


8 
11 
16 


11 

14 
21 


5 
6 
9 


8 
11 
16 


12 
15 
23 


15 
20 
30 


6 
8 
12 


11 
14 
21 


15 
20 
30 


20 
26 
39 


4:12 


12 
16 
24 


3 
4 
5 


5 
6 
9 


6 

8 
12 


8 
11 
16 


4 
5 
7 


6 

8 
12 


9 

12 
17 


11 
15 
22 


5 
6 
9 


8 
11 
16 


12 
15 
23 


15 
20 
29 


5:12 


12 
16 

24 


3 
3 

4 


4 
5 
7 


5 
7 
10 


7 
9 
13 


3 
4 
6 


5 
7 
10 


7 
9 

14 


9 

12 
18 


4 
5 

7 


7 
9 

13 


•9 
12 
18 


12 
16 

23 


7:12 


12 
16 

24 


3 
3 
3 


3 
4 
5 


4 
5 
7 


5 
6 
9 


3 
3 
4 


4 
5 
7 


5 
7 
10 


7 
9 
13 


3 
4 
5 


5 
6 
9 


7 
9 
13 


9 
11 
17 


9:12 


12 
16 

24 


3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
4 


3 
4 
6 


4 

5 
7 


3 
3 
3 


3 
4 
6 


4 
5 
8 


5 
7 
10 


3 
3 
4 


4 

5 
7 


5 
7 
10 


7 
9 
13 


12:12 


12 
16 
24 


3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
4 


3 
4 
6 


3 
3 

3 


3 
3 
4 


3 
4 
6 


4 
5 
8 


3 
3 
3 


3 

4 
6 


4 
5 
8 


5 
7 
10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. 40d box nails shall be permitted to be substituted for 16d common nails. 

b Nailing requirements shall be permitted to be reduced 25 percent if nails are clinched. 

c. Heel joint connections are not required when the ridge is supported by a load-bearing wall, header or ridge beam. 

d. When intermediate support of the rafter is provided by vertical struts or purlins to a loadbearing wall , the tabulated heel joint connection requirements shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced proportionally to the reduction in span. 

e. Equivalent nailing patterns are required for ceiling joist to ceiling joist lap splices. 

f . When rafter ties are substituted for ceiling joists, the heel joint connection requirement shall be taken as the tabulated heel joint connection requirement for two- 
thirds of the actual rafter-slope. 



230 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R802.5.1 -TABLE R803.1 



RAFTER SPAN- 
SEE TABLES R802.5.1(1) 
THROUGH R802. 5.1 (8) 



RIDGE BOARD 



TOP PLATE ' 




NAIL TO JOIST 




s 



.BEARING _ 
PARTITIONS 



CEILING JOIST- 
SEE TABLES R802.4(1) 
AND R802,4(2) 



^ 



SUBFLOOR 



FOUNDATION 



; : ;v 



BEARING WALL 



GIRDER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.018 rad. 

NOTE: Where ceiling joints run perpendicular to the rafters, rafter ties shall be nailed to the rafter near the plate line and spaced not more than 4 feet on center. 

FIGURE R802.5.1 
BRACED RAFTER CONSTRUCTION 



R802.10.2 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice. The design and 
manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall 
comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall 
be prepared by a registered professional where required by 
the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be 
constructed in accordance with Section R 106.1. 

R802.10.3 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rota- 
tion and provide lateral stability in accordance with the re- 
quirements specified in the construction documents for the 
building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the 
absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be 
braced in accordance with TPI/HIB. 

R802.10;4 Alterations to trusses. Truss members shall not 
be cut, notched, drilled, spliced or otherwise altered in any 
way without the approval of a registered design profes- 
sional. Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g., 
HVAC equipment, water heater) that exceeds the design 
load for the trass shall not be permitted without verification 
that the truss is capable of supporting such additional load- 
ing. 

R802.ll Roof tie-down. Roof assemblies subject to wind up- 
lift pressures of 20 pounds per square foot (0.958 kN/m 2 ) or 
greater, as established in Table R301.2(2), adjusted for height 
and exposure per Table R301 .2(3), shall have rafter or truss ties 
provided at bearing locations in accordance with Table 
R802.1 1. A continuous load path shall be provided to transmit 



the uplift forces from the rafter or truss ties to the foundation. 
Wind uplift pressure on roof assemblies shall be determined 
using an effective wind area of 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) and 
Zone 1 in Table R30 1.2(2). 



SECTION R803 
ROOF SHEATHING 

R803.1 Lumber sheathing. Allowable spans for lumber used 
as roof sheathing shall conform to Table R803 . 1 . Spaced lum- 
ber sheathing for wood shingle and shake roofing shall con- 
form to the requirements of Sections R905.7 and R905.8. 
Spaced lumber sheathing is not allowed in Seismic Design Cat- 
egory D 2 . 

TABLE R803.1 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER ROOF SHEATHING 



RAFTER OR BEAM SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM NET THICKNESS 
(inches) 


24 


% 


48 a 


l'/ 2 T&G 


60 b 


72 c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Minimum 270 F b , 340,000 E. 

b. Minimum 420 F b , 660,000 E. 

c. Minimum 600 F b , 1,150,000 E. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODEd 



231 



TABLE R802.11 - R804.2.1 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.11 
REQUIRED STRENGTH OF TRUSS OR RAFTER TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS TO RESIST WIND UPLIFT FORCES a ' bcd 

(Pounds per tie-down connection) 



DESIGN WIND LOAD (psf) d 


TOTAL ROOF WIDTH INCLUDING OVERHANG (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


20 


192 


224 


256 


288 


320 


30 


432 


504 


576 


648 


720 


40 


672 


784 


895 


1,008 


1,120 


50 


912 


1,064 


1,216 


1,368 


1,520 


60 


1,152 


1,344 


1,536 


1,728 


1,920 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. Wind uplift forces are based on 24-inch spacing of roof trusses or rafters. For spacing other than 24 inches, forces shall be adjusted accordingly. 

b. Interpolation is permitted for intermediate values of wind uplift pressures and roof widths. 

c. The rated capacity of approved tie-down devices is permitted to include up to a 60-percent increase for wind effects where allowed by material specifications. 

d. Figure R301.2(4) and Table R301.2(2) shall be used in determining the design wind load. 



R803.2 Wood structural panel sheathing. 



3.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural pan- 
els shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manu- 
factured in Canada, CSA 0437, and shall be identified by 
grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an ap- 
proved agency. Wood structural panels shall comply with 
the grades specified in Table R503.2. 1.1(1). 



'.2.1.1 Exposure durability. All wood structural 
panels, when designed to be permanently exposed in out- 
door applications, shall be of an exterior exposure dura- 
bility. Wood structural panel roof sheathing exposed to 
the underside may be of interior type bonded with exte- 
rior glue, identified as Exposure 1. 

R803.2.1.2 Fire-retardant-treated plywood. The al- 
lowable unit stresses for fire-retardant-treated plywood, 
including fastener values, shall be developed from an ap- 
proved method of investigation that considers the effects 
of anticipated temperature and humidity to which the 
fire-retardant-treated plywood will be subjected, the type 
of treatment and redrying process. The fire-retardant- 
treated plywood shall be graded by an approved agency. 

R803.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable spans 
for wood structural panel roof sheathing shall not exceed the 
values set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(l). 

R803.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panel used as roof 
sheathing shall be installed with joints staggered or 
nonstaggered in accordance with Table R602.3(l), or EWA 
E30 for wood roof framing or with Table R804.3 for steel 
roof framing. 



SECTION R804 
STEEL ROOF FRAMING 

R804.1 General. Elements shall be straight and free of any de- 
fects that would significantly affect their structural perfor- 
mance. Cold- formed steel roof framing members shall comply 
with the requirements of this section. 

R804.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of steel roof framing for 



buildings not greater than 60 feet ( 1 8 288 mm) in length per- 
pendicular to the joist, rafter or truss span, not greater than 
36 feet (10 973 mm) in width parallel to the joist span or 
truss, not greater than two stories in height with each story 
not greater than 1 feet (3048 mm) high, and roof slopes not 
smaller than 3:12 (25-percent slope) or greater than 12:12 
(100-percent slope). Steel roof framing constructed in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited 
to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 130 
miles per hour (209 km/h) Exposure A, B or C and a maxi- 
mum ground snow load of 70 psf (3.35 kN/m 2 ). 

R804.1.2 In-line framing. Steel roof framing constructed 
in accordance with Section R804 shall be located directly 
in-line with load-bearing studs below with a maximum tol- 
erance of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) between the centerline of the 
stud and roof joist/rafter. 

R804.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing steel roof framing 
members shall comply with Figure R804.2(l) and the dimen- 
sional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Ta- 
bles R804.2(l) and R804.2(2). Tracks shall comply with 
Figure R804.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 
1 V 4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for load- 
bearing members shall be the greater of 3 / 32 inch (2.4 mm) or 
twice the uncoated steel thickness. Holes in roof framing mem- 
bers shall not exceed 1.5 inches (38 mm) in width or 4 inches 
(102 mm) in length as shown in Figure R804.2(3). Holes shall 
be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing 
member. Holes shall not be less than 24 inches (610 mm) cen- 
ter-to-center and shall not be located less than 10 inches (254 
mm) from the edge of the hole to the edge of the bearing surface 
or support unless patched in accordance with Section R804.3 .6. 

R804.2.1 Material. Load-bearing steel framing members 
shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet 
steel complying with the requirements of one of the following: 

1. ASTM A 653; Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 
(Classes 1 and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792; Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 875; Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 
(Classes 1 and 3). 



232 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.2(1)- FIGURE R804.2(3) 



TABLE R804.2(1) 
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBER SIZES 



NOMINAL MEMBER SIZE 
MEMBER DESIGNATION 3 


WEB DEPTH 

(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


350S162-1 


3.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


550S162-1 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


800S162-1 


8 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


1000S162-t 


10 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


1200S162-t 


12 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in '/ ]( )oincL., _ „ r ._. 

number representing the flange width in '/| 00 inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum 

R804.2(2)]. 



inch, the letter "s" representing a stud or joist member, the second 
,™™iir, n tv,o r^;.,;™,,™ base metal thickness in mils [see Table 



TABLE R804.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL ROOF FRAMING MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION (mils) 


MINIMUM UNCOATED THICKNESS (inches) 


REFERENCED GAGE NUMBER 


33 


0.033 


20 


43 


0.043 


18 


54 


0.054 


16 


68 


0.068 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO OUTSIDE) 





SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R804.2(1) 
C-SECTION 



FIGURE R804.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 









* 


24 IN 


MIN. — ► 




t 10 IN. MIN. ► 


















" 






















^ 


r~i 


> 


' 




^ ) 


\ 


L_ 






































5 IN 








BEARING CONDITION^ 




MAX. 


4 IN. 


MAX 





FIGURE R804.2(3) 
WEB HOLES 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



233 



R804.2.2 - R804.3.1 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



4. Steels that comply with ASTM A 653, except for ten- 
sile and elongation, shall be permitted provided the 
ratio of tensile strength to yield point is at least 1.08 
and the total elongation is at least 10 percent for a 2- 
inch (51 mm) gage length or 7 percent for an 8-inch 
(203 mm) gage length. 

R804.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing steel framing mem- 
bers shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment 
with the following information as a minimum: 

1 . Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum uncoated steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi). 

R804.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing shall have a metallic coating complying with one of the 
following: 

1 . A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653 . 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with 
ASTM A 792. 

3. A minimum of GF 60 in accordance with 
ASTM A 875. 



.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- 
steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of V 2 inch (12.7 mm), 
shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to SAE J78. 
Structural sheathing shall be attached to roof rafters with 
minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to 
SAE J78. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to steel 
roof framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 
inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed 
with a minimum edge distance of 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum 
board ceilings shall be attached to steel joists with minimum 
No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 and shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Section R805. For all connec- 
tions, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of 
three exposed threads. All self-drilling tapping screws con- 



forming to SAE J78 shall have a minimum Type II coating in 
accordance with ASTM B 633. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel con- 
nection, the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 
factors in Table R804.2.4 when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 
that 33 mils (0.83 mm). When applying the reduction factor, 
the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 

TABLE R804.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R804.3 Roof construction. Steel roof systems constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section shall consist of 
both ceiling joists and rafters in accordance with Figure R804.3 
and fastened in accordance with Table R804.3. 

R804.3.1 Allowable ceiling joist spans. The clear span of 
cold-formed steel ceiling joists shall not exceed the limits 
set forth in Table R804.3.1(l) or R804.3.1(2). Ceiling joists 
shall have a minimum bearing length of 1 .5 inches (38 mm) 
and shall be connected to rafters (heel joint) in accordance 
with Figure R804.3.1(l) and Table R804.3.1(3). When con- 
tinuous joists are framed across interior bearing supports, 
the interior bearing supports shall be located within 24 
inches (610 mm) of midspan of the ceiling joist , and the in- 
dividual spans shall not exceed the applicable spans in Table 
R804.3.1(l) or R804.3.1(2). Where required in Table 
R804.3.1(l) or R804.3.1(2), bearing stiffeners shall be in- 
stalled at each bearing location in accordance with Section 
R804.3.8 and Figure R804.3.8. When the attic is to be used 
as an occupied space, the ceiling joists shall be designed in 
accordance with Section R505. 



TABLE R804.3 
ROOF FRAMING FASTENING SCHEDULE 3 '" 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Ceiling joist to top track of load-bearing wall 


2 No. 10 screws 


Each joist 


Roof sheathing (oriented strand board or plywood) 
to rafters 


No. 8 screws 


6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at interior supports. 
6" o.c. at gable end truss 


Truss to bearing wall a 


2 No. 10 screws 


Each truss 


Gable end truss to endwall top track 


No. 10 screws 


12" o.c. 


Rafter to ceiling joist 


Minimum No. 10 screws, per Table 

R804.3.1(3) 


Evenly spaced, less than V 2 " from all edges. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. Screws shall be applied through the flanges of the truss or ceiling joist or a 54 mil clip angle shall be used with two No. 10 screws in each leg. See Section R804.4 
for additional requirements to resist uplift forces. 

b. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and at all roof plane perimeters. Blocking of roof sheath- 
ing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members shall not be required except at the intersection of adjacent roof planes . Roof perimeter shall be supported by 
framing members or cold-formed blocking of the same depth and gauge as the floor members. 



234 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE™ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R804.3 - R804.3.3.1 



C-SECTION OR TRACK INSTALLED 
AT 4 FT. O.C. TO RAFTER SUPPORT 
BRACE 



RAFTER BOTTOM FLANGE BRACING 
(FLAT STRAP, 350S1 62-33 MIL 
C-SECTION, OR TRACK SECTION) 



RAFTER SPAN WITHOUT RAFTER. 
SUPPORT BRACE 



RAFTER SPAN 
WITH RAFTER 



SUPPORT BRACE 



RAFTER BOTTOM FLANGE BRACING 
(FLAT STRAP, 350S1 62-33 MIL 
C-SECTION, OR TRACK SECTION) 



V 2 IN. GYPSUM ' 
BOARD 



LOAD-BEARING ' 
WALL 




I 

I 

U- 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



WHEN INSTALLED, RAFTER 
SUPPORT BRACE SHALL BE A 
MINIMUM OF 350S1 62-33 MIL 
C-SECTION, CONNECTED TO EACH 
CEIUNG JOIST AND RAFTER WITH 
4 SCREWS AT EACH END (COPE 
FLANGES OF BRACE AT CEILING 
JOIST CONNECTION OR USE 
GUSSET PLATE) 



-U- 



LOAD-BEARING WALL 
SHALL BE INSTALLED WHEN 
RAFTER BRACE IS USED 



Jl 



- CANTILEVER 
2 FT. MAX. 



- LOAD-BEARING 
WALL 



FIGURE R804.3 
STEEL ROOF CONSTRUCTION 



M804.3.2 Ceiling joist bracing. The bottom flanges of 
steel ceiling joists shall be laterally braced in accordance 
with Section R702. The top flanges of steel ceiling joists 
shall be laterally braced with a minimum of 33 mil (0.84 
mm) C-section, 33 mil (0.84 mm) track section, or 1 '/ 2 inch 
by 33 mil (38 mm by 0.84 mm) continuous steel strapping 
as required in Table R804.3.1(l) or R804.3.1(2). Lateral 
bracing shall be installed in accordance with Figure 
R804.3. C-section, tracks or straps shall be fastened to the 
top flange at each joist with at least one No. 8 screw and 
shall be fastened to blocking with at least two No. 8 screws. 
Blocking or bridging (X-bracing) shall be installed be- 
tween joists in-line with strap bracing at a maximum spac- 
ing of 12 feet (3658 mm) measured perpendicular to the 
joists, and at the termination of all straps. The third point 
bracing span values from Table R804.3.1(l) or 
R804.3.1(2) shall be used for straps installed at closer 
spacings than third point bracing, or when sheathing is ap- 
plied to the top of the ceiling joists. 



1.3.3 Allowable rafter spans. The horizontal pro- 
jection of the rafter span, as shown in Figure R804.3, shall 
not exceed the limits set forth in Table R804.3J( 1), Wind 
speeds shall be converted to equivalent ground snow 



loads in accordance with Table R804.3.3(2). Rafter spans 
shall be selected based on the higher of the ground snow 
load or the equivalent snow load converted from the wind 
speed. When required, a rafter support brace shall be a 
minimum of 350S 162-33 C-section with maximum 
length of 8 feet (2438 mm) and shall be connected to a 
ceiling joist and rafter with four No. 10 screws at each 
end. 

R804.3.3.1 Rafter framing. Rafters shall be connected 

to a parallel ceiling joist to form a continuous tie be- 
tween exterior walls in accordance with Figures R804.3 
and R804.3.1(l) and Table R804.3.1(3). Rafters shall 
be connected to a ridge member with a minimum 2-inch 
by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) clip angle fastened with 
minimum No. 10 screws to the ridge member in accor- 
dance with Figure R804.3.3.1 and Table R804.3.3.1. 
The clip angle shall have a minimum steel thickness as 
the rafter member and shall extend the full depth of the 
rafter member. The ridge member shall be fabricated 
from a C-section and a track section, which shall be of a 
minimum size and steel thickness as the adjacent rafters 
and shall be installed in accordance with Figure 
R804.3.3.1. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



235 



TABLE R804.3.1(1) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.3.1(1) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL CEILING JOISTS abc 10 psf live load (no attic storage) 


NOMINAL JOIST 
SIZE 


LATERAL SUPPORT OF TOP (COMPRESSION) FLANGE 


Unbraced 


Mid-span bracing 


Third-point bracing 


Spacing 
(inches) 


Spacing 
(inches) 


Spacing 
(inches) 


16 


24 


16 


24 


16 


24 


350S162-33 


9'-2" 


8'-3" 


ll'-9" 


10'- 1" 


ll'-9" 


10'-4" 


350S 162-43 


9'- 11" 


8'- 10" 


12'-10" 


11 '-2" 


12'- 10" 


ll'-2" 


350S 162-54 


10'-8" 


9'-6" 


13'-9" 


12'-0" 


13'-9" 


12'-0" 


350S162-68 


11 '-!" 


10'-4" 


14'-8" 


12'- 10" 


14'-8" 


12'-10" 


550S 162-33 


10'-5" 


9'-5" 


14'-5" 


12'-8" c 


16'-4" 


13'-10" c 


550S 162-43 


ll'-2" 


10'- 1" 


15'-7" 


13'-10" 


18'-0" 


15'-5" 


550S 162-54 


12'-0" 


10'-9" 


16'-7" 


14'-9" 


19'-5" 


16'-8" 


550S 162-68 


12'- 11" 


ll'-7" 


17'-8" 


15'-10" 


20'-ll" 


18'-1" 


800S162-33 


ll'-8" c 


10'-6" c 


16'-5" c 


14'-9" c 


19'-5" c 


16'-7" c 


800S162-43 


12'-6" 


ll'-3" 


17'-6" 


15'-10" 


21'-2" 


18'-7" 


800S 162-54 


13'-4" 


ll'-ll" 


18'-7" 


16'-9" 


22'-7" 


20'-0" 


800S 162-68 


14'-3" 


12'-9" 


19'-8" 


17'-8" 


23'- 11" 


21'-4" 


1000S 162-43 


13'-4" c 


12'-l" c 


18'-9" c 


16'-ll" c 


22'-ll" c 


20'-6" c 


1000S 162-54 


14'-2" 


12'-9" 


19'-10" 


17'- 10" 


24'-2" 


21'-9" 


1000S 162-68 


15'-2" 


13'-7" 


21'-0" 


18'-11" 


25'-6" 


23'-0" 


1200S 162-43 


14'-l" c 


12'-8" c 


19'-10" c 


17'-ll" c 


24'-3" c 


21'-6" c 


1200S 162-54 


15'-0" c 


13'-5" c 


20'-ll" c 


18'-ll" c 


25'-7" c 


23'-l" c 


1200S 162-68 


15'-11" 


14'-4" 


22'-2" 


19'-11" 


27'-0" 


24'-4" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m . 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240 for total loads. 

b. Ceiling dead load = 5 psf. 

c. Bearing stiffeners are required at all bearing points and concentrated load locations. 



236 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE™ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.3.1(2) 



• 



TABLE R804.3.1(2) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL CEILING JOISTS abc 

20 psf live load (Limited attic storage where development of future rooms is not possible) 



NOMINAL JOIST 
SIZE 


LATERAL SUPPORT OF TOP FLANGE 


Unbraced 


Mid-span bracing 


Third-point bracing 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


16 


24 


16 


24 


16 


24 


350S 162-33 


8'-0" 


6'-0" 


9'-8" 


6'-0" 


9'-0" 


6'-0" 


350S 162-43 


8'-8" 


7'-8" 


10'-9" 


9'-l" 


lO'-lO" 


9'-5" 


350S 162-54 


9'-3" 


8'-3" 


ll'-7" 


9'-ll" 


ll'-7" 


lO'-l" 


350S 162-68 


lO'-O" 


8'-ll" 


12'-5" 


lO'-lO" 


12'-5" 


lO'-lO" 


550S 162-33 


9'-2" 


6'-0" 


12'-2" c 


10'-5" c 


13'-3" 


1 l'-0" c 


550S 162-43 


9'- 10" 


8'-10" 


13'-4" 


ll'-6" 


14'-9" 


12'-5" 


550S 162-54 


10'-5" 


9'-5" 


14'-4" 


12'-6" 


16'-1" 


13'-7" 


550S162-68 


ll'-3" 


lO'-O" 


15'-4" J 


13'-5" 


17'-5" 


14'-10" 


800S162-33 


10'-3" c 


9'-3" c 


14'-4" c 


12'-5" c 


15'-ll" c 


13'-4" c 


800S 162-43 


10'- 11" 


9'-10" 


15'-5" 


13'-8" c 


17'-ll" c 


15'-5" c 


800S 162-54 


11 '-8" 


10'-6" 


16'-3" 


14'-7" 


19'-3" 


16'-8" 


800S162t68 


12'-5" 


ll'-2" 


17'-3" 


15'-6" 


20'-7" 


18'-0" 


1000S 162-43 


ll'-9" 


10'-7" c 


16'-6" c 


14'-10" c 


19'-10" c 


17'-l" c 


1000S162-54 


12'-5" 


11 '-2" 


17'-5" 


15'-8" 


21'-1" 


18'-7" 


1000S 162-68 


13'-3" 


ll'-lO" 


18'-5" 


16'-7" 


22'-4" 


19'- 11" 


1200S 162-43 


12'-5" c 


ll'-2" c 


17'-5" c 


l5'-8" c 


20'-9" c 


18'-0" c 


1200S 162-54 


13'-l" c 


ll'-9" c 


18'-5" c 


16'-7" c 


22'-5" c 


20'-l" c 


1200S162-68 


13'-11" 


12'-6" 


19'-5" 


17'-6" 


23'-8" 


21'-3" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 

a. Deflection criteria: L/240 for total loads. 

b. Ceiling dead load = 5 psf. 

c. Bearing stiffeners are required at all bearing points and concentrated load locations. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



237 



TABLE R804.3.1(3) - FIGURE R804.3.1(1) 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.3.1(3) 
NUMBER OF SCREWS REQUIRED FOR CEILING JOIST TO RAFTER CONNECTION 3 



ROOF 
SLOPE 


BUILDING WIDTH (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


Ground snow load 
(psf) 


Ground snow load 
(psf) 


Ground snow load 
(psf) 


Ground snow load 
(psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


3/12 


5 


6 


9 


12 


6 


7 


10 


13 


7 


8 


12 


15 


8 


9 


13 


17 


4/12 


4 


5 


7 


9 


5 


6 


8 


10 


6 


6 


9 


12 


6 


7 


10 


13 


5/12 


4 


4 


6 


7 


4 


5 


7 


9 


5 


5 


8 


10 


5 


6 


9 


11 


6/12 


3 


4 


5 


7 


4 


4 


6 


8 


4 


5 


7 


9 


4 


5 


7 


10 


7/12 


3 


3 


5 


6 


3 


4 


5 


7 


4 


4 


6 


8 


4 


5 


7 


9 


8/12 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


5 


6 


3 


4 


5 


7 


4 


4 


6 


8 


9/12 


2 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


4 


6 


3 


4 


5 


6 


3 


4 


6 


7 


10/12 


2 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


5 


6 


3 


4 


5 


7 


11/12 


2 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


5 


6 


3 


4 


5 


6 


12/12 


2 


3 


3 


4 


2 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


4 


6 


3 


4 


5 


6 



For St: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 
a. Screws shall be No. 10 minimum. 



CEILING JOIST 



HEEL JOINT CONNECTION WITH 
SCREWS (AS REQUIRED) 




TRACK 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



ROOF TO WALL CONNECTION 
WITH TWO SCREWS THROUGH 
CEILING JOIST FLANGE, 54 MIL 
(Ml N.) ANGLE 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.1(1) 
JOIST TO RAFTER CONNECTION 



238 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODEd 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.3.3(1) - R804.3.7 







TABLE R804.3.3(1) 
ALLOWABLE HORIZONTAL RAFTER SPANS 3 '" 








NOMINAL RAFTER 
SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 


20psf 


30psf 


50psf 


70psf 


Spacing (inches-feet) 


Spacing (inches-feet) 


Spacing (inches-feet) 


Spacing (inches-feet) 


16 


24 


16 


24 


16 


24 


16 


24 


550S162-33 


12'-8" 


10'-4" 


ll'-9" 


9'-7" 


9'-ll" 


8'-l" 


8'-10" 


7'-2" 


550S 162-43 


15'-5" 


12'-7" 


14'-3" 


ll'-8" 


12'-1" 


9'-10" 


10'-8" 


8'-9" 


550S 162-54 


13'-0" 


14'-2" 


16'-1" 


13'-1" 


13'-8" 


ll'-2" 


12'- 1" 


9'-10" 


550S 162-68 


18'-1" 


15'-10" 


17-3" 


14'-9" 


15'-4" 


12'-6" 


13'-6" 


11'- 1" 


800S 162-33 


15'-5" 


11 '-5" 


l4'-4" 


9'-10" 


10'-7" 


7'-l" 


^_ 8'-3" 


5'-6" 


800S 162-43 


19'-1" 


15'-7" 


l<7'-9" 


14'-6" 


15'-1" 


12'-3" 


13'-3" 


10'-9" 


800S 162-54 


22'-7" 


18'-5" 


21'-0" 


17'-1" 


17'-9" 


14'-6" 


15'-9" 


12'-10" 


800S 162-68 


24'-7" 


20'-9" 


23'-4" 


19'-3" 


20'-0" 


16'-4" 


17'-8" 


14'-5" 


1000S162-43 


21'-2" 


17'-3" 


19'-8" 


16'-0" 


16'-8" 


13'-1" 


14'-9" 


10'-3" 


1000S162-54 


25'- 1" 


20'-6" 


23'-3" 


19'-0" 


19'-9" 


16'-1" 


17'-5" 


14'-3" 


1000S 162-68 


29'-6" 


24'-6" 


27'-9" 


22'-9" 


23'-8" 


19'-3" 


21'-0" 


17'- 1" 


1200S 162-43 


23'-0" 


18'-2" 


21'-4" 


15'-7" 


16'-9" 


ll'-3" 


13'-2" 


8'-9" 


1200S 162-54 


27'-3" 


22'-3" 


25'-3" 


20'-7" 


21'-5" 


17'-6" 


18'-11" 


15'-5" 


1200S 162-68 


32'- 1" 


26'-2" 


29'-9" 


24'-3" 


25'-3" 


20'-7" 


22'-4" 


18'-2" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot 

a. Deflection criteria: 17240 for live loads and 1/180 for total loads. 

b. Roof dead load = 1 2 pounds per square foot. 



= 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 



R804.3.3.1.1 High wind ridge tension connections. 

In areas where the basic wind speed is 110 miles per 
hour (177 km/h) or greater, roof rafters shall be pro- 
vided with a connection at the ridge line to transfer 
tension loads. The ridge connection shall be capable 
of resisting the unit loads listed in Table 
R804.3.3.1.1(l) multiplied by the appropriate spac- 
ing multiplier. Alternatively, a steel ridge^ strap shall 
be provided with minimum No. 8 screws bn each end 
of the strap as required in Table R804.3.3U.1(1). The 
number of screws shall be increased to account for the 
spacing multipliers shown in the table. The width and 
thickness of the steel ridge strap shall be as shown in 
Table R804.3.3. 1.1(2), based upon the required num- 
ber of screws on one side of the strap. 

R804.3.3.2 Roof cantilevers. Roof cantilevers shall not 
exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in accordance with Figure 
R804.3. Roof cantilevers shall be supported by a header in 
accordance with Section R603.6 or shall be supported by 
the floor framing in accordance with Section R505.3.7. 

R804.3.4 Rafter bottom flange bracing. The bottom 
flanges of steel rafters shall be continuously braced with a 
minimum 33-mil (0.84 mm) C-section, 33-mil (0.84 mm) 
track section, or a 1 7 2 -inch by 33-mil (38 mm by 0.84 mm) 
steel strapping at a maximum spacing of 8 feet (2438 mm) as 
measured parallel to the rafters. Bracing shall be installed in 
accordance with Figure R804.3. The C-section, track sec- 
tion, or straps shall be fastened to blocking with at least two 
No. 8 screws. Blocking or bridging (X-bracing) shall be in- 



stalled between rafters in-line with the continuous bracing 
at a maximum spacing of 12 feet (3658 mm) measured per- 
pendicular to the rafters and at the termination of all straps. 
The ends of continuous bracing shall be fastened to block- 
ing with at least two No. 8 screws. 

R804.3.5 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of load- 
bearing steel roof framing members shall not be cut or 
notched. Holes in webs shall be in accordance with Section 
R804.2. 

R804.3.6 Hole patching. Holes in ceiling joist and rafters 
with dimensions conforming to Section R804.2 that are 
closer than 10 inches (254 mm) from the edge of the hole to 
the edge of bearing surface shall be patched with a solid 
steel plate, C-section or track section in accordance with 
Figure R804.3.6. The steel patch shall be of a minimum 
thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 
inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch 
shall be fastened to the web with No. 8 screws (minimum) 
spaced no greater than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center 
along the edges of the patch, with a minimum edge distance 
of V 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R804.3.7 Splicing. Rafters and other structural members, 
except ceiling joists, shall not be spliced. Splices in ceiling 
joists shall only be permitted at interior bearing points and 
shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R804.3.7(l). 
Spliced ceiling joists shall be connected with the same num- 
ber and size of screws on connection. Splicing of tracks 
shall conform with Figure R804.3.7(2). 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



239 



TABLE R804.3.3(2) - R806.3 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R804.3.3(2) 
BASIC WIND SPEED TO EQUIVALENT SNOW LOAD CONVERSION 3 








BASIC WIND SPEED 
AND EXPOSURE 


EQUIVALENT GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) 


Roof slope 


Exp. A/B 


Exp. C 


3:12 


4:12 


5:12 


6:12 


7:12 


8:12 


9:12 


10:12 


11:12 


12:12 


85 mph 





20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


30 


30 


30 


30 


100 mph 


85 mph 


20 


20 


20 


20 


30 


30 


30 


30 


50 


50 


110 mph 


100 mph 


20 


20 


20 


20 


30 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


120 mph 


110 mph 


30 


30 


30 


50 


50 


50 


70 


70 


70 





130 mph 


120 mph 


30 


50 


50 


50 


70 


70 


70 


— 


— 


— 


— 


130 mph 


50 


50 


50 


70 


70 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 ni/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m . 

a. In areas where the basic wind speed equals or exceeds 1 10 miles per hour the equivalent snow load shall be used only to determine the size of members. Connec- 
tions of rafters to the ridge and the roof members to walls shall comply with Sections R804.3.3.1.1 andR804.4.1. 



R804.3.8 Bearing stiffener. A bearing stiffener shall be 
fabricated from a minimum 33-mil (0.84 mm) C-section or 
track section. Each stiffener shall be fastened to the web of 
the ceiling joist with a minimum of four No. 8 screws 
equally spaced as shown in Figure R804.3 .8. Stiffeners shall 
extend across the full depth of the web and shall be installed 
on either side of the web. 

R804.3.9 Headers. Roof-ceiling framing above wall open- 
ings shall be supported on headers. The allowable spans for 
headers in bearing walls shall not exceed the values set forth 
in Table R603.6(l). 

R804.3.10 Framing of opening. Openings in roof and ceil- 
ing framing shall be framed with headers and trimmers be- 
tween ceiling joists or rafters. Header joist spans shall 
not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). Header and trimmer joists 
shall be fabricated from joist and track sections, which shall 
be of a minimum size and thickness in accordance with Fig- 
ures R804.3. 10(1) and R804.3. 10(2). Each header joist shall 
be connected to trimmer joist with a minimum of four 2- 
inch by 2-inch (5 1 by 5 1 mm) clip angles. Each clip angle 
shall be fastened to both the header and trimmer joists with 
four No. 8 screws, evenly spaced, through each leg of the 
clip angle. The clip angles shall have a steel thickness not 
less than that of the floor joist. 

R804.4 Roof tie-down. Roof assemblies subject to wind uplift 
pressures of 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kN/m 2 ) or greater, 
as established in Table R30 1.2(2), shall have rafter-to-bearing 
wall ties provided in accordance with Table R802. 1 1 . 

R804.4.1 High wind roof tie-down. In areas where the ba- 
sic wind speed is 1 10 miles per hour (177 km/h) or greater, 
roof rafters or trusses shall be attached to their supporting 
wall assemblies by connections capable of resisting the up- 
lift loads listed in Table R603.8.3.2.1(l). Alternatively, a 
1 V 4 -inch (32 mm) by minimum 33-mil (0.84 mm) steel up- 
lift strap connecting the rafter or truss to the in-line framing 
stud below shall be permitted. Each end of the uplift strap 



shall be fastened with minimum No. 8 screws as required by 
Table R603.8.3.2.1(2). 



SECTION R805 
CEILING FINISHES 

R805.1 Ceiling installation. Ceilings shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the requirements for interior wall finishes as pro- 
vided in Section R702. 



SECTION R806 
ROOF VENTILATION 

R806.1 Ventilation required. Enclosed attics and enclosed 
rafter spaces formed where ceilings are applied directly to the 
underside of roof rafters shall have cross ventilation for each 
separate space by ventilating openings protected against the en- 
trance of rain or snow. Ventilating openings shall be provided 
with corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with V 8 inch (3.2 mm) min- 
imum to V 4 inch (6.35 mm) maximum openings. 

R806.2 Minimum area. The total net free ventilating area 
shall not be less than 1 to 150 of the area of the space ventilated 
except that the total area is permitted to be reduced to 1 to 300, 
provided at least 50 percent and not more than 80 percent of the 
required ventilating area is provided by ventilators located in 
the upper portion of the space to be ventilated at least 3 feet 
(914 mm) above eave or cornice vents with the balance of the 
required ventilation provided by eave or cornice vents. As an 
alternative, the net free cross-ventilation area may be reduced 
to 1 to 300 when a vapor barrier having a transmission rate not 
exceeding 1 perm (57.4 mg/s • m 2 • Pa) is installed on the warm 
side of the ceiling. 

R806.3 Vent clearance. Where eave or cornice vents are in- 
stalled, insulation shall not block the free flow of air. A mini- 
mum of a 1-inch (25.4 mm) space shall be provided between 
the insulation and the roof sheathing at the location of the vent. 



240 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.3.3.1 - TABLE R804.3.3.1.1(1) 



TABLE R804.3.3.1 
NUMBER OF SCREWS REQUIRED AT EACH LEG OF CLIP ANGLE FOR RAFTER TO RIDGE MEMBER CONNECTION 3 



BUILDING WIDTH 
(feet) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) 


to 20 


21 to 30 


31 to 50 


51 to 70 


24 


2 


3 


4 


4 


28 


2 


3 


4 


5 


32 


3 


3 


4 


5 


36 


3 


4 


5 


6 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 
a. Screws shall be No. 10 minimum. 



TABLE R804.3.3.1.1(1) 
RIDGE TENSION STRAP CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS PER FOOT OF RIDGE SPAN 



Roof pitch 


Roof span 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 


110 


120 


130 


110 


120 


130 


Number of #8 screws in each end of a steel ridge strap 
(Table R804.3.3.1. 1(2)] 


Required ridge construction capacity a,b (plf) 


3:12 


24 


2 


2 


3 


475 


624 


788 


28 


2 


3 


3 


554 


727 


919 


32 


2 


3 


3 


633 


831 


1051 


36 


3 


3 


4 


712 


935 


1,182 


4:12 


24 


2 


2 


3 


378 


495 


765 


28 


2 


2 


3 


441 


577 


727 


32 


2 


2 


3 


504 


659 


831 


36 


2 


4 


3 


567 


742 


935 


5:12 


24 


1 


2 


2 


289 


380 


480 


28 


1 


2 


2 


338 


443 


560 


32 


2 


2 


2 


386 


507 


640 


36 


2 


2 


3 


434 


570 


720 


6:12 


24 


1 


1 


2 


262 


342 


431 


28 


1 


2 


2 


306 


399 


503 


32 


2 


2 


2 


350 


457 


575 


36 


2 


2 


2 


393 


514 


647 


7:12-12:12 


24 


1 


2 


2 


246 


320 


401 


28 


1 


2 


2 


287 


373 


468 


32 


1 


2 


2 


328 


426 


535 


36 


2 


3 


2 


369 


480 


602 


Framing spacing 


12 in. 


16 in. 


24 in. 


19.2 in. 








Multiplier 


1.0 


1.33 


2.0 


1.6 


— 






For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304,8 mm, 1 pound-force = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 
1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 , 1 pound per linear foot = 14.60 N/m. 

a. Connection Requirements are based on a foot assembly dead load of 10 pounds per square foot. 

b. Connection capacities shown in the table are based on a 12-inch ridge strap spacing. For spacing greater than 12 inches, capacity values shall be increased using 
the multipliers in the table above. 

c. The required number of screws shown in the table are based on a 12-inch strap spacing; For spacing other than 1 2 inches, the appropriate connection capacity in the 
table shall be increased using the multipliers above and dividing by the screw shear value of 263 pounds = 350 pounds/screw. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



241 



TABLE R804.3.3.1.1{2) - R808." 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R804.3.3.1. 1(2) 
MINIMUM SIZE OF RIDGE STRAP 



STRAP WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF RIDGE STRAP (inches) 
REQUIRED NUMBER OF RIDGE STRAP SCREWS 3 


4 or less 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


1,25 


0.043 


0.054 


0.054 


— 


— 


— 


1.5 


0.043 


0.043 


0.054 


0.054 








1.75 


0.043 


0.043 


0.043 


0.054 


0.054 





2 


0.043 


0.043 


0.043 


0.043 


0.054 


0.054 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Required number of screws per Table R804.3.3. 1.1(1) on each end of the ridge strap. 



CLIP ANGLE 



RAFTER 




'SCREWS IN EACH LEG 
OF CLIP ANGLE 




RIDGE MEMBER SHALL CONSIST OF A 
C-SECTION INSIDE A TRACK SECTION 
SCREWED AT 24 IN. O.C. THROUGH TOP 
AND BOTTOM FLANGES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.3.1 
RIDGE BOARD CONNECTION 



SECTION R807 
ATTIC ACCESS 

E807.1 Attic access. In buildings with combustible ceiling or 
roof construction, an attic access opening shall be provided to 
attic areas that exceed 30 square feet (2.8 m 2 ) and have a verti- 
cal height of 30 inches (762 mm) or greater. 

The rough-framed opening shall not be less than 22 inches 
by 30 inches (559 mm by 762 mm) and shall be located in a 
hallway or other readily accessible location. A 30-inch (762 
mm) minimum unobstructed headroom in the attic space shall 
be provided at some point above the access opening. See Sec- 
tion Ml 305.1. 3 for access requirements where mechanical 
equipment is located in attics. 



SECTION R808 
INSULATION CLEARANCE 

R808.1 Combustible insulation. Combustible insulation shall 
be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) from recessed 
lighting fixtures, fan motors and other heat-producing devices. 

Exception: When heat-producing devices are listed for 
lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with 
the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance 
with the conditions stipulated in the listing. 

Recessed lighting fixtures installed in the building thermal 
envelope shall meet the requirements of Section Nl 101 .3. 



242 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CQDEG 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R804.3.6 - FIGURE R804.3.7(1) 



,SOLID STEEL PLATE, C-SECTION OR TRACK 
(MIN. THICKNESS OF JOIST) 




SCREWS 1 IN. O.C 
(TYR) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.6 
HOLE PATCHING 




CEILING JOIST 



NUMBER OF SCREWS ON EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE SHALL BE THE 
SAME AS REQUIRED FOR THE 
HEEL JOINT CONNECTION 



C- OR TRACK SECTION WITH MIN. SIZE 
AND THICKNESS AS CEILING JOIST 



CEILING JOIST 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.7(1) 
SPLICED CEILING JOISTS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



243 



FIGURE R804.3.7(2)- FIGURE R804.3.8 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



JOIST SECTION INSIDE TRACK 




FOUR SCREWS ON 
EACH SIDE OF 

SPLICE 



' TRACK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.7(2) 
TRACK SPLICE 



CEILING JOIST 



BEARING STIFFENER 




FIGURE R804.3.8 
BEARING STIFFENER 



244 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



FIGURE R804.3.10(1) - FIGURE R804.3.10(2) 



JOIST/RAFTER 
(TYP.) 



JOIST/RAFTER 



CLIP ANGLE 
(TYP.) 




JOIST/RAFTER (TYP.) 



TRIMMER 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.10(1) 
ROOF OPENING 



2 IN. CLIP ANGLE WITH FOUR 
SCREWS EACH LEG BOTH SIDES 
OF CONNECTION 



4 SCREWS EACH LEG OF CLIP ANGLE 
(BOTH SIDES OF CONNECTION) 
MIN. LENGTH = JOIST/RAFTER WEB 
DEPTH MINUS V 2 IN. 



BUILT-UP HEADER AND TRIMMER JOISTS SHALL 
BE SCREWED TOGETHER AT 24 IN. O.C. MAX. 
THROUGH TOP AND BOTTOM FLANGES (TYP.) 



BUILT-UP HEADER JOISTS SHALL 
CONSIST OF A C-SECTION INSIDE A 
TRACK SECTION 




JOIST/RAFTER 



BUILT-UP HEADER JOISTS SHALL 
CONSIST OF A C-SECTION INSIDE A 
TRACK SECTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R804.3.10(2) 
HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



245 



24S 2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 9 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



SECTION R901 
' GENERAL 

R901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall! govern the 
design, materials, construction and quality of roof assemblies. 



SECTION R902 
ROOF CLASSIFICATION 

R902.1 Roofing covering materials. Roofs shall be covered 
with materials as set forth in Sections R904 and R905. Class A, 
B or C roofing shall be installed in areas designated by law as 
requiring their use or when the edge of the roof is less than 3 
feet (914 mni) from a property line. Classes A, B and C roofing 
required to be listed by this section shall be tested in accordance 
with UL 790 or ASTM E 108. Rqof assemblies with coverings 
of brick, masonry, slate, clay or concrete roof tile, exposed con- 
crete roof deck, ferrous or copper shingles or sheets, and metal 
sheets and shingles, shall be considered Class A roof coverings. 

R902.2 Wood shingles and shakes. When testing woodshin- 
gles and shakes in accordance with ASTM E 108 (including the 
rain test) and ASTM D 2898, the fire tests shall include the in- 
termittent flame test, spread of flame test, burning brand test 
and flying brand test; additionally, at the conclusion of the rain 
test, test panels shall be subjected; to the intermittent flame test, 
burning brand test and flying brand test. 

R902.2.1 Fire-retardant-treated shingles and shakes. 
Fire-retardant-treated wood shakes and shingles shall be 
treated by; impregnation with chemicals by the full-cell vac- 
uum-pressure process, in accordance with AWPA Cl.Each 
bundle shall be marked to identify the manufactured unit 
and the manufacturer, and shall also be labeled to identify 
the classification of the material in accordance with the test- 
ing required in Section R902.2, the treating company and 
the quality control agency. 



SECTION R903 
WEATHER PROTECTION 

.1 General. Roof decks shall be covered with approved 
roof coverings secured to the building or structure in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this chapter. Roof assemblies shall 
be designed and installed in accordance with this code and the 
approved manufacturer's installation instructions such that the 

roof assembly shall serve to protect the building or structure. 

i 
R903.2 Flashing. Flashings shall be installed in such a manner 

as to prevent moisture entering the wall through the joints in the 

coping, through moisture permeable material, at intersections 

with the roof plane or at parapet wall penetrations. 

R903.2.1 Locations. Flashings shall be installed at wall and 
roof intersections; wherever there is a change in roof slope 
or direction; and around roof openings. Where flashing is of 
metal, the metal shall be corrosion resistant with' a thickness 
of not less than 0.019 inch (No. 26 galvanized sheet). 



R903.3 Coping. Parapet walls shall be properly coped with 
nohcombustible, weatherproof materials of a width no less 
than the thickness of the parapet wall. 

R903.4 Roof drainage. Unless roofs are sloped to drain over 
roof edges, roof drains shall be installed at each low point of the 
roof. Where required for roof drainage, scuppers shall be 
placed level with the roof surface in a wall or parapet. The scup- 
per shall be located as determined by the roof slope and contrib- 
uting roof area. 

R903.4.1 Overflow drains and scuppers. Where roof 
drains are required, overflow drains having the same size as 
the roof drains shall be installed with the inlet flow line lo- 
cated 2 inches (5 1 mm) above the low point of the roof, or 
overflow scuppers having three times the size of the roof 
drains and having a minimum opening height of 4 inches 
(102 mm) may be installed in the adjacent parapet walls 
with the inlet flow located 2 inches (51 mm) above the low 
point of the adjacent roof. The installation and sizing of 
overflow drains, leaders and conductors shall comply with 
the International Plumbing Code. 

Overflow drains shall discharge to an approved location 
and shall not be connected to roof drain lines. 



SECTION R904 
MATERIALS 

R904.1 Scope. The requirements set forth in this section shall 
apply to the application of roof covering materials specified 
herein. Roof assemblies shall be applied in accordance with 
this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Installation of roof assemblies shall comply with the applicable 
provisions of Section R905. 

R904.2 Compatibility of materials. Roof assemblies shall be 
of materials that are compatible with each other and with the 
building or structure to which the materials are applied. 

R904.3 Material specifications and physical characteris- 
tics. Roof covering materials shall conform to the applicable 
standards listed in this chapter. In the absence of applicable 
standards or where materials are of questionable suitability, 
testing by an approved testing agency shall be required by the 
building official to determine the character, quality and limita- 
tions of application of the materials. 

R904.4 Product identification. Roof covering materials shall 
be delivered in packages bearing the manufacturer's identify- 
ing marks and approved testing agency labels when required. 
Bulk shipments of materials shall be accompanied with the 
same information issued in the form of a certificate or on a bill 
of lading by the manufacturer. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



247 



R905 - R905.2.8.2 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



SECTION R905 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS 

R905.1 Roof covering application. Roof coverings shall be 
applied in accordance with the applicable provisions of this 
section and the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R905.2 Asphalt shingles. The installation of asphalt shingles 
shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

R905.2.1 Sheathing requirements. Asphalt shingles shall 
be fastened to solidly sheathed decks. 

R905.2.2 Slope. Asphalt shingles shall only be used on roof 
slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or 
greater. For roof slopes from two units vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (2:12) up to four units vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (4:12), double underlayment application is required 
in accordance with Section R905.2.7. 

R905.2.3 Underlayment. Unless otherwise noted, required 
underlayment shall conform with ASTM D 226, Type I, or 
ASTM D 4869, Type I. 

Self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet shall 
comply with ASTM D 1970. 



05.2.4 Asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles shall have 
self-seal strips or be interlocking, and comply with ASTMD 
225 or D 3462. 

M90S.2.5 Fasteners. Fasteners for asphalt shingles shall be 
galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum or copper roof- 
ing nails, minimum 12 gage [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] shank 
with a minimum 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) diameter head, ASTM F 
1667, of a length to penetrate through the roofing materials 
and a minimum of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing. 
Where the roof sheathing is less than 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
thick, the fasteners shall penetrate through the sheathing. 
Fasteners shall comply with ASTM F 1667. 



)5.2.6 Attachment. Asphalt shingles shall have the min- 
imum number of fasteners required by the manufacturer. 
For normal application, asphalt shingles shall be secured to 
the roof with not less than four fasteners per strip shingle or 
two fasteners per individual shingle. Where the roof slope 
exceeds 20 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (20: 12), spe- 
cial methods of fastening are required. 

Exception: Asphalt strip shingles shall have a minimum 
of six fasteners per shingle where the roof is in one of the 
following categories: 

1. The basic wind speed per Figure R301 .2(4) is 1 10 
miles per hour (177 km/h) or greater and the eave is 
20 feet (6096 mm) or higher above grade. 

2. The basic wind speed per Figure R301.2(4) is 120 
miles per hour (193 km/h) or greater. 

3. Special wind zones per Figure R301.2(4). 

R9©5.2.7 Underlayment application. For roof slopes from 
two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope), 
up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent 
slope), underlayment shall be two layers applied in the fol- 
lowing manner. Apply a 19-inch (483 mm) strip of 
underlayment felt parallel with and starting at the eaves, fas- 
tened sufficiently to hold in place. Starting at the eave, apply 
36-inch-wide (914 mm) sheets of underlayment, overlap- 



ping successive sheets 19 inches (483 mm), and fastened 
sufficiently to hold in place. For roof slopes of four units 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (3 3 -percent slope) or greater, 
underlayment shall be one layer applied in the following 
manner. Underlayment shall be applied shingle fashion, 
parallel to and starting from the eave and lapped 2 inches (5 1 
mm), fastened sufficiently to hold in place. End laps shall be 
offset by 6 feet (1829 mm). 

R905.2.7.1 Ice protection. In areas where the average 
daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less, an ice 
barrier that consists of a least two layers of underlayment 
cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer modi- 
fied bitumen sheet, shall be used in lieu Of normal 
underlayment and extend from the eave's edge to a point 
at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line 
of the building. 

R905.2.7.2 Underlayment and high wind. 
Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds 
[greater than 1 10 mph (177km/h) per Figure R301 .2(4)] 
shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in ac- 
cordance with manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not farther 
apart than 36 inches (914 mm) on center. 

R905.2.8 Flashing. Flashing for asphalt shingles shall com- 
ply with this section. 

R905.2.8.1 Base and cap flashing. Base and cap flash- 
ing shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Base flashing shall be of either 
corrosion-resistant metal of minimum nominal 0.019- 
inch (0.483 mm) thickness or mineral surface roll roofing 
weighing a minimum of 77 pounds per 100 square feet 
(3.76 kg/m 2 ). Cap flashing shall be corrosion-resistant 
metal of minimum nominal 0.019-inch (0.483 mm) 
thickness. 

R905.2.8.2 Valleys. Valley linings shall be installed in 
accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions 
before applying shingles. Valley linings of the following 
types shall be permitted: 

1 . For open valley (valley lining exposed) lined with 
metal, the valley lining shall be at least 24 inches 
(610 mm) wide and of any of the corrosion-resis- 
tant metals in Table R905.2.8.2. 

2 . For open valleys, valley lining of two plies of min- 
eral surface roll roofing, complying with ASTM D 
249, shall be permitted. The bottom layer shall be 
18 inches (457 mm) and the top layer a minimum 
of 36 inches (914 mm) wide. 

3. For closed valleys (valley covered with shingles), 
valley lining of one ply of smooth roll roofing com- 
plying with ASTM D 224 Type II or Type III and at 
least 36 inches (914 mm) wide or valley lining as 
described in Items 1 and 2 above shall be permit- 
ted. Specialty underlayment complying with 
ASTMD 1 970 may be used in lieu Of the lining ma- 
terial. 



248 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



TABLE R905.2.8.2 -R905.3.7 



TABLE R905.2.8.2 
VALLEY LINING MATERIAL 



MATERIAL 


MINIMUM 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


GAGE 


WEIGHT 
(pounds) 


Copper 


— 


— 


1 


Aluminum 


0.024 


— 


— 


Stainless steel 


— 


28 


— 


Galvanized steel 


0.0179 


26 (zinc coated 
G90) 


— 


Zinc alloy 


0.027 


— 




Lead 


— 


— 


2V 2 


Painted terne 


— 


— 


20 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

R905.2.8.3 Crickets and saddles. A cricket or saddle 
shall be installed on the ridge side of any chimney greater 
than 30 inches (762 mm) wide. Cricket or saddle cover- 
ings shall be sheet metal or of the same material as the 
roof covering. 

R905.2.8.4 Sidewall flashing. Flashing against a verti- 
cal sidewall shall be by the step-flashing method. 

R905.2.8.5 Other flashing. Flashing against a vertical 
front wall, as well as soil stack, vent pipe and chimney 
flashing, shall be applied according to asphalt shingle 
manufacturer's printed instructions. 

R905.3 Clay and concrete tile. The installation of clay and 
concrete shall comply with the provisions of this section. Clay 
roof tile shall comply with ASTM C 1 1 67 . 

R905.3.1 Deck requirements. Concrete and clay tile shall 
be installed only over solid sheathing or spaced structural 
sheathing boards. 

R905.3.2 Deck slope. Clay and concrete roof tile shall be in- 
stalled on roof slopes of two and one-half units vertical in 12 
units horizontal ( 2V 2 :12) or greater. For roof slopes from 
two and one-half units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(2V 2 :12) to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (4:12), 
double underlayment application is required in accordance 
with Section R905.3.3. 

R905.3.3 Underlayment. Unless otherwise noted, required 
underlayment shall conform with ASTM D 226, Type II; 
ASTM D 2626, Type I; or ASTM D 249 mineral surfaced 
roll roofing. 

R905.3.3.1 Low slope roofs. For roof slopes from two 
and one-half units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(2V 2 :12), up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(4:12), underlayment shall be a minimum of two layers 
underlayment applies as follows: 

1. Starting at the eave, a 19-inch (483 mm) strip of 
underlayment shall be applied parallel with the 
feave and fastened sufficiendy in place. 

2. Starting at the eave, 36-inch-wide (914 mm) strips 
of underlayment felt shall be applied, overlapping 



successive sheets 19 inches (483 mm), and fas- 
tened sufficiently in place. 

R905.3.3.2 High slope roofs. For roof slopes of four 
units vertical in 12 units horizontal (4:12) or greater, 
underlayment shall be a minimum of one layer of 
underlayment felt applied shingle fashion, parallel to and 
starting from the eaves and lapped 2 inches (5 1 mm), fas- 
tened sufficiently in place. 

R905.3.3.3 Underlayment and high wind. 

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high wind 
[greater than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h) per Figure 
R30 1.2(4)] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fas- 
teners in accordance with manufacturer's installation in- 
structions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap 
not farther apart than 36 inches (914 mm) on center. 

R905.3.4 Tile. Clay roof tile shall comply with ASTM 
C 1167. 

R905.3.5 Concrete tile. Concrete roof tiles shall be in ac- 
cordance with the physical test requirements as follows: 

1. The transverse strength of tiles shall be determined 
according to Section 5.3 of ASTM C 1 167 and in ac- 
cordance with Table R905.3.5 

2. The absorption of concrete roof tiles shall be accord- 
ing to Section 8 of ASTM C 140. Roof tiles shall ab- 
sorb not more than 15 percent of the dry weight of the 
tile during a 24-hour immersion test. 

3. Roof tiles shall be tested for freeze/thaw resistance 
according to Section 8 of ASTM C 67. Roof tiles 
shall show no breakage and not have more than 1- 
percent loss in dry weight of any individual concrete 
roof tile. 

TABLE R905.3.5 

TRANSVERSE BREAKING STRENGTH OF 

CONCRETE ROOF TILE 



TILE PROFILE 


DRY (pounds) 


AVERAGE OF 

5 TILES 


INDIVIDUAL TILE 


High profile 


400 


350 


Medium profile 


300 


250 


Flat profile 


300 


250 



For SI: 1 pound = 4.45 N. 

R905.3.6 Fasteners. Nails shall be corrosion-resistant and 
not less than 1 1 gage, 5 / 16 -inch (10.6 mm) head, and of suffi- 
cient length to penetrate the deck a minimum of 3 / 4 inch 
(19.1 mm) or through the thickness of the deck, whichever is 
less. Attaching wire for clay or concrete tile shall not be 
smaller than 0.083 inch (2.1 mm). Perimeter fastening areas 
include three tile courses but not less than 36 inches (914 
mm) from either side of hips or ridges and edges of eaves 
and gable rakes. 

R90S.3.7 Application. Tile shall be applied in accordance 
with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions, based on the following: 

1. Climatic conditions. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



249 



TABLE R905.3.7 - R905.S 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



2. Roof slope. 

3. Underlayment system. 

4. Type of tile being installed. 

Clay and concrete roof tiles shall be fastened in accor- 
dance with this section and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. Perimeter tiles shall be fastened with a mini- 
mum of one fastener per tile. Tiles with installed weight less 
than 9 pounds per square foot (0.43 kN/m 2 ) require a mini- 
mum of one fastener per tile regardless of roof slope. Clay 
and concrete roof tile attachment shall be in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions where ap- 
plied in areas where the wind speed exceeds 100 miles per 
hour (161 km/h) and on buildings where the roof is located 
more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) above grade. In areas subject 
to snow, a minimum of two fasteners per tile is required. In 
all other areas, clay and concrete roof tiles shall be attached 
in accordance with Table R905.3.7. 

TABLE R905.3.7 
CLAY AND CONCRETE TILE ATTACHMENT 



SHEATHING 


ROOF SLOPE 


NUMBER OF 
FASTENERS 


Solid without battens 


All 


One per tile 


Spaced or solid with 
battens and slope 
<5:12 


Fasteners not required 


— 


Spaced sheathing 
without battens 


5:12 < slope < 12:12 


One per tile/every 
other row 


12:12 < slope < 24:12 


One per tile 



06.3.8 Flashing. At the juncture of roof vertical surfaces, 
flashing and counter flashing shall be provided in accor- 
dance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions and, where of metal, shall not be less than 0.019 
inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion- 
resistant metal. The valley flashing shall extend at least 1 1 
inches (279 mm) from the center line each way and have a 
splash diverter rib not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) high at the 
flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing 
shall have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). For 
roof slopes of 3 : 1 2 and over, valley flashing shall have a 36- 
inch- wide (914 mm) underlayment of one layer of Type I 
underlayment running the full length of the valley, in addi- 
tion to other required underlayment. In areas where the av- 
erage daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less, 
metal valley flashing underlayment shall be solid cemented 
to the roofing underlayment for slopes under 7:12. 



05.41 Metal roof shingles. The installation of metal roof 
shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

R905.4.1 Deck requirements. Metal roof shingles shall be 
applied to a solid or closely fitted deck, except where the 
roof covering is specifically designed to be applied to 
spaced sheathing. 



4.2 Deck slope. Metal roof shingles shall not be in- 
stalled on roof slopes below three units vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (25-percent slope). 

R905.4.3 Underlayment. In areas where the average daily 
temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less, an ice barrier 



that consists of at least two layers of underlayment 
cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer modified 
bitumen sheet shall be used in lieu of normal underlayment 
and extend from the eave's edge to a point at least 24 inches 
(610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building. 
Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, Type I. 

R905.4.4 Material standards. Metal roof shingle roof cov- 
erings of galvanized steel shall be 0.013 inch (0.378 mm) 
minimum thickness. Metal roof shingle roof coverings of 
aluminum shall be of 0.024 inch (0.610 mm) minimum 
thickness. 

R905.4.5 Application. Metal roof shingles shall be secured 
to the roof in accordance with this chapter and the approved 
manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R905.4.6 Flashing. Roof valley flashing shall be provided 
of corrosion-resistant metal of the same material as the roof 
covering or shall comply with the standards in Table 
R905. 10.3. The valley flashing shall extend at least 8 inches 
(203 mm) from the center line each way and shall have a 
splash diverter rib not less than 3 / 4 inch (19. 1 mm) high at the 
flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing 
shall have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). The 
metal valley flashing shall have a 36-inch- wide (914 mm) 
underlayment directly under it consisting of one layer of 
underlayment running the full length of the valley, in addi- 
tion to underlayment required for metal roof shingles. In ar- 
eas where the average daily temperature in January is 25 °F 
(-4°C) or less , the metal valley flashing underlayment shall 
be solid cemented to the roofing underlayment for roof 
slopes under seven units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(58.3-percent slope) or self-adhering polymer modified bi- 
tumen sheet. 

R905.S Mineral-surfaced roll roofing. The installation of 
mineral-surfaced rolling roofing shall comply with this section. 

R905.5.1 Deck requirements. Mineral-surfaced roll roof- 
ing shall be fastened to solidly sheathed roofs. 

R905.5.2 Deck slope. Mineral-surfaced roll roofing shall 
not be applied on roof slopes below one unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (8-percent slope). 

R905.S.3 Underlayment. In areas where the average daily 
temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less, an ice barrier 
that consists of at least two layers of underlayment ce- 
mented together or of a self-adhering polymer modified bi- 
tumen sheet shall extend from the eave's edge to a point at 
least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the 
building. Underlayment shall conform with ASTM D 226, 
Type I. 

R905.S.4 Material standards. Mineral-surfaced roll roof- 
ing shall conform to ASTM D 224, D 249, D 37 1 or D 3 909. 

R905.5.5 Application. Mineral-surfaced roll roofing shall 
be installed in accordance with this chapter and the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions. 

R905.6 Slate and slate-type shingles. The installation of slate 
and slate-type shingles shall comply with the provisions of this 
section. 



250 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



R905.6.1 -R905.7.6 



R905.6.1jDeck requirements. Slate shingles shall be fas- 
tened to solidly sheathed roofs. 

R905.6.2jiDeck slope. Slate shingles shall only be used on 
slopes of ifour units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-per- 
cent slope) or greater. 

R905.6.3 Underlayment. In areas where the average daily 
temperature in January is 25°P (-4°C) or less; an ice barrier 
that consists of at least two layers of underlayment ce- 
mented together or of a self-adhering polymer modified bi- 
tumen sheet shall extend from the eave's edge to a point at 
least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the 
building. ; Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, 
Type II. 

R905.6.4! Material standards. Slate shingles shall comply 
with ASTM C 406. 

R905.6.5 Application. Minimum headlap for slate shingles 
shall be in accordance with Table R905.6.5. Slate shingles 
shall be secured to the roof with two fasteners per slate. Slate 
shingles shall be installed in accordance with this chapter 
and the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

TABLE R905.6.5 
SLATE SHINGLE HEADLAP 



SLOPE 


HEADLAP (inches) 


4:12 < slope < 8:12 


4 


8:12 < slope < 20:12 


3 


Slope> 20:12 


■ 2 . 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram. 

R905.6.6 Flashing. Flashing and counterflashing shall be 
made with sheet metal. Valley flashing shall be a minimum 
of 1 5 inches (381 mm) wide. Valley and flashing metal shall 
be a minimum uncoated thickness of 0.0179-inch (0.455 
mm) zinc' coated G90. Chimneys, stucco or brick walls shall 
have a minimum of two plies of felt for a cap flashing con- 
sisting of a 4-inch- wide (102 mm) strip of felt set in plastic 
cement and extending 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the first felt 
and a top coating of plastic cement. The felt shall extend 
over the base flashing 2 inches (51 mm). 

R905.7 Wood shingles. The installation of wood shingles shall 
comply with the provisions of this section. 

R905.7.1 Deck requirements. Wood shingles shall be in- 
stalled on solid or spaced sheathing. Where spaced sheath- 
ing is used, sheathing boards shall not be less than 1 -inch by 
4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) nominal dimensions and shall 
be spaced on centers equal to the weather exposure to coin- 
cide with the placement of fasteners. 

R905J7.1.1 Solid sheathing required. In areas where 
the avprage daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) 
or less, sohd sheathing is required on that portion of the 
roof requiring the application of an ice shield. 

R905.7.2 Deck slope. Wood shingles shall be installed on 
slopes of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-per- 
cent slope) or greater. 

R905.7.3 Underlayment. In areas where the average daily 
temperature in January is 25 °F (-4°C) or less, an ice barrier 
that consists of at least two layers of underlayment ce- 



mented together or of a self-adhering polymer modified bi- 
tumen sheet shall extend from the eave's edge to a point at 
least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the 
building. Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, 
Type I. 

R905.7.4 Material standards. Wood shingles shall be of 
naturally durable wood and comply with the requirements 
of Table R905 .7.4. 

TABLE R905.7.4 
WOOD SHINGLE MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 


MINIMUM GRADES 


APPLICABLE 
GRADING RULES 


Wood shingles of 

naturally durable wood 


1, 2 or 3 


Cedar Shake and 
Shingle Bureau 



R905.7.5 Application. Wood shingles shall be installed ac- 
cording to this chapter and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. Wood shingles shall be laid with a side lap not 
less than 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) between joints in courses, and 
no two joints in any three adjacent courses shall be in direct 
alignment. Spacing between shingles shall not be less than 
V 4 inch to 3 / 8 inch (6.4 mm to 9.5 mm). Weather exposure for 
wood shingles shall not exceed those set in Table R905 .7.5 . 
; Fasteners for wood shingles shall be corrosion-resistant 
with a minimum penetration of V 2 inch (12.7 mm) into the 
sheathing. For sheathing less than V 2 inch (12.7 mm) in 
thickness, the fasteners shall extend through the sheathing. 
Wood shingles shall be attached to the roof with two fasten- 
ers per shingle, positioned no more than 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
from each edge and no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above 
the exposure line. 

TABLE R905.7.5 
WOOD SHINGLE WEATHER EXPOSURE AND ROOF SLOPE 



ROOFING 
MATERIAL 


LENGTH 
(inches) 


GRADE 


EXPOSURE (inches) 


3:12 pitch to 
<4:12 


4:12 pitch or 

steeper 


Shingles of 
naturally 
durable wood 


16 


No. 1 


3 3 / 4 


5 


• No. 2 


3% 


4 


No. 3 


3 


3V 2 


18 


No. 1 


4V 4 


5V 2 


No. 2 


4 


4V 2 


No. 3 


3</ 2 


4 


24 


No. 1 


5 3 / 4 


1% 


No. 2 


5V 2 


6% 


No. 3 


5 


• 5V 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

R905.7.6 Valley flashing. Roof flashing shall be not less 
than No. 26 gage [0.019 inches (0.48 mm)] corrosion-resis- 
tant sheet metal and shall extend 10 inches (254 mm) from 
the centerline each way for roofs having slopes less than 12 
units vertical in 12 units horizontal (100-percent slope), and 
7 inches (178 mm) from the centerline each way for slopes 
of 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal and greater. Sec- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



251 



R905.7.7 - R905.9 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



tions of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 4 
inches (102 mm). 

K905.7.7 Label required. Each bundle of shingles shall be 
identified by a label of an approved grading or inspection 
bureau or agency. 

R905.8 Wood shakes. The installation of wood shakes shall 
comply with the provisions of this section. 

R905.8.1 Deck requirements. Wood shakes shall only be 
used on solid or spaced sheathing. Where spaced sheathing 
is used, sheathing boards shall not be less than 1-inch by 4- 
inch (25 .4 mm by 1 02 mm) nominal dimensions and shall be 
spaced on centers equal to the weather exposure to coincide 
with the placement of fasteners. Where 1-inch by 4-inch 
(25.4 mm by 102 mm) spaced sheathing is installed at 10 
inches (254 mm) on center, additional 1-inch by 4-inch 
(25.4 mm by 102 mm) boards shall be installed between the 
sheathing boards. 

R905.8.1.1 Solid sheathing required. In areas where 
the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) 
or less, solid sheathing is required on that portion of the 
roof requiring an ice barrier. 

R905.8.2 Deck slope. Wood shakes shall only be used on 
slopes of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-per- 
cent slope) or greater. 

R905.8.3 Underlayment. In areas where the average daily 
temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less, an ice barrier 
that consists of at least two layers of underlayment ce- 
mented together or a self-adhering polymer modified bitu- 
men sheet shall extend from the edge of the eave to a point at 
least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the 
building. Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, 
Type I. 

R905.8.4 Interlayment. Interlayment shall comply with 
ASTM D 226, Type I. 

R905.8.5 Material standards. Wood shakes shall comply 
with the requirements of Table R905.8.5. 

TABLE R905.8.5 
WOOD SHAKE MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 


MINIMUM 
GRADES 


APPLICABLE GRADING 
RULES 


Wood shakes of naturally 
durable wood 


1 


Cedar Shake and 
Shingle Bureau 


Taper sawn shakes of naturally 
durable wood 


lor 2 


Cedar Shake and 
Shingle Bureau 


Preservative-treated shakes 
and shingles of naturally 
durable wood 


1 


Cedar Shake and 
Shingle Bureau 


Fire-retardant-treated shakes 
and shingles of naturally 
durable wood 


1 


Cedar Shake and 
Shingle Bureau 


Preservative-treated tapersawn 
shakes of southern yellow 
pine treated in accordance 
with AWPA Standard C2 


lor 2 


Forest Products 
Laboratory of the 
Texas Forest 
Services 



instructions. Wood shakes shall be laid with a side lap not 
less than 1V 2 inches (38 mm) between joints in adjacent 
courses. Spacing between shakes in the same course shall be 
V 8 inch to 5 / 8 inch (3.2 mm to 15.9 mm) for shakes and 
tapersawn shakes of naturally durable wood and shall be V 4 
inch to 3 / 8 inch (6.4 mm to 9.5 mm) for preservative 
tapersawn shakes. Weather exposure for wood shakes shall 
not exceed those set forth in Table R905.8.6. Fasteners for 
wood shakes shall be corrosion-resistant, with a minimum 
penetration of V 2 inch (12.7 mm) into the sheathing. For 
sheathing less than V 2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, the fas- 
teners shall extend through the sheathing. Wood shakes 
shall be attached to the roof with two fasteners per shake, po- 
sitioned no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) from each edge and 
no more than 2 inches (51 mm) above the exposure line. 

TABLE R905.8.6 
WOOD SHAKE WEATHER EXPOSURE AND ROOF SLOPE 



ROOFING MATERIAL 


LENGTH 
(inches) 


GRADE 


EXPOSURE (inches) 


4:12 pitch or steeper 


Shakes of naturally durable 
wood 


18 


No. 1 


7V 2 


24 


No. 1 


10" 


Preservative-treated taper 
sawn shakes of Southern 
Yellow Pine 


18 


No. 1 


7V 2 


24 


No. 1 


10 


18 


No. 2 


5'/ 2 


24 


No. 2 


7V 2 


Taper-sawn shakes of 
naturally durable wood 


18 


No. 1 


i\ 


24 


No. 1 


10 


18 


No. 2 


5V 2 


24 


No. 2 


7V 2 



R905.8.6 Application. Wood shakes shall be installed ac- 
cording to this chapter and the manufacturer's installation 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For 24- inch by 3 / g -inch handsplit shakes, the maximum exposure is 7'/ 2 
inches. 

R905.8.7 Shake placement. The starter course at the eaves 
shall be doubled and the bottom layer shall be either 1 5-inch 
(381 mm), 18-inch (457 mm) or 24-inch (610 mm) wood 
shakes or wood shingles. Fifteen-inch (381 mm) or 18-inch 
(457 mm) wood shakes may be used for the final course at 
the ridge. Shakes shall be interlaid with 18-inch-wide (457 
mm) strips of not less than No. 30 felt shingled between each 
course in such a manner that no felt is exposed to the weather 
by positioning the lower edge of each felt strip above the butt 
end of the shake it covers a distance equal to twice the 
weather exposure. 

R905.8.8 Valley flashing. Roof valley flashing shall not be 
less than No. 26 gage [0.019 inches (0.48 mm)] corrosion- 
resistant sheet metal and shall extend at least 1 1 inches (279 
mm) from the centerline each way. Sections of flashing shall 
have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

R905.8.9 Label required. Each bundle of shakes shall be 
identified by a label of an approved grading or inspection 
bureau or agency. 

R905.9 Built-up roofs. The installation of built-up roofs shall 
comply with the provisions of this section. 



252 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



R905.9.1 - R905.11 



R905.9.1 Slope. Built-up roofs shall have a design slope of a 
minimum of one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(2-percent slope) for drainage, except for coal-tar built-up 
roofs, which shall have a design slope of a minimum one- 
eighth unit vertical in 1 2 units horizontal ( 1 -percent slope) . 

R905.9.2 Material standards. Built-up roof covering ma- 
terials shall comply with the standards in Table R905.9.2. 

R90S.9.3 Application. Built-up roofs shall be installed ac- 
cording to this chapter and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 

R905.10 Metal roof panels. The installation of metal roof 
panels shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

R905.10.1 Deck requirements. Metal roof panel roof cov- 
erings shall be applied to a solid or spaced sheathing .except 
where the roof covering is specifically designed to be ap- 
plied to spaced supports. 

R905.10.2 Slope. The minimum slope for lapped, 
nonsoldered seam metal roofs without applied lap sealant 
shall be three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-per- 
cent slope). The minimum slope for lapped, nonsoldered 
seam metal roofs with applied lap sealant shall be one-half 
vertical unit in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope). The 



minimum slope for standing seam roof systems shall be 
one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent 
slope). 

R905.10.3 Material standards. Metal-sheet roof covering 
systems that incorporate supporting structural members 
shall be designed in accordance with the International 
Building Code. Metal-sheet roof coverings installed over 
structural decking shall comply with Table R905.10.3. 

R905.10.4 Attachment. Metal roofing shall be installed in 
accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's instal- 
lation instructions. Metal roofing fastened directly to steel 
framing shall be attached by approved fasteners. The fol- 
lowing fasteners shall be used: 

1. Galvanized fasteners shall be used for galvanized 
roofs. 

2. Hard copper or copper alloy shall be used for copper 
roofs. 

3. Stainless steel fasteners are acceptable for metal 
roofs. 

R905.ll Modified bitumen roofing. The installation of modi- 
fied bitumen roofing shall comply with the provisions of this 
section. 



TABLE R905.9.2 
BUILT-UP ROOFING MATERIAL STANDARDS 



MATERIAL STANDARD 


STANDARD 


Acrylic coatings used in roofing 


ASTM D 6083 


Aggregate surfacing 


ASTM D 1863 


Asphalt adhesive used in roofing 


ASTM D 3747 


Asphalt cements used in roofing 


ASTM D 3019; D 2822; D 4586 


Asphalt-coated glass fiber base sheet 


ASTM D 4601 


Asphalt coatings used in roofing 


ASTM D 1227; D 2823; D 2824; D 4479 


Asphalt glass felt 


ASTM D 2178 


Asphalt primer used in roofing 


ASTM D 41 


Asphalt-saturated and asphalt-coated organic felt base sheet 


ASTM D 2626 


Asphalt-saturated organic felt (perforated) 


ASTM D 226 


Asphalt used in roofing 


ASTM D 312 


Coal tar cements used in roofing 


ASTM D 4022; D 5643 


Coal-tar saturated organic felt 


ASTM D 227 


Coal-tar used in roofing 


ASTM D 450, Types I or II 


Glass mat, coal tar 


ASTM D 4990 


Glass mat, venting type 


ASTM D 4897 


Mineral- surfaced inorganic cap sheet 


ASTM D 3909 


Thermoplastic fabrics used in roofing 


ASTM D 5665; D 5726 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



253 



TABLE R905.10.3 - R905.15.3 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



TABLE R905.10.3 
METAL ROOF COVERINGS STANDARDS AND INSTALLATION 



ROOF COVERING TYPE 



STANDARD APPLICATION RATE/THICKNESS 



Galvanized steel 



ASTM A 653 G-90 zinc coated, 0.013 inch thick minimum 



Prepainted steel 



ASTM A 755 



Aluminum zinc alloy coated steel 



ASTM A 792 AZ 50 



Lead-coated copper 



ASTM B 101 



Copper 



ASTM B 370, 16 oz. per square feet for metal sheet roof covering systems, 12 oz. per sq.ft. 
for preformed metal shingle systems; CDA 4115 



Hard lead 



2 lbs, per sq. ft. 



Soft lead 



3 lbs, per sq. ft. 



Aluminum 



0.024 inch minimum thickness 



Terne coating of 40 pounds per double base box, field painted where applicable in accordance 
with manufacturer's installation instructions. 



Terne (tin) and terne coated stainless 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 ounce per square foot = 305 g/m 2 , 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m 2 . 



J5.11.1 Slope. Modified bitumen membrane roofs shall 
have a design slope of a minimum of one-fourth unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage. 

R905.11.2 Material standards. Modified bitumen roof 
coverings shall comply with the standards in Table 
R905.11.2. 

TABLE R905.1 1.2 
MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOFING MATERIAL STANDARDS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Modified bitumen roof 
membrane 


ASTM D 6162; D 6163; 
D 6164; D 6222; D 6223; 
CGSB 37-56M 


Asphalt primer 


ASTM D 41 


Asphalt cement 


ASTM D 3019 


Asphalt adhesive 


ASTM D 3747 


Asphalt coating 


ASTM D 1227; D 2824 


Acrylic coating 


ASTM D 6083 



M905.11.3 Application. Modified bitumen roofs shall be 
installed according to this chapter and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



05.12 Thermoset simgle-ply roofing. The installation of 
thermoset single-ply roofing shall comply with the provisions 
of this section. 



D5.12.1 Slope. Thermoset single-ply membrane roofs 
shall have a design slope of a minimum of one-fourth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage. 



1)5.12.2 Materials standards. Thermoset single-ply 
roof coverings shall comply with RM A RP- 1 , RP-2 or RP-3 , 
or ASTM D 4637 or CGSB 37-52M. 

R905.12.3 Application. Thermoset single-ply roofs shall 
be installed according to this chapter and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



95.13 Thermoplastic single-ply roofing. The installation 
of thermoplastic single-ply roofing shall comply with the pro- 
visions of this section. 



R905.13.1 Slope. Thermoplastic single-ply membrane 
roofs shall have a design slope of a minimum of one-fourth 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

R905. 1.3.2 Material standards. Thermoplastic single-ply 
roof coverings shall comply with ASTM D 4434 or CGSB 
37-54M. 

R905.13.3 Application. Thermoplastic single-ply roofs 
shall be installed according to this chapter and the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

R905.14 Sprayed polyurethane foam roofing. The installa- 
tion of sprayed polyurethane foam roofing shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

R905.14.1 Slope. Sprayed polyurethane foam roofs shall 
have a design slope of a minimum of one-fourth unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage. 

R905.14.2 Material standards. Spray-applied polyure- 
thane-foam insulation shall comply with ASTM C 1029. 

R905.14.3 Application. Foamed in place roof insulation 
shall be installed in accordance with this chapter and the 
manufacturer's installation instructions. A liquid-applied 
protective coating that complies with Section R905.15 shall 
be applied no less than 2 hours nor more than 72 hours fol- 
lowing the application of the foam. 

R905.14.4 Foam plastics. Foam plastic materials and in- 
stallation shall comply with Section R318. 

R905.15 Liquid-applied coatings. The installation of liquid- 
applied coatings shall comply with the provisions of this sec- 
tion. 

R905.15.1 Slope. Liquid-applied roofs shall have a design 
slope of a minimum of one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (2-percent slope). 

R905.15.2 Material standards. Liquid-applied roof coat- 
ings shall comply with ASTM C 836, C 957, D 1227, D 
3468 oi- D 6083. 

R905.15.3 Application. Liquid-applied roof coatings shall 
be installed according to this chapter and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



254 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



R906 - R907.6 



SECTION R906 
ROOF INSULATION 

R906.1 General. The use of above deck thermal insulation 
shall be permitted provided such insulation is covered with an 
approved roof covering and passes FM 4450 or UL 1256. 



SECTION R907 
REROOFING 

R907.1 General. Materials and methods of application used 
for recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall com- 
ply with the requirements of this chapter. Roof repairs to exist- 
ing roofs and roof coverings shall comply with the provisions 
of Chapter 34 of the International Building Code, but more 
than 25 percent of the roof covering of any building shall not be 
removed and replaced within a 12-month period unless the en- 
tire roof covering is made to conform to the requirements for 
new roofing. 

Exception: Reroofing shallnot be required to meet the min- 
imum design slope requirement of one-fourth vertical in 12 
units horizontal (2-percent slope) in Section R905 for roofs 
that provide positive roof drainage. 

R907.2 Structural and construction loads. The structural 
roof components shall be capable of supporting the roof cover- 
ing system and the material and equipment loads that will be 
encountered during installation of the roof covering system. 

R907.3 Recovering versus replacement. New roof coverings 
shall not be installed without first removing existing roof cov- 
erings where any of the following conditions occur: 

1 . Where the existing roof or roof covering is water-soaked 
or has deteriorated to the point that the existing roof or 
roof covering is not adequate as a base for additional 
roofing. 

2. Where the existing roof covering is wood shake, slate, 
clay, cement or asbestos-cement tile. 

3. Where the existing roof has two or more applications of 
any type of roof covering. 

4. For asphalt shingles, when the building is located in an 
area subject to severe hail damage according to Figure 
R907.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Complete and separate roofing systems, such as 
standing-seam metal roof systems, that are designed 
to transmit the roof loads directly to the building's 
structural system and that do not rely on existing roofs 
and roof coverings for support shall not require the re- 
moval of existing roof coverings. 

2. Metal panel, metal shingle, and concrete and clay tile 
roof coverings shall be permitted to be installed over 
existing wood shake roofs when applied in accor- 
dance with Section R907.4. 

R907.4 Roof recovering. Where the application of a new roof 
covering over wood shingle or shake roofs creates a combusti- 
ble concealed space, the entire existing surface shall be covered 
with gypsum board, mineral fiber, glass fiber or other approved 
materials securely fastened in place. 



R907.5 Reinstallation of materials. Existing slate, clay or ce- 
ment tile shall be permitted for reinstallation, except that dam- 
aged, cracked or broken slate or tile shall not be reinstalled. 
Existing vent flashing, metal edgings, drain outlets, collars and 
metal counterflashings shall not be reinstalled where rusted, 
damaged or deteriorated. Aggregate surfacing materials shall 
not be reinstalled. 

R907.6 Flashings. Flashings shall be reconstructed in accor- 
dance with approved manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Metal flashing to which bituminous materials are to be adhered 
shall be primed prior to installation. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



255 



to 

01 



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o 
o 



3 

2 



O 

z 

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f- 

3 

m 
w 

o 

m 

z 

H 

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O 

D 

m 

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3 
Q 

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o 
-4 

w 



LIGHT TO MODERATE RISK 



SEVERE RISK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Shaded portion of map denotes locations with a high probability of severe hail. A severe classification is where weather conditions frequently produce damaging hailstorms. 

b. Areas with greater than a 50/50 chance of a 1-inch or larger diameter hailstone occurring at a point at least once in a 5-year period. 

FIGURE R907.3 
HAIL RISK MAP ab 



33 
O 
O 

-n 

> 

w 

m 



m 
to 



CHAPTER 10 

CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



SECTION R1001 
MASONRY CHIMNEYS 

R1001.1 General. Masonry chimneys shall be constructed, an- 
chored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter and 
the applicable provisions of Chapters 3, 4 and 6. In Seismic De- 
sign Categories D, and D 2 , masonry and concrete chimneys 
shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Section R1003 
for chimneys serving fireplaces. In Seismic Design Category 
A, B or C, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required. 
Chimneys shall be structurally sound, durable, smoke-tight and 
capable of conveying flue gases to the exterior safely. 

R1001.1.1 Support. Masonry chimneys shall be supported 
on foundations of solid masonry or concrete at least 12 
inches (305 mm) thick and at least 6 inches (152 mm) be- 
yond each side of the exterior dimensions of the chimney. 
Footings shall be founded on natural, undisturbed earth be- 
low the frostline. In areas not subject to freezing, footings 
shall be located a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) below 
finished grade. 

R1001.2 Corbeling. Masonry chimneys shall not be corbeled 
more than one-half of the chimney's wall thicknessfrom a wall 
or foundation, nor shall a chimney be corbeled from a wall or 
foundation that is less than 1 2 inches (305 mm) in thickness un- 
less it projects equally on each side of the wall, except that on 
the second story of a two-story dwelling, corbeling of chim- 
neys on the exterior of the enclosing walls may equal the wall 
thickness. The projection of a single course shall not exceed 
one-half the unit height or one-third of the unit bed depth, 
whichever is less. 

R1001.3 Changes in dimension. The chimney wall or chim- 
ney flue lining shall not change in size or shape within 6 inches 
(152 mm) above or below where the chimney passes through 
floor components, ceiling components or roof components. 

R1001.4 Offsets. Where a masonry chimney is constructed 
with a fireclay flue liner surrounded by one wythe of masonry, 
the maximum offset shall be such that the centerline of the flue 
above the offset does not extend beyond the center of the chim- 
ney wall below the offset. Where the chimney offset is sup- 
ported by masonry below the offset in an approved manner, the 
maximum offset limitations shall not apply. Each individual 
corbeled masonry course of the offset shall not exceed the pro- 
jection limitations specified in Section R1001.2. 

R1001.5 Additional load. Chimneys shall not support loads 
other than their own weight unless they are designed and con- 
structed to support the additional load. Masonry chimneys shall 
be permitted to be constructed as part of the masonry walls or 
reinforced concrete walls of the building. 

R1001.6 Termination. Chimneys shall extend at least 2 feet 
(610 mm) higher than any portion of a building within 10 feet 



(3048 mm), but shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the 
point where the chimney passes through the roof. 

R1001.7 Wall thickness. Masonry chimney walls shall be con- 
structed of solid masonry units or hollow masonry units 
grouted solid with not less than a 4-inch (102 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

R1001.8 Flue lining (material). Masonry chimneys shall be 
lined. The lining material shall be appropriate for the type of 
appliance connected, according to the terms of the appliance 
listing and manufacturer's instructions. 

R1001.8.1 Residential-type appliances (general). Flue 
lining systems shall comply with one of the following: 

1 . Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of 
ASTM C 315 or equivalent. 

2. Listed chimney lining systems complying with UL 

1777. 

3. Factory-built chimneys or chimney units listed for in- 
stallation within masonry chimneys. 

4. Other approved materials that will resist, without 
cracking, softening or corrosion, flue gases and con- 
densate at temperatures up to 1,800°F (982°C). 

R1001.8.2 Flue linings for specific appliances. Flue lin- 
ings other than these covered in Section R1001.8.1, in- 
tended for use with specific types of appliances, shall 
comply with Sections R1001.8.3 through R1001.8.6. 

R1001.8.3 Gas appliances. Rue lining systems for gas ap- 
pliances shall be in accordance with Chapter 24. 

R1001.8.4 Pellet fuel-burning appliances. Flue lining and 
vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with pellet fuel 
burning appliances shall be limited to the following: 

1. Flue lining systems complying with Section 
R1001.8.1. 

2. Pellet vents listed for installation within masonry 
chimneys. (See Section R1001.8.6 for marking.) 

R1001.8.5 Oil-fired appliances approved for use with 
Type L vent. Hue lining and vent systems for use in ma- 
sonry chimneys with oil-fired appliances approved for use 
with Type L vent shall be limited to the following: 

1. Flue lining systems complying with Section 
R1001.8.1. 

2. Listed chimney liners complying with UL 641. (See 
Section R1001.8.6 for marking.) 

R1001.8.6 Notice of usage. When a flue is relined with a 
material not complying with Section R1001.8.1, the chim- 
ney shall be plainly and permanently identified by a label at- 
tached to a wall, ceiling or other conspicuous location 
adjacent to where the connector enters the chimney. The la- 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



257 



R1QQ1.9-R1001.12.2 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



bel shall include the following message or equivalent lan- 
guage: 

THIS CHIMNEY FLUE IS FOR USE ONLY WITH [TYPE 

OR CATEGORY OF APPLIANCEJAPPLIANCES THAT 

BURN [TYPE OF FUEL]. DO NOT CONNECT OTHER 

TYPES OF APPLIANCES. 

R100L9 Flue lining (installation). Flue liners shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with ASTM C 1283 and extend from a 
point not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the lowest inlet or, 
in the case of fireplaces, from the top of the smoke chamber to a 
point above the enclosing walls. The lining shall be carried up 
vertically, with a maximum slope no greater than 30 degrees 
from the vertical. 

Fireclay flue liners shall be laid in medium-duty refractory 
mortar conforming to ASTM C 199 with tight mortar joints left 
smooth on the inside and installed to maintain an air space or 
insulation not to exceed the thickness of the flue liner separat- 
ing the flue liners from the interior face of the chimney ma- 
sonry walls. Flue lining shall be supported on all sides. Only 
enough mortar shall be placed to make the joint and hold the 
liners in position. 



.9.1 Listed materials. Listed materials used as flue 
linings shall be installed in accordance with the terms of 
their listings and manufacturer's instructions. 

R1001J.2 Space around lining. The space surrounding a 
chimney lining system or vent installed within a masonry 
chimney shall not be used to vent any other appliance. 

Exception: This shall not prevent the installation of a 
separate flue lining in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 



Multiple flues. When two or more flues are located 
in the same chimney, masonry wythes shall be built between 
adjacent flue linings. The masonry wythes shall be at least 4 
inches (102 mm) thick and bonded into the walls of the chim- 
ney. 

Exception: When venting only one appliance, two flues 
may adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the 
flue lining separation between them. The joints of the adja- 
cent flue linings shall be staggered at least 4 inches (102 
mm). 



.11 Flue area (appliance). Chimney flues shall not be 
smaller in area than that of the area of the connector from the 
appliance [see Tables RlOOl.ll(l) and R1001. 11(2)]. The siz- 
ing of a chimney flue to which multiple-appliance venting sys- 
tems are connected shall be in accordance with Section 
M1805.3. 



1.12 Flue area (masonry fireplace). Flue sizing for 
chimneys serving fireplaces shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion R1001. 12.1 or Section R1001. 12.2. 

R100L12.1 Option 1. Round chimney flues shall have a 
minimum net cross-sectional area of at least V 12 of the fire- 
place opening. Square chimney flues shall have a minimum 
net cross-sectional area of V l0 of the fireplace opening. Rect- 
angular chimney flues with an aspect ratio less than 2 to 1 
shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of V 10 of the 
fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ra- 



tio of 2 to 1 or more shall have a minimum net cross-sec- 
tional area of V 8 of the fireplace opening. 

R1001.12.2 Option 2. The minimum net cross-sectional 
area of the chimney flue shall be determined in accordance 
with Figure R1001.12.2. A flue size providing at least the 
equivalent net cross-sectional area shall be used. Cross-sec- 
tional areas of clay flue linings are provided in Tables 
R1001 .11(1) and R1001.1 1(2) or as provided by the manu- 
facturer or as measured in the field. The height of the chim- 
ney shall be measured from the firebox floor to the top of the 
chimney flue. 

TABLE R1 001 .11(1) 
NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF ROUND FLUE SIZES 3 



FLUE SIZE, INSIDE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA 
(square inches) 


6 


28 


7 


38 


8 


50 


10 


78 


10 3 / 4 


90 


12 


113 


15 


176 


18 


254 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm 2 , 
a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315. 

TABLE R1 001 .11 (2) 

NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF SQUARE AND 

RECTANGULAR FLUE SIZES 3 



FLUE SIZE, OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS 
(inches) 


CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA 
(square inches) 


4V 2 x 13 


34 


7V 2 x 7'/ 2 


37 


8>/ 2 x 8V 2 


47 


77 2 xll7 2 


58 


8V 2 x 13 


74 


7V 2 x 15V 2 


82 


ll'/ 2 xllV 2 


91 


8V 2 x 17V 2 


101 


13x13 


122 


ll'/ 2 x 15V 2 


124 


13 x 17V 2 


165 


15V 2 xl5V 2 


168 


15V 2 x 19'/ 2 


214 


17>/ 2 x 17'/ 2 


226 


19V2X19V2 


269 


20x20 


286 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm 2 , 
a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315. 



258 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



FIGURE R1 001 . 1 2.2 -R1 001. 15 



For SI: 































3000 




269 
214 

168 
124 

91 

82 
58 

37 






















































n 800 




















































































zbuu 






















































































224 




















































































187 






















































z 
d 
































___i 






















< 

LU 

§ 140 






















































< 

z 




























id 11 ° 






















































en 
en 
O 
tr 
o 






















































t 76 




























5 

70 


























600 






























53 


























400 


32 






















































°00 


























































g ROUND 
» FLUES 

3 

3 


SQUARE OR 
1 RECTANGULAR 
% FLUES 


3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 

< 
HEIGHT, MEASURED FROM FLOOR 85- 
OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER TO < „ Z 
TOP OF FLUE (FT. I g, z d 

o: z !2 
Eg 
O 



FIGURE R1001.12.2 
FLUE SIZES FOR MASONRY CHIMNEYS 



R1001.13 Inlet. Inlets to masonry chimneys shall enter from 
the side. Inlets shall have a thimble of fireclay, rigid refractory 
material or metal that will prevent the connector from pulling 
out of the inlet or from extending beyond the wall of the liner. 

R1001.14 Masonry chimney cleanout openings. Cleanout 
openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the 
base of each flue within every masonry chimney. The upper 
edge of the cleanout shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The height of the 
opening shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm). The cleanout shall 
be provided with a noncombustible cover. 

Exception: Chimney flues serving masonry fireplaces 
where cleaning is possible through the fireplace opening. 

R1001.15 Chimney clearances. Any portion of a masonry 
chimney lodated in the interior of the building or within the ex- 
terior wall of the building shall have a minimum air space clear- 



ance to combustibles of 2 inches (51 mm). Chimneys located 
entirely outside the exterior walls of the building, including 
chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall have a 
minimum air space clearance of 1 inch (25.4 mm). The air 
space shall not be filled, except to provide fire blocking in ac- 
cordance with Section R100T.16. 

Exceptions: 

1. Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining 
system listed and labeled for use in chimneys in con- 
tact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777 
and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions are permitted to have com- 
bustible material in contact with their exterior sur- 
faces. 

2. When masonry chimneys are constructed as part of 
masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



259 



R1001.16-R1002.1 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete 
wall less than 1 2 inches (306 mm) from the inside sur- 
face of the nearest flue lining. 

3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing 
materials, such as wood siding and flooring, shall be 
permitted to abut the masonry chimney side walls, in 
accordance with Figure R 100 1.1 5 provided such 
combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 
inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest 
flue lining. Combustible material and trim shall not 
overlap the corners of the chimney by more than 1 
inch (25.4 mm). 

R100L16 Chimney fireblocking. All spaces between chim- 
neys and floors and ceilings through which chimneys pass shall 
be fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened 
in place. The fireblocking of spaces between chimneys and 
wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 .4 
mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath 
laid across the spaces between combustible material and the 
chimney. 



greater than 30 inches (762 mm) and does not intersect the 
ridgeline. The intersection of the cricket and the chimney shall 
be flashed and counterflashed in the same manner as normal 
roof-chimney intersections. Crickets shall be constructed in 
compliance with Figure R1001.17 and Table R1001.17. 

TABLE R1 001 .17 
CRICKET DIMENSIONS 



ROOF SLOPE 


H 


12-12 


V 2 ofW 


8-12 


V 3 ofW 


6-12 


>/ 4 ofW 


4-12 


V 6 ofW 


3-12 


V 8 ofW 



L17 Chimney crickets. Chimneys shall be provided 
with crickets when the dimension narallel to the rideeline is 



SECTION R1002 
FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEYS 

R1002.1 Listing. Factory-built chimneys shall be listed and la- 
beled and shall be installed and terminated in accordance with 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 




MASONRY ABUTTING 
COMBUSTIBLE SHEATHING 
12 IN. FROM FLUE LINING 



1 IN. CLEARANCE (AIRSPACE) 
TO COMBUSTIBLE SHEATHING 



§___H 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R1001.15 

Clearance from combustibles 




FLUE LINER 



L^ K\\t\\^kNR^f^ 



ROOF LINE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



1 




^K 



1 

\\ 1 IN. MIN. 
V AIRSPACE 




• 



FIGURE R1001.17 
CHIMNEY CRICKET 



260 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE3 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



R1002.2-R1003.8.1 



R1002.2 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds shall not be 
installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys except 
where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the spe- 
cific factory-built chimney system and installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R1002.3 Solid fuel appliances. Factory-built chimneys for use 
with solid fuel-burning appliances shall comply with the Type 
HT requirements of UL 103. 

Exception: Chimneys for use with fireplace stoves listed 
only to UL 737 shall comply with the requirements of UL 
103. 

R1002.4 Factory-built fireplaces. Chimneys for use with fac- 
tory-built fireplaces shall comply with the requirements of UL 
127. 

R1002.5 Support. Where factory-built chimneys are sup- 
ported by structural members, such as joists and rafters, such 
members shall be designed to support the additional load. 

R1002.6 Medium-heat appliances. Factory-built chimneys 
for medium-heat appliances producing flue gases having a tem- 
perature above 1,000°F (538°C), measured at the entrance to 
the chimney shall comply with UL 959. 



SECTION R1 003 
MASONRY FIREPLACES 

R1003.1 General. Masonry fireplaces shall be constructed in 
accordance with this section and the applicable provisions of 
Chapters 3 and 4. 

R1003.2 Footings and foundations. Foundations for masonry 
fireplaces and their chimneys shall be constructed of concrete 
or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall ex- 
tend at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the face of the fireplace 
or support wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natu- 
ral, undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In ar- 
eas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches 
(305 mm) below finished grade. 

R1003.3 Seismic reinforcing. Masonry or concrete chimneys 
in Seismic Design Categories Dj and D 2 shall be reinforced. 
Reinforcing shall conform to the requirements setforth in Ta- 
ble R1003.1 and Section R609, Grouted Masonry. 

R1003.3 .1 Vertical reinforcing. For chimneys up to 40 
inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars 
shall be placed between wyfhes of solid masonry or within 
the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance 
with Section R609. Grout shall be prevented from bonding 
with the flue liner so that the flue liner is free to move with 
thermal expansion. For chimneys greater than 40 inches 
(1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be 
provided for each additional flue incorporated in the chim- 
ney or for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or 
fraction thereof. 

R1003.3.2 Horizontal reinforcing. Vertical reinforcement 
shall be placed within V 4 -inch (6.4 mm) ties, or other rein- 
forcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, placed in the 
bed joints according to Section R607 at a minimum of every 
18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be 
providediat each bend in the vertical bars. 



R1003.4 Seismic anchorage. Masonry and concrete chimneys 
in Seismic Design Categories D, and D 2 shall be anchored at 
each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
above grade, except where constructed completely within the 
exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the requirements of 
Section R1003.4.1. 

R1003.4.1 Anchorage. Two 3 / 16 -inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by 
25.4 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches 
(305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around 
the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the 
bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four 
floor ceiling or floor joists or rafters with two V 2 -inch (12.7 
mm) bolts. 

R1003.5 Fireplace walls. Masonry fireplaces shall be con- 
structed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted 
solid, stone or reinforced concrete. When a lining of firebrick at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm) in thickness or other approved lining is 
provided, the total minimum thickness of back and side walls 
shall be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry, including the lin- 
ing. The width of joints between firebricks shall not be greater 
than V 4 inch (6.4 mm). When no lining is provided, the total 
minimum thickness of back and side walls shall be 10 inches 
(254 mm) of solid masonry. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM 
C 27 or C 1261 and shall be laid with medium-duty refractory 
mortar conforming to ASTM C 199. 

R1003.6 Steel fireplace units. Steel fireplace units incorporat- 
ing a firebox liner of not less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness 
and an air chamber may be installed with masonry to provide a 
total thickness at the back and sides of not less than 8 inches (203 
mm), of which not less than 4 inches (102 mm) shall be of solid 
masonry. Warm-air ducts employed with steel fireplace units of 
the circulating air type shall be constructed of metal or masonry. 

R1003.7 Lintel and throat. Masonry over a fireplace opening 
shall be supported by a lintel of noncombustible material. The 
minimum required bearing length on each end of the fireplace 
opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm). The fireplace throat or 
damper shall be located a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the lintel. 

R1003.8 Smoke chamber. Smoke chamber walls shall be con- 
structed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted 
solid, stone or reinforced concrete. Corbelling of masonry 
units shall not leave unit cores exposed to the inside of the 
smoke chamber. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (5 1 
mm) thick, or a lining of vitrified clay at least 5 / 8 inch (15.9 mm) 
thick, is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back 
and side walls shall be 6 inches (152 mm) of solid masonry, in- 
cluding the lining. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or C 
1261 and shall be laid with medium-duty refractory mortar 
conforming to ASTM C 199. Where no lining is provided, the 
total minimum thickness of front, back and side walls shall be 8 
inches (203 mm) of solid masonry. When the inside surface of 
the smoke chamber is formed by corbeled masonry, the inside 
surface shall be parged smooth. 

R1003.8.1 Smoke chamber dimensions. The inside height 
of the smoke chamber from the fireplace throat to the begin- 
ning of the flue shall not be greater than the inside width of 
the fireplace opening. The inside surface of the smoke 
chamber shall not be inclined more than 45 degrees (0.39 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



261 



TABLE R1 003.1- 1003.9.2 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



TABLE R1 003.1 
SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYS 



ITEM 


LETTER 3 


REQUIREMENTS 


Hearth slab thickness 


A 


4" 


Hearth extension 

(each side of opening) 


B 


8" fireplace opening < 6 square foot 
12" fireplace opening > 6 square foot 


Hearth extension 
(front of opening) 


C 


16" fireplace opening < 6 square foot 
20" fireplace opening > 6 square foot 


Hearth slab reinforcing 


D 


Reinforced to carry its own weight and all imposed loads. 


Thickness of wall of firebox 


E 


10" solid brick or 8" where a firebrick lining is used. Joints in 
firebrick V 4 " maximum 


Distance from top of opening to throat 


F 


8" 


Smoke chamber wall thickness 
Unlined walls 


G 


6" 
8" 


Chimney 

Vertical reinforcing b 


H 


Four No. 4 full-length bars for chimney up to 40" wide. Add two 
No. 4 bars for each additional 40" or fraction of width or each 
additional flue. 


Horizontal reinforcing 


J 


l/ 4 " ties at 18" and two ties at each bend in vertical steel. 


Bond beams 


K 


No specified requirements 


Fireplace lintel 


L 


Noncombustible material. 


Chimney walls with flue lining 


M 


Solid masonry units or hollow masonry units grouted solid with 
at least 4 inch nominal thickness. 


Walls with unlined flue 


N 


8" solid masonry. 


Distances between adjacent flues 


— 


See Section R1001. 10. 


Effective flue area (based on area of fireplace opening) 


P 


See Section R1001. 12. 


Clearances: 

Combustible material 
Mantel and trim 
Above roof 


R 


See Sections R1001.15 and R1003.12. 
See Section R1001. 13. 
3' at roofline and 2' at 10'. 


Anchorage b 

Strap 

Number 

Embedment into chimney 
Fasten to 
Bolts 


S 


V 16 "xl" 

Two 

12" hooked around outer bar with 6" extension 

4 joists 

Two '/ 2 " diameter. 


Footing 
Thickness 
Width 


T 


12"min. 

6" each side of fireplace wall. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

NOTE: This table provides a summary of major requirements for the construction of masonry chimneys and fireplaces. Letter references are to Figure R1003.1, 
which shows examples of typical construction. This table does not cover all requirements, nor does it cover all aspects of the indicated requirements. For the actual 
mandatory requirements of the code, see the indicated section of text. 

a. The letters refer to Figure R1003.1. 

b. Not required in Seismic Design Category A, B or C. 



rad) from vertical when prefabricated smoke chamber lin- 
ings are used or when the smoke chamber walls are rolled or 
sloped rather than corbeled. When the inside surface of the 
smoke chamber is formed by corbeled masonry, the walls 
shall not be corbeled more than 30 degrees (0.26 rad) from 
vertical. 

R1003.9 Hearth and hearth extension. Masonry fireplace 
hearths and hearth extensions shall be constructed of concrete 
or masonry, supported by noncombustible materials, and rein- 
forced to carry their own weight and all imposed loads. No 



combustible material shall remain against the underside of 
hearths and hearth extensions after construction. 

R1003.9.1 Hearth thickness. The minimum thickness of 
fireplace hearths shall be 4 inches (102 mm). 

R1003.9.2 Hearth extension thickness. The minimum 
thickness of hearth extensions shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

Exception: When the bottom of the firebox opening 
is raised at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of 
the hearth extension, a hearth extension of not less 



262 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



FIGURE R1 003.1 



(R) BOND BEAM 

MORTAR CAP 



m.a 



MASONRY CAP 



©EFFECTIVE 
FLUE AREA 



(R) BOND BEAM 



(S) ANCHORAGE 



(R) BOND BEAM 



n\ HORIZONTAL 



REINFORCING TIES 



® WALL THICKNESS^ v 
X PARSE WITH ^ > 

Mi) MORTAR . 




(S) ANCHORAGE 



©HEARTH SLAB — i 
THICKNESS ±_ 



ASH DUMP OPTIONAL'-' 
CLEAN OUT 



THERMAL 
DISTANCE 21 

IN.MIN. p ARQE \BIN., 

WITH W-^^ 



MORTAR T 




DETAIL WITH 
«- WOOD 
MATERIAL 



MEASURE HEIGHT 
OF FREE STANDING 
FIREPLACE FROM 
TOP OF FOOTING 






^FOOTING WIDTH — » 



/ 



V\\V///V^ A \\////\ N \N 
p- FOOTING Wl DTH Q 




=y 



MORTAR CAP 




&— ® BOND BEAM 



©HORIZONTAL 
RBNFORCING TIES 



©VERTICAL 
RBNFORCING 



ANCHOR STRAP 



FLUE LINER 



©HORIZONTAL 
REINFORCING TIES 

V2IN. MIN. 

,4 IN. THICK MASONRY UNITS 



/r\ VERTICAL REINFORCING 
4 - A iy 20 IN. LAP IF SPLICED TO 
FOOTING DOWELS 



.FIREBOX WALL 



»-<£} THICKNESS 



A\Y///\\Vb 

FOOTING DEPTH 



®T ¥^v^\^ 



fS\ FOOTING WIDTH 
|«-W 6 IN. AROUND 

FREE STANDING 
FIREPLACE 



'///WA\\\ 



<2> 



BARS IN CONCRETE 
FOOTING 



7 



NATURAL 
GRADE 



1 HEARTH 20 IN. MIN. 



BRICK FIREBOX AND CHIMNEY- 
SECTIONAL SIDE VIEW ON WOOD FLOOR 



BRICK Fl REBOX AND BLOCK CHIMNEY- 
SECTIONAL SIDE VIEW ON CONCRETE SLAB 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R1003.1 
FIREPLACE AND CHIMNEY DETAILS 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODES 



263 



R1 003.1 0-R1 003.1 5 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 



than 3 / 8 -inch-thick (9.5 mm) brick, concrete, stone, tile 
or other approved noncombustible material is permitted. 



D Hearth extension dimensions. Hearth extensions 
shall extend at least 1 6 inches (406 mm) in front of and at least 8 
inches (203 mm) beyond each side of the fireplace opening. 
Where the fireplace opening is 6 square feet (0.557 m 2 ) or 
larger, the hearth extension shall extend at least 20 inches (508 
mm) in front of and at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond each 
side of the fireplace opening. 



'.11 Firebox dimensions. The firebox of a concrete or 
masonry fireplace shall have a minimum depth of 20 inches 
(508 mm). The throat shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the fireplace opening. The throat opening shall not be 
less than 4 inches (102 mm) in depth. The cross-sectional area 
of the passageway above the firebox, including the throat, 
damper and smoke chamber, shall not be less than the cross- 
sectional area of the flue. 

Exception: Rumford fireplaces shall be permitted provided 
that the depth of the fireplace is at least 12 inches (305 mm) 
and at least one-third of the width of the fireplace opening, 
that the throat is at least 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel 
and is at least '/ 20 the cross-sectional area of the fireplace 
opening. 

R1003.12 Fireplace clearance. All wood beams, joists, studs 
and other combustible material shall have a clearance of not 
less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) from the front faces and sides of ma- 
sonry fireplaces and not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the 
back faces of masonry fireplaces. The air space shall not be 
filled, except to provide fire blocking in accordance with Sec- 
tion R1003. 14. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Masonry fireplaces listed and labeled for use in con- 
tact with combustibles in accordance with UL 127 
and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions are permitted to have com- 



bustible material in contact with their exterior 

surfaces. 

2. When masonry fireplaces are part of masonry or con- 
crete walls, combustible materials shall not be in con- 
tact with the masonry or concrete walls less than 12 
inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest 
firebox lining. 

3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing 
materials such as wood siding, flooring and drywall 
shall be permitted to abut the masonry fireplace side 
walls and hearth extension in accordance Figure 
R1003.12, provided such combustible trim or sheath- 
ing is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) from the in- 
side surface of the nearest firebox lining. 

4. Exposed combustible mantels or trim may be placed 
directly on the masonry fireplace front surrounding 
the fireplace opening providing such combustible ma- 
terials shall not be placed within 6 inches (152 mm) of 
a fireplace opening. Combustible material within 12 
inches (306 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not 
project more than V 8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1-inch 
(25.4 mm) distance from such an opening. 

R1O03.13 Mantel and trim. Woodwork or other combustible 
materials shall not be placed within 6 inches (152 mm) of afire- 
place opening. Combustible material within 12 inches (305 mm) 
of the fireplace opening shall not project more than V 8 inch (3.2 
mm) for each 1-inch (25.4 mm) distance from such opening. 

M003.14 Fireplace fireblocking. See Section R602.8. 

R1003.15 Ash dump cleanout. Cleanout openings, when pro- 
vided, shall be equipped with ferrous metal doors and frames 
constructed to remain tightly closed except when in use. 
Cleanouts shall be accessible and located so that ash removal 
will not create a hazard to combustible materials. 



MASON RYn 




WOOD MANTEL 



COMBUSTIBLE SHEATHING 
EDGE ABUTTING MASONRY 
12 IN. MIN. FROM FIREBOX 



3- 



FRAME WALL 



2 IN. CLEARANCE (AIR SPACE) 
TO COMBUSTIBLE FRAMING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R1003.12 
CLEARANCE FROM COMBUSTIBLES 



264 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES R1004 -R1005.5 



SECTION R1 004 
FACTORY-BUILT FIREPLACES 

R1004.1 General. Factory-built fireplaces shall be listed and 
labeled and shall be installed in accordance with the conditions 
of the listing. Factory-built fireplaces shall be tested in accor- 
dance with 0L 127. 

R1004.2 Hearth extensions. Hearth extensions of approved 
factory-built fireplaces shall be installed in accordance with the 
listing of the fireplace. The hearth extension shall be readily 
distinguishable from the surrounding floor area. 

R1004.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds shall not be 
installed at the termination of chimneys for factory-built fire- 
places except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use 
with the specific factory-built fireplace system and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R1004.4 Unvented gas log heaters. An unvented gas log 
heater shall not be installed in a factory-built fireplace unless 
the fireplace system has been specifically tested, listed and la- 
beled for such use in accordance with UL 127. 

SECTION R1005 
EXTERIOR AIR SUPPLY 

R1005.1 Exterior air. Factory-built or masonry fireplaces cov- 
ered in this chapter shall be equipped with an exterior air supply 
to assure proper fuel combustion unless the room is mechani- 
cally ventilated and controlled so that the indoor pressure is 
neutral or positive. 

R1005.1.1 Factory-built fireplaces. Exterior combustion 
air ducts for factory-built fireplaces shall be a listed compo- 
nent of the fireplace and shall be installed according to the 
fireplace manufacturer's instructions. 

R1005.1.2 Masonry fireplaces. Listed combustion air 
ducts for masonry fireplaces shall be installed according to 
the terms of their listing and manufacturer's instructions. 

R1005.2 Exterior air intake. The exterior air intake shall be 
capable of providing all combustion air from the exterior of the 
dwelling or from spaces within the dwelling ventilated with 
outside air such as crawl or attic spaces. The exterior air intake 
shall not be located within the garage or basement of the dwell- 
ing nor shall the air intake be located at an elevation higher than 
the firebox. The exterior air intake shall be covered with a cor- 
rosion-resistant screen of V 4 -inch (6.4 mm) mesh. 

R1005.3 Clearance. Unlisted combustion air ducts shall be in- 
stalled with a minimum 1 -inch (25 .4 mm) clearance to combus- 
tibles for all parts of the duct within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 
duct outlet. 

R1005.4 Passageway. The combustion air passageway shall be 
a minimum of 6 square inches (3870 mm 2 ) and not more than 
55 square inches (0.035 m 2 ), except that combustion air sys- 
tems for listed fireplaces shall be constructed according to the 
fireplace manufacturer's instructions. 

R1005.5 Outlet. The exterior air outlet is permitted to be lo- 
cated in the back or sides of the firebox chamber or within 24 
inches (610 mm) of the firebox opening on or near the floor. 
The outlet Shall be closable and designed to prevent burning 
material from dropping into concealed combustible spaces. 

2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 265 






266 2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part IV — Energy Conservation 



CHAPTER 11 

ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



SECTION N1 101 
GENERAL 

N1101.1 Scope. This chapter sets forth energy-efficiency-re- 
lated requirements for the design and construction of buildings 
regulated by this code. 

Exception: Portions of the building thermal envelope that 
do not enclose conditioned space. 

N1101.2 Compliance. Compliance with this chapter shall be 
demonstrated by meeting the requirements of the applicable 
sections and tables of this chapter. Where applicable, provi- 
sions are based on the climate zone where the building is lo- 
cated. The climate zone where the building is located shall be 
based on zone assignments in Table Nl 101 .2 for the county and 
state in which the building is being constructed. Alternatively, 
the climate zone shall be permitted to be determined by the 
Heating Degree Days assigned by the building official. 

N1101.2.1 Residential buildings, Type A-l. Compliance 
shall be demonstrated by either: 

1 . Meeting the requirements of this chapter for buildings 
with a glazing area that does not exceed 15 percent of 
the gross area of exterior walls; or 

2. Meeting the requirements of the International Energy 
Conservation Code for residential buildings, Type A- 1 . 

N1101.2.2 Residential buildings, Type A-2. Compliance 
shall be demonstrated by either: 

1 . Meeting the requirements of this chapter for buildings 
with a glazing area that does not exceed 25 percent of 
the gross area of exterior walls; or 

2. Meeting the requirements of the International Energy 
Conservation Code for residential buildings, Type A-2. 

Nl 101.3 Materials and equipment. Materials and equipment 
shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of 
their compliance with the provisions of this chapter. Materials 
and equipment used to conform to the applicable provisions of 
this chapter shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

N1101.3.1 Insulation. The thermal resistance (i?-value) 
shall be indicated on all insulation and the insulation in- 
stalled such that the R- value can be verified during inspec- 
tion, or a certification of the installed /?-value shall be 



provided at the job site by the insulation installer. Where 
blown-in or sprayed insulation is applied in walls, the in- 
staller shall provide a certification of the installed density 
and /?-value. Where blown-in or sprayed insulation is ap- 
plied in the roof-ceiling assembly, the installer shall provide 
a certification of the initial installed thickness, settled thick- 
ness, coverage area, and number of bags of insulating mate- 
rial installed. Markers shall be provided for every 300 
square feet (28 m 2 ) of attic area, attached to the trusses, raf- 
ters, or joists, and indicate in 1-inch-high (25.4 mm) num- 
bers the installed thickness of the insulation. 

N1101.3.2 Fenestration. The [/-factor of fenestration shall 
be determined in accordance with NFRC 100 by an accred- 
ited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by 
the manufacturer. The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 
fenestration shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 
200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled 
and certified by the manufacturer. 

N1101.3.2.1 Default fenestration performance. When 
a manufacturer has not determined a fenestration prod- 
uct's [/-factor in accordance with NFRC 100, compli- 
ance shall be determined by assigning such products a 
default [/-factor from Tables 102.5.2(1) and 102.5.2(2) 
in the International Energy Conservation Code. When a 
manufacturer has not determined a fenestration prod- 
uct's SHGC in accordance with NFRC 200, compliance 
shall be determined by assigning such products a default 
SHGC from Table 102.5.2(3) of the International En- 
ergy Conservation Code. 

Nl 101.3.2.2 Air leakage. The air leakage of pre-fabri- 
cated fenestration shall be determined in accordance 
with AAMA/WDMA 101/I.S.2 by an accredited, inde- 
pendent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the man- 
ufacturer. Alternatively, the manufacturer shall certify 
that the fenestration is installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 502.1.4 of the International Energy Conservation 
Code. 

N1101.3.3 Maintenance. Where mechanical or plumbing sys- 
tem components require preventive maintenance for efficient 
operation, regular maintenance requirements shall be clearly 
stated and affixed to the component, or the source for such in- 
formation shall be shown on a label attached to the component. 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



267 



TABLE N1 101 .2 



ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



TABLE N1 101 .2 
CLIMATE ZONES BY STATES AND COUNTIES 



County 


Zone 


County 


Zone 


County 


Zone 


County 


Zone 


County 


Zone 


ALABAMA 




Madison 


8 


Ketchikan Gateway 


15 


Cleburne 


8 


Polk 


8 


Autauga" 


6 


Marengo' 


5 


Kodiak Island 


16 


Cleveland" 


6 


Pope 


8 


Baldwin" 


4 


Marion 


7 


Kuspuk 


18 


Columbia" 


6 


Prairie" 


7 


Barbour" 


5 


Marshall 


8 


Lake & Peninsula 


17 


Conway' 


7 


Pulaski* 


7 


Bibb" 


6 


Mobile" 


4 


Lower Kuskokwim 


18 


Craighead 


8 


Randolph 


8 


Blount 


7 


Monroe" 


5 


Lower Yukon 


18 


Crawford 


8 


Saline* 


7 


Bullock' 


5 


Montgomery" 


6 


Matanuska-Susitna 


17 


Crittenden' 


7 


Scott' 


7 


Butler" 


5 


Morgan 


8 


North Slope 


19 


Cross' 


7 


Searcy 


9 


Calhoun" 


6 


Perry" 


5 


Northwest Arctic 


19 


Dallas" 


6 


Sebastian 


8 


Chambers" 


6 


Pickens" 


6 


Pribilof Islands 


17 


Desha" 


6 


Sevier" 


7 


Cherokee 


7 


Pike" 


5 


Sitka 


15 


Drew' 


6 


Sharp 


8 


Chilton" 


6 


Randolph 


7 


Southeast Island 


15 


Faulkner" 


7 


St Francis" 


7 


Choctaw" 


5 


Russell" 


5 


Southwest Region 


17 


Franklin 


8 


Stone 


9 


Clarke* 


5 


Shelby" 


6 


Yakutat 


17 


Fulton 


8 


Union" 


6 


Clay 


7 


St Clair" 


6 


Yukon Flats 


19 


Garland" 


7 


Van Buren 


8 


Cleburne 


7 


Sumter" 


5 


Yukon-Koyukuk 


19 


Grant" 


6 


Washington 


9 


Coffee" 


4 


Talladega' 


6 


Yupiit 


18 


Greene 


8 


White* 


7 


Colbert 


8 


Tallapoosa" 


6 


ARIZONA 




Hempstead' 


7 


Woodruff 


7 


Conecuh" 


5 


Tuscaloosa" 


6 


Apache 


13 


Hot Spring" 


7 


Yell" 


7 


Coosa" 


6 


Walker" 


6 


Cochise 


6 


Howard' 


7 


CALIFORNIA 




Covington" 


4 


Washington" 


5 


Coconino 


14 


Independence 


8 


Alameda 


5 


Crenshaw" 


5 


Wilcox" 


5 


Gila 


8 


Izard 


8 


Alpline 


15 


Cullman 


7 


Winston 


7 


Graham 


6 


Jackson 


8 


Amador 


8 


Dale" 


4 


ALASKA 




Greenlee 


6 


Jefferson" 


6 


Butte 


6 


Dallas" 
De Kalb 


5 
8 


BUROUGHS AND 

REAA's 


La Paz 

Maricopa 


3 
3 


Johnson 
Lafayette' 


8 
6 


Calaveras 
Colusa 


8 
6 


Elmore' 
Escambia" 
Etowah 
Fayette 


6 

4 

7 
7 


Adak Region 
Alaska Gateway 
Aleutian Region 
Aleutians East 


16 
19 

17 
17 


Mohave 
Navajo 
Pima 
Pinal 


7 

10 

4 

4 


Lawrence 
Lee* 
Lincoln* 
Little River" 


8 
7 
6 
6 


Contra Costa 
Del Norte 
El Dorado 
Fresno 


6 
9 
8 
6 


Franklin 

Geneva' 

Greene" 

Hale' 

Henry" 


8 
4 
5 
5 
4 


Anchorage 
Annette Island 
Bering Straits 
Bristol Bay 
Chatham 


17 
15 
19 
17 
16 


Santa Cruz 

Yavapai 

Yuma 

ARKANSAS 
Arkansas" 


6 

10 

3 

6 


Logan" 
Lonoke' 
Madison 
Marion 

Miller" 


7 
7 
9 
9 
6 


Glenn 

Humboldt 

Imperial 

Inyo 

Kern 


6 
9 

3 
9 

5 


Houston" 

Jackson 

Jefferson" 


4 
8 
6 


Chugach 
Copper River 
Delta/Greely 


17 
18 
18 


Ashley" 

Baxter 

Benton 


6 
9 
9 


Mississippi 

Monroe* 

Montgomery 


8 
7 
8 


Kings 

Lake 

Lassen 


6 

8 
13 


Lamar 
Lauderdale 


7 
8 


Denali 
Fairbanks N. Star 


18 
18 


Boone 
Bradley" 


9 
6 


Nevada' 
Newton 


6 

9 


Los Angeles 
Madera 


4 
6 


Lawrence 
Lee" 


8 
6 


Haines 
Iditarod Area 


16 
19 


Calhoun" 
Carroll 


6 
9 


Ouachita' 
Perry* 


6 
7 


Marin 
Mariposa 


6 

8 


Limestone 

Lowndes" 

Macon" 


8 
5 
6 


Juneau 
Kashunamiut 
Kenai Peninsula 


16 

18 
17 


Chicot' 

Clark' 
Clay 

(continued) 


6 
6 
8 


Phillips' 

Pike" 

Poinsett 


7 
7 
8 


Mendocino 

Merced 

Modoc 


8 

6 

15 



268 



2000 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



TABLE N1 101 .2 



TABLE N11 01 .2— continued 
CLIMATE ZONES BY STATES AND COUNTIES 



County 


Zone 


County 


Zone 


Mono 


15 


Costilla 


16 


Monterey 


6 


Crowley 


11 


Napa 


6 


Custer 


16 


Nevada 


11 


Delta 


13, 


Orange 


4 


Denver 


is- 


Placer 


8 


Dolores 


is 


Plumas 


13 


Douglas 


13 


Riverside 


4 


Eagle 


15 


Sacramento 


6 


El Paso 


13 


San Benito 


6 


Elbert 


13 


San Bernardino 


4 


Fremont 


11: 


San Diego 


3 


Garfield 


15 


San Francisco 


6 


Gilpin 


13 


San Joaquin 


6 


Grand 


17 


San Luis Obispo 


6 


Gunnison 


17 


San Mateo 


6 


Hinsdale 


17 


Santa Barbara 


5 


Huerfano 


11 


Santa Clara 


6 


Jackson 


17 


Santa Cruz 


6 


Jefferson 


13 


Shasta 


6 


Kiowa 


13 


Sierra 


11 


Kit Carson 


13 


Siskiyou 


11 


La Plata 


15 


Solano 


6 


Lake 


17 


Sonoma 


6 


Larimer 


13 


Stanislaus 


6 


Las Animas 


11 


Sutter 


6 


Lincoln 


13 


Tehama 


6 


Logan 


13 


Trinity 


9 


Mesa 


13 


Tulare 


6 


Mineral 


17 


Tuolume 


8 


Moffat 


15 


Ventura 


4 


Montezuma 


15 


Yolo 


6 


Montrose 


13 


Yuba 


6 


Morgan 


13 


COLORADO 




Otero 


11 


Adams 


13 


Ouray 


15 


Alamosa 


16 


Park 


17 


Arapahoe 


13 


Phillips 


13 


Archuleta 


16 


Pitkin 


17 


Baca 


11 


Prowers 


ii 


Bent 


11 


Pueblo 


11 


Boulder 


13 


Rio Blanco 


15 


Chaffee 


16 


Rio Grande 


17 


Cheyenne 


13 


Routt 


17 : 


Clear Creek 


17 


Saguache 


16 


Conejos 


16 


San Juan 


17 



County 


Zone 


County 


San Miguel 


15 


Glades" 


Sedgwick 


13 


Gulf 


Summit 


17 


Hamilton" 


Teller 


13 


Hardee" 


Washington 


13 


Hendry" 


Weld 


13 


Hernando" 


Yuma 


13